# CORE STANDARDS, OBJECTIVES, AND INDICATORS

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1 Aerospace Engineering - PLtW Levels: Units of Credit: 1.0 CIP Code: Core Code: Prerequisite: Principles of Engineering, Introduction to Engineering Design Test: #967 Course Description This course propels students learning in the fundamentals of atmospheric and space flight. As they explore the physics of flight, students bring the concepts to life by designing an airfoil, propulsion system, and rockets. They learn basic orbital mechanics using industry-standard software. They also explore robot systems through projects such as remotely operated vehicles. CORE STANDARDS, OBJECTIVES, AND INDICATORS STANDARD 1 Students will gain an awareness of the development of Aerospace Engineering Identify major Aerospace Engineering accomplishments. Describe trends in Aerospace Engineering. Analyze how Aerospace Engineering achievements were made. Predict how Aerospace Engineering achievements will impact future accomplishments. Synthesize discrete facts into a coherent sequence of events. Deliver organized oral presentations of work tailored to the audience. STANDARD 2 Students will know the basic forces of flight and how they are controlled Identify major components of an aircraft. Approximate the center of gravity of geometric shapes. Identify the three axis of an aircraft. Label the motions about the three axis of an aircraft. Describe the four major forces which act on an aircraft. Describe the four ways that lift is generated by an airfoil. Label the components of an airfoil. Describe the Earth s atmosphere composition and layers. Describe the relationship of altitude, temperature and pressure within the Earth s atmosphere. Objective 10: Describe the factors that impact lift and drag. Objective 11: Explain factors which improve aircraft stability. Objective 12: Describe how the motions about the three axis of an aircraft are stabilized and controlled by aircraft components. Objective 13: Calculate the center of gravity of an aircraft. Objective 14: Revise the weight and location of masses onboard an aircraft for safe flight balance. Objective 15: Demonstrate how lift may be created with an airfoil. Aerospace Engineering PLtW Page 1 of 5

2 Objective 16: Calculate the values of Earth s atmosphere altitude, temperature and pressure relative to each other. Objective 17: Calculate the values of lift, drag and Reynolds Number. Objective 18: Predict how aircraft characteristics affect lift, drag, and Reynolds Number. Objective 19: Design an airfoil to meet or exceed desired performance. Objective 20: Design a glider to meet or exceed desired performance. Objective 21: Summarize test data to evaluate glider performance against design criteria. Objective 22: Revise a glider to meet or exceed desired performance. Objective 23: Analyze the factors that contribute to a successful glider design. Objective 24: Accurately construct a glider that represents a design. Objective 25: Predict glider performance. Objective 26: Compare glider performance to predicted performance. Objective 27: Optimize glider performance to improve performance. STANDARD 3 Students will have a basic understanding of navigation Describe major advances in navigation technology. Identify components of common aviation navigation aids. Describe how an aircraft reacts to flight control inputs. Describe purpose of air traffic control system how it functions. Explain how Global Positioning System, GPS, functions. Identify the functions of a typical Global Positioning System, GPS, unit functions. Describe the relationship of Tsiolkovsky rocket equation variables. Identify characteristics which contribute to a successful team. Interpret an indication shown on a navigation aid. Objective 10: Illustrate navigation aid indication on a map. Objective 11: Operate an aircraft in a simulated environment. Objective 12: Plan a flight route. Objective 13: Use a navigation aid to fly an aircraft to a destination in a simulated environment. Objective 14: Predict an aircraft collision based on aircraft vectors. Objective 15: Calculate an alternate aircraft vector for safe separation. Objective 16: Create route consisting of latitude and longitude waypoints using a Global Positioning System, GPS, unit. Objective 17: Interpret a route from latitude and longitude waypoints. Objective 18: Select team members for a project based on characteristics. Objective 19: Select propulsion system based on characteristics of each. STANDARD 4 Students will gain an understanding of materials used in Aerospace Engineering Describe common aerospace materials and their properties. Identify moment of inertia and Young s Modulus equations. Recognize the impact of loading conditions on a structure. Classify materials for aerospace applications. Aerospace Engineering PLtW Page 2 of 5

