Last Time: Alkanes (C n H 2n+2 ) Last Time: Organic Compounds. Last Time: Intermolecular Forces- BP Increases w/ Increasing Size

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Last Time: Alkanes (C n H 2n+2 ) Last Time: Organic Compounds. Last Time: Intermolecular Forces- BP Increases w/ Increasing Size"

Transcription

1 Announcements & Agenda (0/02/07) Welcome Visitors! Please make yourselves comfortable; we will start with a quiz Mid-term grades are only based on lecture I will give you detailed grade sheets on Monday Note: most of MT grade was based on Exam 1 You should read Ch 11/12 this weekend! Today Functional groups in organic chemistry (10.5) Unsaturated compounds (11.1) Cis-trans isomers (11.2) Reactivity of unsaturated compounds (11.) 1 Last Time: Organic Compounds Typical organic compounds have covalent bonds. have low melting points. have low boiling points. are flammable. are soluble in nonpolar solvents. are usually not soluble in water. oil (organic) and water (inorganic) 2 Last Time: Alkanes (C n H 2n+2 ) Last Time: Intermolecular Forces- BP Increases w/ Increasing Size nonpolar. insoluble in water. less dense than water. flammable in air. not a lot of interesting chemistry! but they burn! Melting (blue) and boiling (pink) points of the first 14 n-alkanes in C. 4 1

2 Last Time: 4 Ways to Represent Structures of Organic Compounds (Know These!) 1. Last Time: Naming Alkanes Give the name of CH CH CH CH 2.. STEP 1 Name the longest continuous chain. CH CH CH CH 4. Line Structures - See next slide 5 butane 6 Last Time: Naming Alkanes Give the name of CH CH CH CH STEP 2 Number chain. CH CH CH CH STEP Locate substituents and name (alphabetically). 2,-dimethyl dimethylbutane Functional Groups (Beyond Single Bonds and Only C & H) a characteristic feature of org. molecules that behave in a predictable way. composed of an atom or group of atoms. groups that replace a hydrogen atom in the corresponding alkane. a way to classify families of organic compounds. Key Point: Functional Groups Give the Molecule their Chemical Personality butane 7 8 2

3 Functional Groups (Beyond Single Bonds and Only C & H) a characteristic feature of org. molecules that behave in a predictable way. composed of an atom or group of atoms. groups that replace a hydrogen atom in the corresponding alkane. a way to classify families of organic compounds. Key Point: Differences typically depend on polarity!!! 9 Alkenes and Alkynes Alkenes contain a double bond between adjacent carbon atoms. Alkynes contain a triple bond. 10 Alcohols and Ethers Aldehydes and Ketones An alcohol contains the hydroxyl (-OH)( functional group. An aldehyde contains a carbonyl group (C=O), which is a carbon atom with a double bond to an oxygen atom. In an ether, an oxygen atom is bonded to two carbon atoms. C O C. 11 In a ketone, the carbon of the carbonyl group is attached to two other carbon atoms. 12

4 Carboxylic Acids and Esters Amines and Amides Carboxylic acids contain the carboxyl group,, which is a carbonyl group attached to a hydroxyl group. O C OH An ester contains the carboxyl group between carbon atoms. 1 In amines,, the functional group is a nitrogen atom. N In amides,, the hydroxyl group of a carboxylic acid is replaced by a nitrogen group. 14 Summary These are some of the most important Some functional groups in consumer products BENGAY Camphor a ketone Menthol an alcohol Methyl salicylate an ester and a phenol Neopsporin Miconazole many functional groups (ether, chloro) Dimethyl ether propellant Halls cough Menthol- an alcohol biological functional groups!

5 Some functional groups in spices Nutmeg Myristicin a polyether, an alkene,, benzene ring Elemicin Safrole Anise Anethole an ether, an alkene,, benzene ring Caraway seeds d-carvone a ketone Spearmint l-carvone a ketone Ch. 11 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Alkenes & Alkynes a ketone Good Practice Problems (Ch 11) 11.05, 11.07, 11.11, 11.1, 11.15, 11.17, 11.19, 11.2, 11.25, 11.27, 11.29, 11.1, 11.5, 11.7, For Ch 10 Do all odd problems! Saturated Hydrocarbons have the maximum # of H atoms attached to each C atom. i.e. alkanes with single C-C C C bonds, C n H 2n+2 Examples: propane: CH 2 CH (C H 8 ) 2-methyl propane: CH CH (C 4 H 10 )

