Community Voices for Health Community Voices for Health Kids Take Action

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1 Knowledge - Action - Change Engaging Middle School Students to Demand a Healthier School Community Community Voices for Health Community Voices for Health Kids Take Action Kids Take Action SCHOOL OF EDUCATION, TEACHING & HEALTH AMERICAN UNIVERSITY

2 Authors Jennifer Adkins Ernst, MS Anastasia Snelling, PhD, RD Design Lindsey Patience Acknowledgements Thank you to Lindsey Patience, Emily Schwartz, Kathleen Young, Elizabeth Harrington, and Jessica Young for their help developing and teaching this program. We would also like to thank the following teachers and staff working at the District of Columbia and Public Charter Schools for inviting Kids Take Action into their school and creating healthier school environments for themselves and their students. Lisa Hedgepeth Principal Shannon Foster Langdon Education Campus Rasheki Kuykendell-Walker Carlene Burton Roots PCS Lance Miller Jodi Ash Kelly Miller Middle School Jody Moten Johnson Middle School This program was made possible with generous funding from Aetna Foundation, Kaiser Permanente of the Mid-Atlantic Region, United Way and General Mills. Community Voices for Health is a project of the School of Education, Teaching & Health at American University, Washington, DC.

3 Table of Contents Introduction... 1 Lesson 1 The Food Environment: Media, Policy, Advocacy, and Nutrition... 4 Lesson 2 Nutrition Basics: Calories, Nutrients, and Food Selection Lesson 3 Food Preparation: Understanding Food Labeling, Food Service & Food Safety Lesson 4 Your Health: Physical Activity and Balanced Nutrition for Personal Wellbeing Lesson 5 Understanding the Impact: Media, Advertising, and Food Labeling Fitness Break Ideas School Needs Assessment Group Planning Worksheet Group Project Worksheets Music News Broadcast Teaching A Play Social Marketing Lesson 1 Exit Ticket Lesson 2 Exit Ticket Lesson 3 Exit Ticket Lesson 4 Exit Ticket Lesson 5 Exit Ticket Participant Certificate Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action 2013 American University 3

4 INTRODUCTION COMMUNITY VOICES FOR HEALTH KIDS TAKE ACTION Healthy school environments combine nutritious food, physical activity, health education, respectful relationships and encouraging talented educators. With the whole child nurtured, academic success is attainable. Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action is a curriculum that educators can use to engage students to build a healthy school environment. During the 6 week program, students learn practical, actionable information about the food environment, nutrition, physical activity and making healthy choices. Students also learn about advocacy, media and advertising, food policy, and food labeling. Simultaneously students are given the opportunity to develop a performance with supporting visuals, to convey their idea for promoting the availability of healthier food and more physical activity. Community Voices for Health, developed by American University (AU), engages the entire middle school community through education and action. Lessons are developed particularly for children in underserved, high-risk neighborhoods where access to healthy food and safe physical activity opportunities are limited. One of the objectives of KTA is to advance students self-efficacy to make deliberate and informed decisions about what, when and why they eat, and to increase safe physical activity while addressing learning standards. In the following lessons, you will find background information and talking points for each content Power Point slide. In addition, each lesson has sample core standards, key concepts/vocabulary, and a resource list that supports the main lesson concepts. Allocate minutes for teaching/discussion and the same for group work. This is a child centered activity it has been amazing to see what they produce. Visit the AU website for the PP lesson files, worksheets, knowledge survey and short films of children in action. COMMON CORE STANDARDS Standards taken from Common Core State Standards Initiative Every lesson lists standards that can be fulfilled. LESSON OVERVIEW Review Lesson o Download PowerPoint Slides. See content. Fresh Produce Fitness Break Group Projects Exit Ticket Printable worksheet is included Community Voices for Health is a school-based program that engages middle school children, teachers, staff, and families in building a healthier school community through advocacy and education with experiential empowering learning opportunities. Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action 2013 American University 1

5 Key Concepts & Vocabulary Every lesson includes vocabulary and definitions. Health PowerPoint Notes A state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Slide Title Slide # Every lesson has Power Point slides for you to use as you engage the students in the content. You can download them for free from This printed curriculum provides background information, talking points and questions to pose to the children for most of the content slides to make it a grab and go lesson. Supplemental Activity HOW MANY CALORIES DO YOU NEED TO EAT IN A DAY? Slides # A variety of activities are suggested to extend the lesson and practice the concepts. Some are appropriate as fitness breaks, or at least can be modified to have the children move during the activity. Fitness Break TAKE A STRETCH BREAK! Slide # Each lesson provides fitness break activities. In addition, there is a list of online resources and ideas in the appendix. Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action 2013 American University 2

6 Group Projects GROUP PROJECTS Slide # Group projects are an essential component of the program because they empower the students to advocate on their own behalf. They will do a needs assessment of their home and school community to assess what the barriers are to making healthy choices. The final product will be a performance in which the students explain the problem, make a request and advance a solution. Wrapping Up Key Points: Each lesson provides a summary of key points that can be used to review at the end or beginning of the each lesson. References & Resources There are excellent websites with reports, research and data for both teachers and students to learn more about each topic. Use the resources to write research papers, prepare for a debate, support your Kids Take Action advocacy performance, and more. Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action 2013 American University 3

