Geography River Study Resource Higher

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1 Geography River Study Resource Higher 4304

2

3 Autumn 1998 HIGHER STILL Geography River Study Resource Higher Support Materials

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5 CONTENTS Introduction Collecting river flow data Measuring the width and depth of a river Measuring the speed (velocity) of a river Measuring the gradient (slope) of a river Presentation and interpretation of river flow data Drawing a cross-section of the river channel Constructing an isovel diagram Calculating the cross-sectional area of a river Calculating the discharge of a river Drawing a scatter graph Drawing a visual correlation graph Construction and analysis of hydrographs Labelling main landscape features on sketches River data sheets Resources Geography Support Materials: River Study Resource (H) Staff Notes 1

6 THE RIVER STUDY VIDEO RESOURCE INTRODUCTION These support materials for Geography were developed as part of the Higher Still Development Programme in response to needs identified at needs analysis meetings and national seminars. Advice on learning and teaching may be found in Achievement for All, (SOEID 1996), Effective Learning and Teaching in Scottish Secondary Schools: Geography, (SOED 1995) and in the Geography Subject Guide. The Higher Still Arrangements document for Geography specifies a range of methods and techniques which should be taught within the Higher core unit. These include: Hydrosphere 1. Construction and analysis of hydrographs. 2. Methods of presentation and interpretation of river flow data. Lithosphere 3. Identification and labelling of main landscape features on maps, aerial photographs and sketches. 4. Construction and interpretation of cross-sections and transects. This video resource with accompanying worksheets has been designed to help students describe these methods and techniques and use them to interpret and explain geographical phenomena. Although the emphasis is on the Hydrosphere, the resource can also be used to develop those methods and techniques normally taught within the Lithosphere core. The 21-minute video shows students involved in detailed river studies on the Isle of Arran and illustrates how data is collected and processed. The worksheets use the video and the data collected to develop the skills of description, interpretation, explanation and analysis of each method and technique. Three, large size re-usable graphs which can be copied for student use are included. The activities in this pack are designed to contribute to the development by students of the core skill components Critical Thinking and Using Graphical Information. Attainment of the Geography course at Higher leads to the automatic award of Critical Thinking and Using Graphical Information at that level. For further information on core skills, refer to Core Skills: Information for Senior Managers, (HSDU 1998). Geography Support Materials: River Study Resource (H) Staff Notes 2

7 1. COLLECTING RIVER FLOW DATA The video shows a number of methods of collecting river flow data. Question Watch the video carefully. Describe in detail the techniques used to gather information on the following river features: 1. width and depth 2. speed (velocity) 3. gradient. You should include detailed diagrams in your answer. (i) Measuring the width and depth of a river. Note: remember that several depth measurements need to be taken at equal intervals across the river. Geography Support Materials: River Study Resource (H) Student Materials 1

8 (ii) Measuring the speed (velocity) of a river. Note: In your answer you should include: two different methods of calculating the velocity the formula Velocity = Distance Time an explanation of why measurements must be taken at different points across the river an explanation of why several readings need to be taken at each point. Geography Support Materials: River Study Resource (H) Student Materials 2

9 (iii) Measuring the gradient (slope) of a river. Note: include a description of a clinometer. Geography Support Materials: River Study Resource (H) Student Materials 3

10 Geography Support Materials: River Study Resource (H) Student Materials 4

11 2. PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF RIVER FLOW DATA A variety of methods can be used to present river flow data, including those shown below. (i) Drawing a cross-section of the river channel. A cross-section of a river channel looks like a cross-section of a hill - but because it shows depth instead of height it appears upside down. The surface of the water is at the top of the section. Cross-section of River Easan Biorach at Site 2 Question (a) Collect a copy of the river data sheets. Plot the readings at Site 2 on a copy of the graph above. (b) Join the dots with a smooth curve to make a cross-section of the river s channel. (c) Shade the water lightly in blue. (d) Annotate the cross-section by labelling the deepest part of the river channel and the shallower area near the right bank. Geography Support Materials: River Study Resource (H) Student Materials 5

12 (ii) Constructing an isovel diagram. An isovel diagram is a cross-section with details of the river velocity added. The cross-section is drawn as described earlier, then the dots showing river velocity at different depths are plotted, and lines drawn to show areas of equal velocity. The diagram can then be coloured to show the velocity of the river at different parts of its channel. Question 1. Using the isovel data on the data sheet: (a) Draw the bed of the river on a copy of the diagram below (it has been started for you). (b) Plot the point velocities on the diagram (some points have already been plotted for you). (c) Draw on three isovels (lines of equal velocity): one at 0.6 m/sec, one at 0.4m/sec and one at 0.2m/sec. (d) Colour the diagram and key using the colours in the key. Isovel diagram (from Site 3 on River Easan Biorach) Question 2. Study the isovel diagram carefully. Describe and suggest reasons for the varied depth of the water across the river s channel at site 3 using the following words in your answers: meander: concave: convex: erosion: deposition: resistant. Geography Support Materials: River Study Resource (H) Student Materials 6

