WHAT DOES ARCHAEOLOGY SAY ABOUT THE BIBLE? GLEN EYRIE PONTIUS PILATE STONE THE BIBLE. 66 Books

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1 GLEN EYRIE WHAT DOES ARCHAEOLOGY SAY ABOUT THE BIBLE? A thorough knowledge of the Bible is worth more than a college education. Theodore Roosevelt THE BIBLE 66 Books 39 Old Testament 27 New Testament Over 40 authors Writings span over 2,000 years PONTIUS PILATE STONE Found in 1961 Discovered by Antonio Frova No prior physical artifacts for Pontius Pilate had existed

2 SIR WILLIAM FLINDERS PETRIE 1896 MERNEPTAH STELE MERNEPTAH STELE TRANSLATED Hatti is pacified; plundered is the Canaan with every evil; carried off is Ashkelon; seized upon is Gezer, Yanoam is made as that which does not exist; Israel is laid waste, his seed is not; Hurru is become a widow for Egypt! All lands together, they are pacified 7 ft tall granite Egyptian Victory Stele from 1207 BC Discovered in the ruins of Pharoah Merneptah s funerary temple It is the 1st mentioning of the Israelites outside of the Bible Written as a commemoration of a war campaign in Canaan SIGNIFICANCE OF THE MERNEPTAH STELE 1. It is the first extra-biblical mentioning of the Israelites (dates to the period of the Judges 1207 BC) 2. It s proof that a people called Israel lived in the land of Canaan following the Exodus. 3. It is the EARLIEST CONNECTION between archaeology and the Bible. [Geisler The Popular Handbook of Archaeology and the Bible]

3 MERNEPTAH STELE AVRAHAM BIRAN ISRAELI ARCHAEOLOGIST *It is the EARLIEST CONNECTION between archaeology and the Bible. Bible. *Despite Egypt s boast, the Israelites continue to live in Canaan for the next 600 years. ISRAEL MAP Grew up in Egypt, but was Israeli As a boy in Palestine, his principal would take kids on hikes with their Bibles and study archaeological sites. He studied under archaeological great William Albright Began digging in Tel Dan in 1966 AVRAHAM BIRAN VIDEO

4 TEL-DAN STELE Biran dug at the site for 30 years before he found the Tel-Dan Inscription also known as the House of David Inscription. Early , English and Scandinavian revisionists began claiming that David & Solomon were mythological figures. Written about 825 BC Occurred approximately 860 BC. QUMRAN CAVES 1947 SIGNIFICANCE OF HOUSE OF DAVID INSCRIPTION 1. It is the 1st extra-biblical mention of King David 2. Enemy Attestation 3. He is the oldest person in the Bible that we have an artifact for 4. Even though this took place centuries after the life-time of David, it is strong evidence that foreign nations knew of the fame and the history of King David. DEAD SEA SCROLLS

5 SIGNIFICANCE OF DEAD SEA SCROLLS 1. Fragments of every book of the OT was found (except Esther). 2. Multiple copies of Deuteronomy, Psalms and Isaiah were recovered including a 28 ft long scroll of Isaiah in beautiful condition. 3. This gets us 1,000 years closer to the original autographs of Scripture! 4. There was NO difference between our modern translation and the Dead Sea Scroll manuscripts. ISAIAH 44:26-28 It is I who says of Cyrus, He is my shepherd! And he will perform all My desire. And he declares of Jerusalem, She will be built, and of the temple, Your foundation will be laid. Isaiah 44:28 [NASB] ISAIAH 45:1-6 Thus says the LORD to Cyrus His annointed, Whom I have taken by the right hand, To subdue nations before him And to loose the loins of kings; To open ndoors efore him so that gates will not be shut. Isaiah 45:1 [NASB]