7 At a Glance THE FOOD ENVIRONMENT: MEDIA, POLICY, ADVOCACY, & NUTRITION Lesson 1 The food environment - where we shop, where we dine, how much food costs, government agricultural policy - all determine our food decisions, food access and health outcomes. Messages communicated via media influence our purchasing and behavioral decisions within the food environment. According to the Kaiser Family Foundation, children are exposed to 6,100 televised food ads each year. Of these ads, 30% are for candy and snacks, 25% for sugary cereals, 10% for fast food, only 5% promote healthy food and drinks while none are for fruits and vegetables. Lesson 1 covers the importance of understanding media, policy, advertising, and how to advocate for change. The main goal of the lesson is to teach your students how these concepts effect their healthrelated decisions and choices. COMMON CORE STANDARDS Standard 1: Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; provide an accurate summary of the text distinct from prior knowledge or opinions. (CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.6-8.2) Standard 2: Distinguish among facts, reasoned judgment based on research findings and speculation in a text. (CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.6-8.8) Standard 3: Interpret information presented in diverse media formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and explain how it contributes to a topic, text or issue under study. (CCSS.ELA-Litearcy.SL.6.2) Standard 4: Delineate a speaker s argument and specific claims, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not. (CSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.6.3) LESSON OVERVIEW Administer Student knowledge and Behavior Survey to identify baseline information o Student Survey Program Overview of CVH: Kids Take Action o Expectations o Group Project Lesson: Download PowerPoint Slides Fresh Produce for taste testing and discussion Fitness Break Group Projects o Student Needs Assessment o Group Project Assignment Sheet Exit Ticket Printable worksheet is included In the U.S. and many parts of the world, the socalled food environment the physical and social surroundings that influence what we eat makes it far too hard to choose healthy foods, and all too easy to choose unhealthy foods. The Obesity Prevention Source Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action 2013 American University 4

8 Key Concepts & Vocabulary Advertising Advocacy Behavior Messages delivered via media paid for by a sponsor to persuade audiences to buy products or believe information or ideas. A process for arguing in favor of something to influence people, policies and organizations to bring about change. The action or reaction of any material, person or organism under given circumstances. Health Legislation A state of complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. The act of making or enacting laws. Lobby To solicit or try to influence the votes of members of a legislative body. Media Persuade Policy Regulation Plural for medium; tools used to deliver information or data (e.g., websites, newspapers, billboards). To induce (someone) to do something through reasoning or argument. A process for organizations and governments to identify and resolve public issues through local, state or federal action such as legislation, regulators, and administrative practices. A law, rule or other order prescribed by an authority, especially to regulate conduct. Target Audience A specific group within the target demographic at which a product or message is aimed. Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action 2013 American University 5

9 PowerPoint Notes WHAT IS MEDIA? Slide 6 Helping students understand the power of media to influence their decisions is crucial to health behaviors. Discuss that media are tools used to deliver information or data through television, the Internet, and print. Developers of media use sophisticated messages aimed at very specific demographic groups with very specific goals in mind. It can be used to educate, convey a message or an idea, and influence behaviors and habits. Media used to advertise products is seen everywhere, but do the kids know they are being manipulated? How does media relate to behavior and health? Kids between the ages of 8 and 18 years old spend an average of seven and half hours each day using some form of media! Research is used to study how media affects our choices. Media is used to communicate the result of research. Research is used to develop information for media messages. WHAT IS ADVERTISING? Slide 7 Advertising is content delivered through media to persuade an audience to act: buy products or services, vote, or believe ideas or information. It is impersonal, paid for by an identified sponsor and targets specific audiences. Discuss the logos and ads of recognizable organizations and businesses. What are they trying to accomplish with the message? Are they selling something? Building brand loyalty? Educating? Is the sponsor a private company or government entity? Who spends more money on advertising? Note: This is an introduction to advertising. You will go into greater detail in lesson 4. Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action 2013 American University 6

10 GUESS HOW MUCH MONEY IS SPENT ON ADVERTISING USING MEDIA Advertising performance metrics include page views, click-throughs, click-to-conversion ratios, ad impressions, user ad requests, etc. Advertisers are very good are parsing demographics and understanding whether they are having the intended result. Discuss how money buys exposure and influence by matching the name of the organization with the amount of dollars spent on advertising. Who has more impact on their target demographic? Do these ad campaigns influence food choices? How? Today, food and beverage companies spend between $10 and $15 billion each year to advertise to children. In 2008, teens spent about $140 billion on food products (there are about 21 million teens in the US!). Slides 8 & 9 WHAT IS POLICY? Slide 10 Help students understand that there are policies that affect them in their household, school and neighborhood. Introduce them to the federal and state policies regarding their health like the Healthy Hunger Free Kids Act and a new bill introduced- FD SB Healthy Food Financing Initiative-that if passed Would establish a program to improve access to healthy foods in underserved areas, to create and preserve quality jobs, and to revitalize low-income communities by providing loans and grants to eligible healthy food retailers to overcome the higher costs and initial barriers to entry in underserved, urban, suburban, and rural areas. Are there policies that they would like to change? How would they go about advocating for that change? Percent of households with children that reported they were unable to afford enough food in the last year. (2009) Percent of all DC school-age children who are obese or overweight. Percent of children who do not get the USDA-recommended five servings of fruits and vegetables each day. Percent of children who do not get the recommended 60 minutes of physical activity each day. Dollars (in millions) estimated as the annual health care costs associated with obesity. Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action 2013 American University 7