13 (iii) Calculating the cross-sectional area of a river. Question (a) One way of calculating the cross-sectional area is by adding up the squares on the cross-section. Look at the cross-section drawn earlier for Site 2 (part 2(i) on page 5). Each of the small squares on the cross section represents 4 cm width and 1 cm depth. Each square therefore has an area of 4 cm 2. Calculate the cross-sectional area of the river at Site 2 by adding up all the small blue squares on your cross-section and multiplying by 4 cm 2. (only count the square if at least half of it has water in it). Answer = cm 2 (b) Another way of calculating the cross-sectional area is by multiplying the average depth by the width. Work out the average depth of the river at Site 2 by adding up all the depth readings and dividing by the number of readings. Average depth = cm Multiply the average depth (cm) by the width (cm) to give the cross-sectional area. Answer = cm 2 (c) Why are your answers to a) and b) above different? (d) Which answer, a) or b) do you think is more accurate? Geography Support Materials: River Study Resource (H) Student Materials 7

14 (iv) Calculating the discharge of a river. The discharge is the volume of water flowing in a river at any one time. If the width, depth or speed of the river increases so does the discharge. The discharge is calculated using this simple formula: Discharge = Cross-sectional area (metres) x Velocity (m/sec) The answer is expressed in cumecs (cubic metres per second). Question (a) Calculate the discharge of the River Easan Biorach at each of the five sites using information on the data sheets. (use the avarage depth in metres to calculate the cross-sectional area and the flowmeter readings for the velocity) (b) Complete the following table using your results. SITE GRADIENT (degrees) WIDTH (metres) AVERAGE DEPTH (metres) CROSS SECTIONAL AREA (metres 2 ) VELOCITY (m/sec) DISCHARGE (cumecs) Changes along the River Easan Biorach Geography Support Materials: River Study Resource (H) Student Materials 8

15 (c) Draw a simple bar graph on the following grid to show changes in the discharge of the river at each site. Changes in discharge along the River Easan Biorach. (d) Describe and explain what the bar graph shows. Geography Support Materials: River Study Resource (H) Student Materials 9

16 (v) Drawing a scatter graph. The relationship between river features can be clearly shown using a scatter graph or a visual correlation graph. Question (a) Study the information on the table below. It shows the results of speed and gradient measurements taken by students along another river on Arran: the Cnocan Burn. SITE NUMBER SPEED (m/sec) GRADIENT ( ) The speed and gradient along the Cnocan Burn Draw a scatter graph on the grid below to show the relationship between speed and gradient on this river. Remember to add a title. (A scatter graph is drawn by plotting points on the grid) - in this case plot the speed against the gradient for each site. Site 1 has been done for you. (b) Add a best fit line on the scatter graph to show the relationship more clearly. Geography Support Materials: River Study Resource (H) Student Materials 10

17 (c) Describe and suggest reasons for the relationship shown. Geography Support Materials: River Study Resource (H) Student Materials 11

18 (vi) Drawing a visual correlation graph The relationship between two features on a river eg gradient and speed, can also be shown on a visual correlation graph like those below. The gradient and speed results are ranked on two separate vertical lines with rank 1 being for the greatest depth and fastest speed. These ranks are then joined by straight lines to show the relationship. Question (a) Complete the third visual correlation graph to show the relationship between gradient and discharge on the River Easan Biorach. (b) Is there a perfect, strong or poor relationship between gradient and discharge on the River Easan Biorach? Geography Support Materials: River Study Resource (H) Student Materials 12

19 3. CONSTRUCTION AND ANALYSIS OF HYDROGRAPHS A hydrograph is a graph showing the discharge of a river at any given point over a period of time. A storm hydrograph is a graph showing the discharge in the hours following a period of rainfall. The time in hours is shown on the X axis while the rainfall and discharge are shown on different scales on the Y axis. Question (a) Describe how rainfall was measured in the video. (b) Complete the hydrograph on a copy of the graph below, using the information on the Hydrograph Data Sheet. Note: Draw a full line for the discharge at Site 1 and a dashed line for the discharge at Site 2. The rainfall should be shown by bars Hydrograph for two sites on River Easan Biorach Geography Support Materials: River Study Resource (H) Student Materials 13

20 (c) Using the hydrograph, describe and explain the relationship between the rainfall and discharge at Site 1. (d) Explain the much lower discharge totals at Site 2. Geography Support Materials: River Study Resource (H) Student Materials 14