6 CYRUS THE MEDO-PERSIAN KING CYRUS THE MEDO-PERSIAN KING Isaiah s prophecy is fulfilled: 1. Cyrus frees the Israelites 2. Shows up in the 70th year 3. He did not know YHWH, but served the Chaldean god Marduk 4. He grants them the freedom to return to their homeland and worship their God THE BIBLE & HISTORY 2ND CHRONICLES 36:22 [NASB] Isaiah prophecies over 150 years in advance that Cyrus would free the Israelites from the Babylonian exile. Cyrus and the Medo-Persians replaced the Babylonian Empire. [History and the Bible agree on this] The Bible also states that Cyrus would: 1. Allow captives of Babylon to return to their homeland 2. Allow them to rebuild their temples and worship freely 3. Allow them to rebuild their cities and their walls 4. Allow them to take funds from the royal treasury to pay for the repairs. Now in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia in order to fulfill the word of the LORD by the mouth of Jeremiah the LORD stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, so that he sent a proclamation throughout his kingdom, and also put it in writing

7 CYRUS CYLINDER 6TH CENTURY B.C. Found in Babylon in 1879 by the British Museum Exhibition SIGNIFICANCE OF THE CYRUS CYLINDER 1. It s extra-biblical evidence of the fulfillment of OT prophecies by Isaiah and Jeremiah. 2. These decrees to rebuild are also cited in Ezra 1:2-4, Ezra 6:1-5 and 2nd Chronicles 36:23 3. The cylinder is approximately 2,500 years old! 4. This is what allows Ezra and Zerubbabel to rebuild the Temple and Nehemiah to rebuild the wall. CYRUS CYLINDER 6TH CENTURY B.C. 1. Allow captives of Babylon to return to their homeland 2. Allow them to rebuild their temples and worship freely 3. Allow them to rebuild their cities and their walls 4. Allow them to take funds from the royal treasury to pay for the repairs. THE TOMB OF CYRUS Located in Pasargadae (Iran) Cyrus was killed in a battle he led less than a decade after the decree of the Cyrus Cylinder

8 MAP OF ISRAEL KING NEBUCHADNEZZAR OF BABYLON 585 B.C. PROPHECY AGAINST TYRE 1. Bring many nations against you 2. Destroy walls of Tyre and breakdown her towers 3. Scrape her debris from her and make her a bare rock 4. A place for the spreading of nets 5. Spoil for the nations 6. Daughters on mainland will be slain by the sword 7. Nebuchadnezzar will attack from the north 8. He will use horses, chariots, cavalry and a great army 9. He will make siege walls and ramps against you. 10. Throw your stones & your timbers & your debris into the water

9 PROPHECY AGAINST TYRE ALEXANDER THE GREAT 332 BC 1. Bring many nations against you 2. Destroy walls of Tyre and breakdown her towers 3. Scrape her debris from her and make her a bare rock 4. A place for the spreading of nets 5. Spoil for the nations 6. Daughters on mainland will be slain by the sword 7. Nebuchadnezzar will attack from the north 8. He will use horses, chariots, cavalry and a great army 9. He will make siege walls and ramps against you. 10. Throw your stones & your timbers & your debris into the water ALEXANDER THE GREAT INSULAR TYRE

10 ALEXANDER S CAUSEWAY 332 BC ALEXANDER S CAUSEWAY 332 BC PROPHECY AGAINST TYRE INTERPRETING EZEKIEL 26-- PRONOUNS 1. Bring many nations against you 2. Destroy walls of Tyre and breakdown her towers 3. Scrape her debris from her and make her a bare rock 4. A place for the spreading of nets 5. Spoil for the nations 6. Daughters on mainland will be slain by the sword 7. Nebuchadnezzar will attack from the north 8. He will use horses, chariots, cavalry and a great army 9. He will make siege walls and ramps against you. 10. Throw your stones & your timbers & your debris into the water her = Tyre (city) he = Nebuchadnezzar (585 BC) they = many nations (Alexander s army)

11 ARCHAEOLOGICAL REMAINS OF CAUSEWAY marble columns beneath the water along the shores of Tyre. --Edward Robinson [archaeologist] INSPIRE WONDER BIBLICAL ARTIFACTS

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