11 WHAT IS ADVOCACY? Slide 11 Kids Take Action is based on the concept of advocating for what you need. Often children feel like they have limited control in their lives. Learning to advocate can give them a sense of power that is very rewarding. Discuss with the students advocacy in their home first. What policy is in place at home that they don t like? How do they normally try to get that policy changed? What behaviors and strategies work effectively and what don t? The process of advocacy can be as easy as debating with a friend or writing a letter to a member of Congress. Fitness Break TAKE A STRETCH BREAK! Slide 12 Brain Breaks Try the Knots of People activity to practice team work. Divide the students into teams of 6-12 members, depending on how difficult you would like to make the exercise. Have each person join right hands with another person in the group, but it has to be someone who is not standing immediately to the left or right. Then have each person join left hands with another person in a group, but it has to be someone who is NOT standing immediately to the left or right and someone other than before. Now the groups have to untangle themselves without letting go of hands. They may have to loosen their grips a little to allow for twisting and turning. They may also have to step over or under other people. The first group to untangle their knot is the winner. There are four possible solutions to the knot. ~ One large circle with people facing either direction. ~ Two interlocking circles ~ A figure eight ~ A circle within a circle Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action 2013 American University 8

12 Group Projects GROUP PROJECTS Review the concept of advocacy with the students and explain that the Needs Assessment is one way to understand their school environment. They should fill it out independently to identify where the school is weak, strong and needs improvement. How can the school increase nutrition and physical activity in the school and community? If time permits, have students break into small groups based on their interests, discuss issues raised by the assessment, and select a project focus. NEEDS ASSESSMENT Slide 14 Students should start by filling out the School Needs Assessment Worksheet to identify ways they can help increase nutrition and physical activity in their school and communities. If time permits, have students break into small groups based on their interests, discuss issues raised by the assessment, and select a project focus. Students will create performance-based media that teaches, influences and/or informs an audience about nutrition and physical activity. Wrapping Up Key Points: Lesson 1 covered the importance of media, policy and advertising on the food environment and personal choices. The concept of advocating for something was introduced stressing developing a logical, clear argument and being respectful. A needs assessment helps students understand their environment. The group project was introduced. Exit Ticket: Use this to gauge what the students learned and enjoyed from the lesson. Next Week Sneak Peak: Lesson 2: Nutrition Basics: Calories, Nutrients and Food Selection Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action 2013 American University 9

13 References & Resources Center on Media and Child Health Fast Food F.A.C.T.S. (Food Advertising to Children and Teens Score) Federal Trade Commission Food Research & Action Center Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Acts Healthy School Act, Washington, DC Healthy School Lunches Kaiser Family Foundation The Obesity Prevention Source The Toxic Food Environment: How Our Surroundings Influence What We Eat, Yale Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action 2013 American University 10

14 NUTRITION BASICS: CALORIES, NUTRIENTS, AND FOOD SELECTION Lesson 2 At a Glance Adolescents are at a crucial crossroads in relationship to their health. While experiencing an intense period of accelerated physical growth, they have an increased need for proper nutrition that can be at odds with picky taste buds, peer pressure, preoccupation with body image, a striving for independence and identity. An approach to teaching nutrition that is developmentally sensitive can offer students ways to explore how eating healthfully can fit within their developmental challenges and set them on a healthy path into adulthood. It has never been more important to educate and help children assess their food choices and get physically active than today when more than one-third of children are overweight or obese. Lesson 2 introduces basic concepts about macronutrients and micronutrients, calories, energy balance and food selection. The main goal of this lesson is to teach information about nutrition that can support behavioral changes. COMMON CORE STANDARDS Standard 1: Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text. (CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.8) Standard 2: Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic.(ccss.ela-literacy.rst.6-8.9) Standard 3: Integrate information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words to develop a coherent understanding of a topic or issue. (CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.6.7) LESSON OVERVIEW Review o The Food Environment: Media, Policy, Advocacy, and Nutrition (Lesson 1) Lesson o Download PowerPoint Slides from AU website Fresh Produce to expose students to new foods Fitness Break Group Projects o Group Project Planning Worksheet o Worksheets for performances Exit Ticket Printable worksheet is included The role of nutrition education is to address the numerous personal and environmental influences on food choices and dietary behaviors so as to assist individuals in practicing healthy behaviors. Dr. Isobel Contento Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action 2013 American University 11

15 Key Concepts & Vocabulary Amino Acid Calorie Carbohydrates Consume Empty Calorie Energy Health Lipids Minerals Nutrient Protein Sedentary Vitamins The building blocks of protein. Energy produced by food and used by the body. Major source of energy for the body. To eat or drink. A calorie whose source has little or no nutritional value. The capacity for vigorous activity; available power. A state of complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. The body uses fat as a fuel source. It is the major storage form of energy in the body. Any of the inorganic elements, such as calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, and sodium, that are essential to the functioning of the human body and are obtained from foods. A chemical substance in food that provides nourishment for growth and maintenance of life. Helps build, maintain and replace the tissues in your body. Accustomed to sit or rest a great deal or take little exercise. Group of organic substances essential in small quantities to normal metabolism, found in small amounts in natural foodstuffs or sometimes produced synthetically. Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action 2013 American University 12