3 Model a structure using a 3D modeling software. Analyze deformation of a structure as a result of force application. Design a structure that meets a given criteria. Construct a composite structure. Measure mechanical properties of material. Objective 10: Interpret measurements of a tensile tester. Objective 11: Calculate moment of inertia and Young s Modulus equations. STANDARD 5 Students will have a basic understanding of rocket propulsion and space travel Describe the four primary forces acting on an aircraft. Explain how Newton s Third Law applies to aerodynamic forces. Describe the characteristics of the four types of propulsion systems. Classify rocket engine systems. Identify the thrust and impulse equations. Describe parts and functions of a typical model rocket engine. Outline model rocket safety suggestions. Label model rocket components and functions. Recognize the equation of center of gravity and center of pressure. Objective 10: Identify common space propulsion systems. Objective 11: Identify basic criteria to consider when designing a spacecraft. Objective 12: Construct a physical model of a system. Objective 13: Measure mechanical properties of material. Objective 14: Interpret measurements of a test system. Objective 15: Simulate performance of propulsion systems. Objective 16: Design an aircraft propulsion system to meet a given objective such as maximum efficiency, maximum thrust to weight ratio. Objective 17: Infer how changes in propulsion system parameters affect performance. Objective 18: Interpret measurements of a model rocket engine thrust. Objective 19: Design a stable model rocket. Objective 20: Construct a stable model rocket. Objective 21: Gather performance data associated model rocket launch such as maximum height of flight. Objective 22: Construct a stable model rocket. Objective 23: Calculate maximum height using rocket engine test data and indirect height measurements. Objective 24: Organize and express thoughts and information in a clear and concise manner. Objective 25: Select spacecraft components based on characteristics of each component. Objective 26: Select spacecraft landing system based on characteristics of each component. STANDARD 6 Students will consider human factors in design Describe common human body systems and their functions. Aerospace Engineering PLtW Page 3 of 5

4 Recognize the formula for distance with respect to time and acceleration. List common factors contribute to an aircraft accident. Measure human vision quality such as acuity, astigmatism, color vision perception, depth perception and peripheral vision field. Analyze how human factors affect aerospace system design. Infer reaction time through indirect measurements. Analyze an aircraft accident to determine likely causes. STANDARD 7 Students will learn about manmade objects in space Recognize common celestial groups such as galaxy, star and planet. Describe the relative sizes of celestial bodies. Explain how global governance applies to space issues. Outline how past space faring achievements contributed to subsequent achievements. Describe how commercial organizations contribute to space related activities. Identify the impact that space junk has on space based activities. Analyze an issue to which space applies. Organize and express thoughts and information in a clear and concise manner. Design a system to mitigate space junk. Objective 10: Construct a prototype to demonstrate a design solution. STANDARD 8 Students will make elementary calculations describing orbital motion List major contributions made by people studying orbital mechanics. Describe common satellite orbital pattern shapes and applications. Name and describe the six Keplerian elements. Explain Kepler s Laws. Recognize the equations for orbital period, orbital gravitational potential energy, orbital kinetic energy, and total orbital energy. Describe how an orbital mechanics modeling software can be applied design a satellite system. Explain how financial factors impact a project. Analyze how an orbital mechanics theory can describe satellite motion. Organize and express thoughts and information in a clear and concise manner. Objective 10: Identify the most appropriate orbital pattern for an application. Objective 11: Calculate an orbiting body s orbital period, orbital gravitational potential energy, orbital kinetic energy, and total orbital energy. Objective 12: Model a satellite system using a modeling software. Objective 13: Formulate a financial proposal for a project. STANDARD 9 Students will consider and improve efficiencies in design List alternative applications than aircraft for aerospace engineering concepts. Describe the parts and functions of a wind turbine. Identify factors that impact aircraft efficiency. Recognize the drag equation. Aerospace Engineering PLtW Page 4 of 5

5 Design aerospace system as an alternate to an aircraft which use aerospace engineering concepts. Examples include a wind turbine and a parachute. Construct an alternate aerospace system. Measure output of an alternate aerospace system. Optimize an alternate aerospace system. Explain aircraft efficiency affects aircraft design. STANDARD 10 Students will simulate a satellite mapping mission Explain how unmanned systems can be integrated into aerospace systems. Recognize factors that affect communication with equipment in space. Describe how input and output devices function. Explain the purpose of a flowchart or pseudocode. Describe functions of a computer program. Identify how functions of a computer program can be applied to perform a task. Outline how a satellite data is gathered and used to create a map. Describe how human factors impact space travel. Describe how spacecraft systems function. Objective 10: Analyze how aerospace unmanned systems function. Objective 11: Synthesize a discrete knowledge into a coherent sequent of events. Objective 12: Deliver organized oral presentations of work tailored to the audience. Objective 13: Describe the impact of a communication delay on the success of a mission. Objective 14: Operate output devices to perform a function. Objective 15: Relate sensor input to the environment being measured. Objective 16: Create a flowchart or pseudocode to perform a task. Objective 17: Construct a control program to accomplish a specified goal. Objective 18: Operate a remote system through a series of performance tasks including autonomous navigation Objective 19: Gather data using robot control software. Objective 20: Arrange data using spreadsheet software. Objective 21: Operate a simulated spaceflight. STANDARD 11 Students will learn about the variety of careers in Aerospace Engineering Describe factors that a student should consider when planning a career Outline questions as preparation to interview a professional. Collect information related to a future career. Interview a professional. Assemble career information into a coherent plan. Deliver organized presentations of work tailored to the audience. Criticize the work of a peer. Aerospace Engineering PLtW Page 5 of 5

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