6 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons have fewer H atoms attached to the C chain than alkanes are alkenes with double bonds If one C=C bond, C n H 2n Monounsaturated = 1 D.B. are alkynes with triple bonds If one C CC bond, C n H 2n-2 NOTE: cycloalkanes can also be thought of as unsaturated b/c they have the formula (C n H 2n Unsaturated compounds are oxidized relative to saturated compounds Oxidation of organic compounds means: Replacement of hydrogen atom with a more electronegative atom (oxygen or nitrogen) OR Loss of H atoms & replacement with a double bond 2n ) Ethene (Ethylene) 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) Ethene or ethylene is an alkene with the formula C 2 H 4. has two carbon atoms connected by a double bond. has two H atoms bonded to each C atom. is flat with all the C and H atoms in the same plane. is used to accelerate the ripening of fruits. 2 It inhibits the release of ethylene, thus preventing ripening. 1-MCP 24 6

7 Naming Simple Alkenes use the corresponding alkane name. change the ending to ene Alkene H 2 C=CH 2 H 2 C=CH CH IUPAC ethene ene propene cyclohexene ene Common ethylene ene propylene Naming Simple Alkynes use the corresponding alkane name. change the ending to yne. Alkyne HC CH CH HC C CH IUPAC ethyne propyne Common acetylene Bond Angles in Alkenes & Alkynes According to VSEPR theory: the groups bonded to C atoms in a double bond are at 120 angles. alkenes are flat because the atoms in a double bond all lie in the same plane. the 2 groups bonded to each carbon in a triple bond are at 180 angles. 27 How do you make a double bond? The 1st bond is made by orbitals overlapping between atoms, and is called a sigma (σ) bond. The 2nd bond is made by sideways p orbitals (not directly between the atoms) and is called a pi (π) bond. This is why a single bond can rotate. But the π bond part of a double bond can t rotate you d have to break it. 28 7

8 More Steroisomers: Cis-Trans Isomers In an alkene,, the double bond is rigid, i.e. NO ROTATION around the double bond! holds attached groups in fixed positions. makes cis/trans isomers possible. Important in nature such as in pheromones CH = CH cis trans CH = CH Cis-Trans Isomerism Alkenes cannot have cis-trans isomers if a C atom in the double bond is attached to identical groups. Identical H HBr Identical 2-bromopropene 1,1-dibromoethene (not cis or trans) (not cis or trans) H Br C C C C H H Br (similar groups on same side) (similar groups on opp. sides) sides) Unsaturated Fatty Acids Fatty acids in vegetable oils are omega-6 6 acids (the first double bond occurs at carbon 6 counting from the methyl group) A common omega-6 6 acid is linoleic acid CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH=CHCH 2 CH=CH(CH 2 ) 7 COOH an alkene group 6 a carboxylic acid linoleic acid, a fatty acid group Trans Fats In vegetable oils, the unsaturated fats usually contain cis double bonds. During hydrogenation, some cis double bonds are converted to trans double bonds (more stable) causing a change in the fatty acid structure. If a label states partially or fully hydrogenated, the fats contain trans fatty acids

Monday, September 10th

Monday, September 10th Monday, September 10th Review Chapter 11 iclicker Quiz #1 Chapter 12 Chapter 13(maybe) Group assignment Keep checking the class webpage at www.bhsu.edu/danasunskis. Go to the course tab then CHEM107 Lecture

More information

Chapter 25 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Chemistry. 25.1 Some General Characteristics of Organic Molecules

Chapter 25 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Chemistry. 25.1 Some General Characteristics of Organic Molecules Chapter 25 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Chemistry general characteristics of organic molecules introduction to hydrocarbons alkanes unsaturated hydrocarbons functional groups: alcohols and ethers compounds

More information

Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes. Organic Chemistry. 10.1 Organic Compounds. Organic vs. Inorganic.

Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes. Organic Chemistry. 10.1 Organic Compounds. Organic vs. Inorganic. Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes 10.1 Organic Compounds Organic Chemistry An organic compound is a compound made from carbon atoms. has one or more C atoms. has many H atoms. may also

More information

Chapter 12 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

Chapter 12 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons hapter 12 Unsaturated ydrocarbons 12.1 Alkenes and Alkynes opyright 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin ummings Unsaturated ydrocarbons Unsaturated hydrocarbons ave fewer hydrogen atoms

More information

Chapter: Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes

Chapter: Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes Chapter: Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes Organic Chemistry An organic compound is a compound made from carbon atoms. has one or more C atoms. has many H atoms. may also contain O, S, N, and

More information

Chapter Thirteen. Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Compounds

Chapter Thirteen. Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Compounds Chapter Thirteen Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Compounds Saturated: A molecule whose carbon atoms bond to the maximum number of hydrogen atoms. Unsaturated: A molecule that contains a carbon carbon multiple

More information

Chapter 11 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons. Saturated Hydrocarbons. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Alkenes and Alkynes

Chapter 11 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons. Saturated Hydrocarbons. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Alkenes and Alkynes 1 hapter 11 Unsaturated ydrocarbons 11.1 Alkenes and Alkynes opyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. 1 2 Saturated ydrocarbons Saturated hydrocarbons have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms attached