16 PowerPoint Notes WHAT IS A CALORIE? Slide 4 One of the major concepts in nutrition is of energy balance. That our output and input of calories needs to be adjusted to optimize our weight. The word calorie is familiar to everyone because it is used in the media and on food labels, but not understood. We know that calories are in most food and drinks. A food that has 200 calories would be able to supply your body with 200 calories of energy. The energy from calories is required for body development and growth, muscle and tissue repair, and physical activity. However, eating too many calories is very easy to do and burning off the excess energy is very challenging and will lead to weight gain. Did you know that...? The calories in 1 piece of cherry cheesecake could light a 60W bulb for 1.5 hours. WHAT ARE NUTRIENTS? Slide 5 The term nutrient is the basis for a study of nutrition. Two categories of nutrients include macronutrients and micronutrients. Macro, from the Greek word makros for large, refers to the energy yielding nutrients that are needed in large quantities in the body and measured in grams. Micro nutrients are needed in small quantities and measured in micrograms, and milligrams. Eating the proper balance of nutrients is a challenge in many communities, but a diet low in processed foods, high in fresh fruits and vegetables can provide you with all of the macro and micronutrients. WHAT ARE LIPIDS? Slide 6 Lipids are an essential component of our diet, but should be eaten wisely. They are similar to protein and carbohydrate in they are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, but the chemical arrangement, proportions and ratios make lipids insoluble in water. In addition, they have more carbon and hydrogen in proportion to oxygen so provide more calories per gram. Discuss with your students how oil separates from water, how fats are solid at room temperature and oils are liquid at room temperature. There are many different kinds of lipids, and Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action 2013 American University 13

17 some are better than others. Unsaturated, mono and poly unsaturated oils are better for your heart and are found in plant-based foods and fish. Olive oil is a favorite. Saturated fats are found in animal products and should be eaten in moderation. Triglycerides, the major storage form of fat in the body, increase as calorie intake is greater than calorie output. WHAT IS PROTEIN? Slide 7 Protein provides both structural and working substances throughout the body. It is composed of amino acids that are linked together like letters making words or bricks making walls. Due to the presence of nitrogen in addition to carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, amino acids can be assembled to make thousands of different and versatile proteins. A balanced diet should include about 50 grams of protein from low fat animal and vegetable sources. Vegetarians need to understand how to eat complementary proteins to ensure adequate intake. Unlike the other macronutrients, protein is not used for energy very much, only if carbohydrate is unavailable in the diet. Calories in (food & drinks) Calories out (physical activity) WHAT ARE CARBOHYDRATES? Slide 8 Carbohydrates have one role in the human body to supply glucose for the brain, muscles and all tissue. Glucose, or blood sugar, is metabolized from carbohydrate for immediate energy needs and stored as glycogen. Not all carbohydrate is equally valuable. Simple carbohydrates, or simple sugars, are found in nutrient rich fruits and honey. However, many foods like soda, candy and desserts are high in simple sugars and have no additional nutrients. People find it very easy to consume too many total calories which can contribute to weight gain. Complex carbs can be found in many foods including whole grains, legumes, tubers and vegetables. These carbs are full of nutrients and fiber. Like protein, there are 4 calories per gram of carbohydrate. Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action 2013 American University 14

18 COMPOSITION OF FOOD Slides 9 It is important to understand the amount of macronutrients in the food you eat in order the get the optimal proportion. See the 2 examples on the Power Point slide. The pizza is typical of highly processed foods with a high portion of the calories coming from fat. See how an unprocessed, uncooked food like chicken breast is mostly protein with only 10% coming from fat. An additional activity is to ask the students to compare these proportions to pizza with sausage and fried chicken. The following slide shows the optimal proportions we should eat. DAILY MACRONUTRIENT INTAKE Slides 10 So how much carbohydrate, fat and protein do you need to eat in a day to provide the body with adequate calories and micronutrients? See the chart on the slide. Remember from the previous slides that the quality of the macronutrients matters here also. Reinforce that in general carbohydrates should be from whole foods, not high sugar products; protein should be from lower fat foods like skinless chicken and legumes; fats should be selected from non-meat sources. People living in communities with fewer shopping options (food desserts), may have a more challenging time selecting the recommended foods and avoiding fast foods. Keep this in mind as you brainstorm how to make healthy choices. This is a good time to bring up the benefits of school and community gardens-so popular and well-funded now by many local and national organizations. HOW MANY CALORIES DO YOU NEED IN A DAY? You have just discussed the proportions of macronutrients. How many calories do the students need to eat in a day? Since people come in all shapes and sizes and have different energy needs, the number of calories needed in a day depends on age, gender, weight, and physical activity level. School-aged children need to eat between 1,600 and 2,500 calories in a day. To make the discussion easier, you can generalize to 2000 calories which is also the number used on the Nutrition Facts panel of food packages. Discuss what it means to be sedentary versus active. It is consistent for people to overestimate their activity level and underestimate their consumption. If your weight is consistent then your intake is balanced. Slides Interesting Point! One pound of fat has 3500 calories. That means, if you want to lose one pound of fat in a week you need to reduce your intake and increase your output by 500 calories a day. For example, eat 250 calories less and exercise 250 calories more. Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action 2013 American University 15

19 Supplemental Activity WHAT DOES 2000 CALORIES LOOK LIKE? Have students look at the image. Ask students how many food companies they recognize just from looking at one letter from their logos. Which companies were most easily identifiable? Why or why not? How does this activity relate to Lesson 1? Then watch the video showing the quantity of different foods that equals 2000 calories. DAILY HEALTHY CHOICES Slide 17 Not all foods have the nutrients your body needs to perform at its best abilities. The Go!, Slow!, Whoa! chart helps you recognize foods that are the healthiest choices. Go! foods can be eaten most often because they are the lowest in calories, fat, and/or added sugar. Slow! foods can be eaten sometimes because they are moderately high in calories, fat, and/or added sugar. Whoa! foods should be eaten rarely because they are very high in calories, fat, and/or added sugar. Go! Fruits Vegtables Whole grains Lean meats Fat-free or low-fat milk products Baked chips or pretzels Slow! Refined grains Fruits in sugar and syrups Peanut butter Avocado White bread and rice 2% low-fat milk products Fruit juice Whoa! Fried foods Cakes and doughnuts Whole milk products Soda and sugary fruit drinks Cheese Potate chips Hotdogs TAKE A STRETCH BREAK! Slide 18 Fitness BREAK: True or False! (see Power Point slides) Teacher calls out a series of statements such as: a. Your heart is a muscle. (True) b. White bread is more nutritious than whole wheat bread. (False) c. Exercise makes your heart stronger. (True) d. The main function of the heart is to supply oxygen to your body. (True) Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action 2013 American University 16