21 4. LABELLING MAIN LANDSCAPE FEATURES ON SKETCHES Sketches can be drawn to bring out the main features in a landscape and highlight any relationships which exist. Question The sketch below shows a view of the meander at Site 3 on the River Easan Biorach (14.22 minutes into the video). Annotate the sketch with the following: river cliff concave convex slip-off slope faster water on inside slower water on outside. Geography Support Materials: River Study Resource (H) Student Materials 15

22 Geography Support Materials: River Study Resource (H) Student Materials 16

23 RIVER DATA SHEETS 1. River Flow Data The data below is from Gleann Easan Biorach, and is consistent with the Case Study shown on the video resource. Depth readings are arranged as recorded, in order across the channel from left bank (first reading) to right. Take note of the interval between readings at each site when plotting cross-sectional area graphs and calculating velocity from float timings. Formulae: Velocity = Distance Discharge = Cross-Sectional Area x Velocity Time SITE NUMBER 1 GRID REFERENCE: Channel Width 1m Depth Reading Interval 10cm Slope Angle 12 Shape Depth (right angle) Velocity Distance 5m Time 13.1; 11.4; 14 (seconds) Flowmeter 0.34 m/s SITE NUMBER 2 GRID REFERENCE: Channel Width 2.4m Depth Reading Interval 20cm Slope Angle 7 Shape Depth (right angle) Velocity Distance 10m Time 28.9; 13.7; 12.8 (seconds) Flowmeter 0.58 m/s Geography Support Materials: River Study Resource (H) River Data Sheets 1

24 SITE NUMBER: 3 GRID REFERENCE: Channel Width 10.5m Depth Reading Interval 50cm Slope Angle 3 Shape Depth (right angle) Velocity Distance 10m Time 24.9; 20.9; 17.4 (seconds) Flowmeter 0.32 m/s SITE NUMBER: 4 GRID REFERENCE: Channel Width 7.5m Depth Reading Interval 50cm Slope Angle 3 Shape Depth (right angle) Velocity Distance 10m Time 31.5; 23.1; 22.6 (seconds) Flowmeter 0.35 m/s SITE NUMBER: 5 GRID REFERENCE: Channel Width 8.5m Depth Reading Interval 50cm Slope Angle 2 Shape Depth (right angle) Velocity Distance 10m Time 15.8; 18.9; 22.7 (seconds) Flowmeter 0.49 m/s Geography Support Materials: River Study Resource (H) River Data Sheets 2

25 2. Isovel Data The data shown here can be used to draw an isovel diagram. It is taken from Site 3 on the video, a meander. The depth readings can be used to construct an accurate cross-section and the point velocities added in their appropriate positions. Units for velocities are m/s. Draw lines to join areas of equal velocity. Distance Depth Geography Support Materials: River Study Resource (H) River Data Sheets 3

26 3. Hydrograph Data Measurements of cross-sectional area and velocity were taken at two sites for a 29 hour period. These measurements were used to calculate the discharge at regular time intervals. Rainfall data was also collected. Use the figures to construct a storm hydrograph for the two sites. Rainfall Measurements Time 0:15 0:45 1:15 1:45 2:15 2:45 3:15 3:45 4:15 4:45 5:15 5:45 6:15 6:45 7:15 7:45 Rainfall (mm) Time 8:15 8:45 9:15 9:45 10:15 10:45 11:15 11:45 12:15 12:45 14:15 16:45 19:45 22:45 25:45 28:45 Rainfall (mm) Site 1 Grid Reference Time 0:00 0:30 1:00 1:30 2:00 2:30 3:00 3:30 4:00 4:30 5:00 5:30 6:00 6:30 7:00 7:30 8:00 Discharge (m 3 /s) Time 8:30 9:00 9:30 10:00 10:30 11:00 11:30 12:00 12:30 13:00 14:30 17:00 20:00 23:00 27:00 29:00 Discharge (m 3 /s) Site 2 Grid Reference Time 0:15 0:45 1:15 1:45 2:15 2:45 3:15 3:45 4:15 4:45 5:15 5:45 6:15 6:45 7:15 7:45 Discharge (m 3 /s) Time 8:15 8:45 9:15 9:45 10:15 10:45 11:15 11:45 12:15 12:45 14:15 16:45 19:45 22:45 25:45 28:45 Discharge (m 3 /s) Geography Support Materials: River Study Resource (H) River Data Sheets 4

27 RESOURCES Drawing a cross-section of a river channel Cross-section of River Easan Biorach at Site 2 Geography Support Materials: River Study Resource (H) Resources 1

28 Constructing an isovel diagram Isovel diagram (from Site 3 on River Easan Biorach) Geography Support Materials: River Study Resource (H) Resources 2

29 Constructing a hydrograph Hydrograph for two sites on River Easan Biorach Geography Support Materials: River Study Resource (H) Resources 3

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