20 Group Projects GROUP PROJECTS Slide 19 and 20 Focus on filling out the Group Project Planning Worksheet. Students should determine the focus of their projects, identify their target audiences (i.e., teachers, parents, food service workers, local representatives), and determine project types (i.e., poster presentation, song, skit, speech, etc.). If time permits, start doing research that will back up their argument. For example, why do students need more exercise during the school day? What kinds of food appeal to the teenage appetite? What does local school policy say about snacks in school? See additional ideas slide 20. Wrapping Up Key Points: Lesson 2 introduced the macronutrients and micronutrients, provided examples of healthy and unhealthy food sources, helped students determine how many calories they need to consume each day according to their ages, genders, and activity levels and identified ways that children can make healthier eating choices. Exit Ticket: The purpose of an Exit Ticket is to gauge which and how much information the students retained from the lesson. Next Week Sneak Peak: Food Preparation: Understanding Food Labeling, Service, and Safety (Lesson 3) References & Resources National Institute of Health Go, Slow, and Whoa! Flashcards Nutrition.gov Food and Nutrition Information Center MedlinePlus Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion MyPlate Center for Science in the Public Interest Harvard School of Public Health Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action 2013 American University 17

21 UNDERSTANDING FOOD LABELING, FOOD SERVICE & FOOD SAFETY Lesson 3 At a Glance The quantity and quality of food children have access to depends tremendously on their socio economic status. Variables include the types of neighborhood stores, parental level of education and employment status, number of siblings, health status, and access to school food service. What tools does a child need to navigate this food landscape regardless of SES to increase quantity and quality? How do you know what a healthy food is and how much it costs in comparison to another tempting treat? Is the food in your refrigerator safe to eat? How is food prepared either at home, school or a restaurant to ensure people don t get sick? These life skills will enable students to choose wisely, safely and economically. COMMON CORE STANDARDS Standard 1: Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts. (CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.7) Standard 3: Distinguish among facts, reasoned judgment based on research findings, and speculation in a text. (CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.6-8.8) Standard 4: Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic. (CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST ) LESSON OVERVIEW Review o Nutrition Basics: Calories, Nutrients, and Food Selection (Lesson 2) Lesson o PowerPoint Slides from AU website Fresh Produce Fitness Break Group Projects Exit Ticket Printable worksheet is included Education for empowerment also means teaching students how to advocate effectively for themselves as individuals as well as collectively. Christine Sleeter Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action 2013 American University 18

22 Key Concepts & Vocabulary Calories From Fat The number of calories that are from fat in one serving size of food. Calorie Listing The number of calories in a serving of food. Cross- Contamination Transfer of pathogens of a contaminated food or surface to another. E.Coli A bacteria that lives in the intestines and is caused by consuming undercooked or raw beef. Food Poisoning Nutrition Facts Illness caused by eating contaminated food. Food contamination includes pathogens, toxins, and other bacteria. Also known as food borne illness. A lacel that is required on most packaged foods and provides nutritional information about the food or drink. Pathogen A germ that causes disease. Percent Daily Value The percentage of the daily value for each nutrient that one serving of a food provides. Salmonella A bacteria that lives in the intestines and is usually caused by consuming contaminated raw eggs or undercooked poultry or beef. Serving Size The amount of food or drink that is considered one serving. Toxin A poisonous substance. Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action 2013 American University 19

23 PowerPoint Notes FOOD LABELING BASICS Slide 5 One of the most important skills needed when purchasing or selecting food, is how to read a food label. Most food products are required by law to have food labels on the package. Now that you have reviewed the nutrition terminology and why nutrients are important, the students are ready for a very practical application. Take a look at the Food Labeling Basics slide and start by identifying the important serving size, in this case 1. This number is a suggested amount of that item you should eat in one sitting. If it were a larger bag with say 5 servings, the students would need to multiple each listed item by number of servings they ate. Note that the Daily Value is the percent of that nutrient that a serving of the food provides based on a 2000 calorie diet. COMPARING NUTRIENTS AND INGREDIENTS Take a look at the pizza products shown on the following 4 slides to compare nutrients and ingredients. Which nutrients are high in Rising Crust Spinach, Mushroom & Garlic pizza? Saturate fat accounts for 20% of the Daily Value and sodium is 33% of the DV. If you ate 2 slices, you would double those numbers. That is a lot of sodium and saturate fat in one meal. Slides 6, 7, 8, 9 In terms of total percentage of macronutrients, the proportions are similar to our target for the day. The next step is to look at the ingredients information to get a better sense of the quality and quantity of the ingredients in the food. The ingredients are required to be listed in order by WEIGHT. The first item is in the greatest quantity. In this case, whole wheat flour was used which is good. The list is long, but not too bad. Compare this pizza with the Stuffed Crust Bacon, Sausage, & Pepperoni on slides 9 and 10. What ingredients greatly increased the fat and salt in the meal? What are all the chemicals for that are added to the food? Are they good for us? See how the proportions of macronutrients changed? Pull out your calculators and multiply by 2 and then compare to the Recommended Daily Allowance and the students will see how easy it is to eat too much in one meal. Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action 2013 American University 20

24 ACTIVITY: UNDERSTANDING FOOD LABELS Slide 10 Show students the Food and Drug Administration film on food labels. Then facilitate a discussion about the film s main ideas including the definition of a serving size and the relationship between serving size and calories. (5:22 minutes) NUTRITION LABEL COMPARISON Slides Comparing food labels is the best way to become a savvy consumer. In these comparisons pizza, cereal, and juice are compared and different label and food characteristics are highlights. Select which to discuss based on the time you have available. Points to note include: Serving size: It isn t always easy to compare serving sizes. The slide 11 pizza s are in grams 29 vs 100. Students need to use math) Sugar: from the Nutrition Facts label you can t tell how much of the carbohydrate is added sugar as opposed to naturally occurring. You must look at the ingredients list. See the list for Lucky Charms. Sugar is listed in many forms (Sugar, Modified Corn Starch, Corn Syrup, Dextrose) multiple times. If they manufacturer was required to lump them together, sugar would be listed before oats on the ingredients list. Long chemical names: some of the long unpronounceable names are added nutrients that have been sprayed onto the food. Some are fillers, conditioners, colors, preservatives, etc. Encourage your students to do some addition research or their group project on one of these ingredients like Sodium Hexametaphosphate or Red dye 40. In general, avoid foods with lots of these ingredients. Drinks: Sunny Delight and other juice drinks are frequently bought by low-income shoppers in lieu of 100% real juice. By the food label you can see that there is no nutritional value to juice drinks and in fact they are liquid candy, full of sugar and calories and supplant higher value drinks like milk, water and real juice. If you consider cost per nutrient, it is a better value to buy real juice of drink tap water. Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action 2013 American University 21

25 FOOD LABELING ACTIVITY Slide 16 Scavenger Hunt Activity Download the PDF from the American University website for the detailed instructions ex.cfm Did you know that...? Most school lunches are too high in saturated fat and cholesterol and too low in fiber- and nutrient-rich foods. The Healthy School Lunch Campaign works to improve the food served to children in schools. UNDERSTANDING SCHOOL FOOD SERVICE When you ask a typical middle school student how they like the school food they say its nasty. They don t like to look, the texture, the choice. It isn t like home cooking - what mom makes. However, the quality of the food has started shifting dramatically since passing of the Healthy Hunger Free Kids Act of In the District of Columbia, the City Council passed the Healthy Schools Act to further strengthen the influence of HHFK and is a model of where the country needs to go. Slides The next step is bringing the kids along. Discuss how food service policy is written and passed. Look at the Rules and Regulations that were written to protect them and promote their health. Have a group discussion with your food service director so they can ask questions. Have taste tests with fresh produce being served in the cafeteria. Use this opportunity to advocate for change in the group project. Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action 2013 American University 22

26 WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT FOOD SAFETY Middle schoolers generally aren t too concerned with food safety, but should be to understand the food service operations they frequent. School food palatability is greatly influenced by food safety measures. They should be aware of measures that should be taken in restaurants and grocery stores so they select safe foods. The unpleasant symptoms of food borne illness resemble the flu and the cause may be repeated in their homes causing frequent outbreaks. Slides 19 In addition, food safety procedures are regulated by the government and provide another example of policy in action and a potential target of the advocacy campaign. FOOD HANDLING, PREPARATION, ILLNESS Slides Some reasons we need to practice basic food safety. The need to improve our nation s food safety laws is being heightened by a series of high-profile food safety incidents. The following index catalogues some of the most notable public health, economic, food import, and polling statistics that underscore the need for improvement in our food safety system. Democratic Policy Committee Amount that food-borne illnesses cost the United States each year Percentage increase in the incidence of salmonella infections since 1997 $152 Billion or $1,850 per person 20 Number of salmonella safety import violations reported between 1998 and ,445 Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action 2013 American University 23

27 TAKE A STRETCH BREAK! Slide Students stand up and the teacher (or leader) asks them to do five different movements in descending order. For example the teacher would say: "Do five jumping jacks, spin around four times, hop on one foot three times, walk all the way around the classroom two times, give your neighbor one high-five (pause in between each task) Group Projects GROUP PROJECTS Slide By the end of lesson 3 students should have a well-developed plan and be writing and practicing their performance. Visuals should be in process also. Wrapping Up Key Points: Reading food labels enables us to purchase the healthiest food for the best price. Pay close attention to the serving size and how many sizes you actually eat. Is there more fat, salt and sugar than you thought? Don t waste money on empty calories. Be a food safe consumer by storing, handling and thawing foods properly. Keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold. Exit Ticket: The purpose of an Exit Ticket is to gauge which and how much information the students retained from the lesson. Next Week Sneak Peak: The Balancing Act: Physical Activity and Nutrition (Lesson 4) Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action 2013 American University 24

28 References & Resources Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program, USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010, Resource Library Empowerment Through Multicultural Education. Edited by Christine E. Sleeter. SUNY Press, Fact Sheets for Healthier School Meals, USDA Food and Nutrition Service, USDA Foodborne Illness and Disease FSIS Fact Sheets National Food Service Management Institute (NFSMI) National School Lunch Program School Breakfast Program School Nutrition Association The Healthy School Lunch Campaign Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action 2013 American University 25

29 THE BALANCING ACT: PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND NUTRITION Lesson 4 At a Glance We have learned about the impact of healthy eating; now let s learn about healthy physical activity for teachers as great role-models, healthy employees and advocates for students. You are able to positively influence your students. Physical activity is the other side of the equation for making our bodies and organs strong, resistant to disease, a healthy weight, and fully functioning through the life cycle BRFSS data shows that 26.2% of US citizens did not participate in any physical activity in a month. 20.9% did not do enough aerobic or strength training exercise to meet the guidelines. Americans need to get moving to stop the rise in obesity and related conditions. COMMON CORE STANDARDS Standard 1: Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions for further research and investigation. (CCSS.ELA.7.W) Standard 2: Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts. (CCSS.ELA- Literacy.RST.6-8.1) Standard 3: Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the credibility of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources. (CCSS.6.W) LESSON OVERVIEW Review o Food Preparation: Understanding Food Labels, Service and Safety (Lesson 3) Lesson o PowerPoint Slides from AU website Fresh Produce Fitness Break Group Projects Exit Ticket Printable worksheet is included Active students do better. Up to 40% higher test scores. Increased concentration and attention. Improved attendance and discipline. Let s Move Schools Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action 2013 American University 26

30 Key Concepts & Vocabulary Agility Ability to move and change directions. Balance Ability to control your body weight and position. Body Composition How much fat versus muscle. Cardiorespirartory Fitness Ability of the heart and lungs to provide oxygenrich blood to muscles. Coordination Ability to use body parts and senses together. Flexibility Range of motion of your joints. Muscular Endurance Muscular Strength How long muscles work before tiring (especially important in sports that last a long time like cross country). Amount of force a muscle can produce (especially important in short bursts of activity like weight training and sprinting). Power Ability to use strength and speed. Reaction Time Ability to move quickly to a signal. Speed Ability to move quickly. Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action 2013 American University 27

31 PowerPoint Notes WHAT IS PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & FITNESS? Physical fitness is being in good shape or condition and can be achieved through correct nutrition, exercise, hygiene, and rest. When your body is physically fit, your body has the ability to complete tasks successfully and your heart, lungs, blood vessels, muscles, and joints have the ability to perform well. The physiological elements of physical fitness include healthy body composition, cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, muscular strength, and muscular endurance. Body composition is a comparison of the amount of fat and muscle a person has. Cardiorespiratory fitness is the ability of the heart and lungs to provide oxygen-rich blood to muscles. Flexibility is the range of motion of your joints. Muscular endurance describes how long your muscles can work before tiring. Finally, muscular strength is the amount of force a muscle can produce (especially in activities, like sprinting and weight training, that require short bursts of energy). Slides 4 & 5 WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY? The best way to influence your students is to demonstrate you value physical activity and have seen benefits. Engaging in regular, safe and appropriate physical activity will have lifelong benefits, regardless of your age, gender, or physical ability. Improvements include controlled body weight and composition, strengthened immune system, bones, and muscles, decreased anxiety and depression, and reduced risk for conditions and diseases like high blood pressure, stroke, type 2 diabetes, arthritis, and certain types of cancer. Slides 6 Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action 2013 American University 28

32 KEY GUIDELINES Slides 7 & 8 The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) recommends that children and adolescents engage in 60 minutes or more of physical activity daily to achieve physical fitness. Weeks should be divided into days dedicated to aerobic activities, muscle-strengthening, and bone-strengthening activities. See slide 8 for different levels and types of activities that strengthen the body. MEASURING FITNESS Slides 9 Can you measure a person s fitness level by looking at him or her? No! For example, American Idol contestant, Michael Lynche, is 6 1 and weighs 300 pounds. He may not appear physically fit, but he can actually bench 505 pounds! His fitness level allows him to simultaneously sing and dance without tiring. There are a number of tools that are designed to measure physical fitness. The FitnessGram tests a person s aerobic capacity, body composition, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility. To improve these skills it is important to practice agility, balance, coordination, power, reaction time, and speed. The Presidents Challenge Program is a great way to engage students. ACTIVITY: PRACTICING FITNESS SKILLS Slides 10 Designate one word to groups of two or three students. Have students read the fitness skills terms out loud and demonstrates the term with physical activities. The rest of the class will mimic the motion. OR Stand in a circle and invite a student to step into the circle to demonstrate a meaning and lead the group. This activity can be lots of fun, but your need space. Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action 2013 American University 29

33 NUTRITION, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, & HEALTH The following 2 slides are for discussing openly with students why they should care about health and what choices can they make. Compare decisions that can be made on the nutrition side and the physical activity side. After all, achieving physical fitness is not just obtained through physical activity; it is just as important to eat balanced, nutritious meals. Give each student a chance to offer what part of the balancing act they are willing and interested in tipping. Slides 11 & 12 Physical activity requires energy, so consume calories that will provide you with the most energy for the fewest number of calories, fat, cholesterol, sodium, and sugar. Reduce added sugar and corn syrup, eat fruits and vegetables, and avoid junk food. To use the energy consumed from food, exercise so your heart rate increases and you break a sweat. The more often you spend doing activities like walking to school, playing outside, taking the stairs, and gardening, the more physically fit your body will become. TAKE A STRETCH BREAK! Slide 13 Preparation: Write the moves where children can see them. Move backwards - back stroke (swimming motion) Move forward - march in place Move to either side - side stretch in the direction of the hot tamale Up higher - climbing ladder motion Down lower - squats Within one foot of the tamale (can be any object) - students pretend they are stepping on hot coals (in place). Follow directions on Power Point slide. Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action 2013 American University 30

34 Group Projects GROUP PROJECTS Slide 14 Now is the time to make sure the children are on task if you want them to perform on a specific day. You can arrange a performance in front of the parent teacher organization; the principal, students and/or video tape the performances to share with outside audiences. Wrapping Up Key Points: Lesson 4 explained components, benefits, and guidelines for physical activity and fitness. Students learned the definitions of the components of fitness and should be able to demonstrate each word. The main goal of the lesson was to introduce students to ways they can increase the activity in their lives. Exit Ticket: The purpose of an Exit Ticket is to gauge which and how much information the students retained from the lesson. Next Week Sneak Peak: Understanding the Impact: Marketing and Advertising (Lesson 5). Finish and practice group performances References & Resources 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans Balancing Calories to Manage Weight, Dietary Guidelines for Americans Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Educating the Study Body: Taking Physical Activity and Physical Education to School Education-to-School.aspx How much physical activity do children need? The Fitness Gram That Nation s Physical Activity, Fitness, and Nutrition Program Let s Move Schools Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action 2013 American University 31

35 UNDERSTANDING THE IMPACT: MARKETING AND ADVERTISING Lesson 5 At a Glance At this point in the Kids Take Action curriculum, students have learned the essentials about food, nutrition and physical activity. They have been introduced to ideas about policy, marketing and advertising. They have more knowledge and skills to facilitate better decisions about their health behaviors. With this base knowledge, take a closer look at how ads work on your decision mechanisms. What are those ads trying to consciously and subliminally make us think, feel and do? Using the newly acquired knowledge about nutrition and physical activity, help the students analyze the information being presented in the marketing campaigns and how to decipher them. Our hope is that the students will become savvy consumers, make healthier choices and better care of themselves. COMMON CORE STANDARDS Standard 1: Analyze the author s purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an experiment in a text. (CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST ) Standard 2: Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts. (CCSS.ELA- Literacy.RST.6-8.1) Standard 3: Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to an understanding of the topic. (CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.6-8.5) LESSON OVERVIEW Review o Your Health: Physical Activity and Balanced Nutrition (Lesson 4) Lesson o PowerPoint Slides Fresh Produce Fitness Break Group Projects Exit Ticket Printable worksheet is included Teenagers ages see an average of 17 food ads a day on TV. Over the course of a year, this translates into an average of more than 6,000 food ads over 40 hours of food advertising. Kaiser Family Foundation Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action 2013 American University 32

36 Key Concepts & Vocabulary Bandwagon Advertising Bribe Child-Directed Advertising Complimenting the Customers Involves convincing the customers to join the group of people. Persuading customers to do something by giving them something extra, like a gift or money. Advertising during TV programs for which children make up 35% or more of the viewing audience. Because you are worth it. Emotional Appeal Appeal to needs of consumers and fear factor. Facts and Statistics Use of numbers, proofs, and real examples to show how good a product works. Food Advertising Ideal Family or Ideal Kids Patriotic Advertisements Promotional Advertising Weasel Words The use of TV commercials, print advertisements, and other media to persuade customers to buy food products. A technique that advertisers use to show that the families or kids using their product are a happy-golucky family. Support the country while using their product or service. Involves giving away samples of the product for free to consumers. Words or statements that are intentionally misleading. Advertisers do not say that they are the best from the rest, but they also do not deny it. Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action 2013 American University 33

37 PowerPoint Notes MARKETING FACTS Slides 4 & 5 There is an abundance of facts about how much money is spend advertising to children and the impact it has on their purchasing habits and behaviors. Being aware of the techniques they use will help the kids see the difference between what is true and false in the advertising. Give them an opportunity to discuss ads and do background research to figure out the truth. ADVERTISING TECHNIQUES Slide 6 Become familiar with the techniques used by advertising executives to influence consumers then discuss the Sunny Delight advertisement. ADVERTISTING ACTIVITY Slide 7. As you discuss each question on the Sunny Delight advertising slide, be sure to point out the technique being used. Emotional appeal and ideal family/ kids in the photograph (multiracial, happy boys, strong, idyllic scene); facts about vitamin d and calcium; promotional ad/bribe with coupon. Is Sunny Delight healthy? No. Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action 2013 American University 34

38 FRONT OF THE PACKAGE LABELS Slide 8 The front of the package labeling is an unreliable resource for determining the health quality of a particular food. Pictures of fruit and claims about nutrients such as fiber are meant to trick the consumer into thinking the food is healthy There are rules about what can be on the front label, as outlined by the FDA (the regulating agency), however, they don t do enough. The small green section on the front of the package is intended to give consumers quick access to nutrition facts, such as calories per serving, grams of sugar and fat, and vitamin and mineral content. This too is meant to convey an image that the product is healthy - the green color implies it is good for you, and often consumers look no further than this quick reference, skipping the detail of the Nutrition Facts label. MAKING HEALTHIER DECISIONS ABOUT FOOD Slide 9 Discuss with your children what changes they can make in their lives. What can you do to improve your nutrition and food habits? Can you avoid buying salty or sweet junk foods? Where can you shop that has better selection? Can you eat a fruit instead of candy? Try a health contract with the class. TAKE A STRETCH BREAK! Slide 12 Jammin Minutes! There are 55 one minute videos to choose from! Have students enjoy 3-4 videos. Tips to Create a Great Plate Balance calories Eat smaller portions Load up on fruits and vegetables Choose 1% or fat-free dairy Eat whole grains Reduce foods high in added sugars, fat, and salt Drink lots of water Community Voices for Health: Kids Take Action 2013 American University 35

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