More information

AP Chemistry Chapter 22 - Organic and Biological Molecules

AP Chemistry Chapter 22 - Organic and Biological Molecules AP Chemistry Chapter - Organic and Biological Molecules.1 Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons A. Straight-chain Hydrocarbons 1. Straight-chain alkanes have the formula C n H n+. Carbons are sp hybridized The

More information

Organic Chemistry Questions

Organic Chemistry Questions Organic Chemistry Questions 1 Molecules of 1-propanol and 2-propanol have different (1) percentage compositions (2) molecular masses (3) molecular formulas (4) structural formulas 2 Which compound is an

More information

Chapter 11 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Alkenes and Alkynes

Chapter 11 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Alkenes and Alkynes 1 Chapter 11 Unsaturated ydrocarbons Alkenes and Alkynes Saturated ydrocarbons 2 Saturated hydrocarbons have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms attached to each carbon atom are alkanes and cycloalkanes

More information

Question Bank Organic Chemistry-I

Question Bank Organic Chemistry-I Question Bank Organic Chemistry-I 1. (a) What do you understand by the following terms : (i) Organic chemistry (ii) Organic compounds (iii) Catenation? [3] (b) Why are there very large number of organic

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. CHM 210 Chemistry Homework #6 Alkanes (Ch. 10) Due: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Compounds that have the same molecular formula

More information

Survival Organic Chemistry Part I: Molecular Models

Survival Organic Chemistry Part I: Molecular Models Survival Organic Chemistry Part I: Molecular Models The goal in this laboratory experience is to get you so you can easily and quickly move between empirical formulas, molecular formulas, condensed formulas,

More information

ALKENES, ALKYNES and AROMATIC COMPOUNDS Chapter 13

ALKENES, ALKYNES and AROMATIC COMPOUNDS Chapter 13 ALKENES, ALKYNES and AROMATIC COMPOUNDS Chapter 13 13.1 Introduction An ALKENE is a hydrocarbon with a double C bond that looks like C=C An ALKYNE is a hydrocarbon with a triple C bond that looks like

More information

Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes

Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes hapter 10 Introduction to Organic hemistry: Alkanes 1 Organic hemistry An organic compound is a compound made from carbon atoms has one or more atoms has many atoms may also contain O, S, N, and halogens

More information

Alkenes and Alkynes. Chapter 1.2

Alkenes and Alkynes. Chapter 1.2 Alkenes and Alkynes Chapter 1.2 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Alkenes and alkynes are unsaturated hydrocarbons An alkene is a hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon-carbon double bond An alkyne is a

More information

Organic Chemistry. Hydrocarbons. Introduction to Organic Molecules. The simplest organic molecules containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms

Organic Chemistry. Hydrocarbons. Introduction to Organic Molecules. The simplest organic molecules containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms Introduction to Organic Molecules Organic Chemistry: (1828) Friedrich Wohler first synthesized an organic compound from an inorganic source leading to the birth of Organic Chemistry. Organic chemistry

More information

Unit Vocabulary: o Organic Acid o Alcohol. o Ester o Ether. o Amine o Aldehyde

Unit Vocabulary: o Organic Acid o Alcohol. o Ester o Ether. o Amine o Aldehyde Unit Vocabulary: Addition rxn Esterification Polymer Alcohol Ether Polymerization Aldehyde Fermentation Primary Alkane Functional group Saponification Alkene Halide (halocarbon) Saturated hydrocarbon Alkyne

More information

CH102 Practice Exam #1 WAY longer than actual exam, answers are at the end

CH102 Practice Exam #1 WAY longer than actual exam, answers are at the end CH102 Practice Exam #1 WAY longer than actual exam, answers are at the end True/False Indicate whether the sentence or statement true or false. 1. Organic chemtry can be defined as the chemtry of carbon-containing

More information

Alkanes. Chapter 1.1

Alkanes. Chapter 1.1 Alkanes Chapter 1.1 Organic Chemistry The study of carbon-containing compounds and their properties What s so special about carbon? Carbon has 4 bonding electrons. Thus, it can form 4 strong covalent bonds

More information

EXPERIMENT 1: Survival Organic Chemistry: Molecular Models

EXPERIMENT 1: Survival Organic Chemistry: Molecular Models EXPERIMENT 1: Survival Organic Chemistry: Molecular Models Introduction: The goal in this laboratory experience is for you to easily and quickly move between empirical formulas, molecular formulas, condensed

More information

2. Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Cycloalkanes. Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition, Chapter 3

2. Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Cycloalkanes. Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition, Chapter 3 2. Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Cycloalkanes Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition, Chapter 3 Families of Organic Compounds Organic compounds can be grouped into families by their common

More information

Page 1. 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? (1) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? (1) (2) (2) (3) (3) (4) (4)

Page 1. 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? (1) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? (1) (2) (2) (3) (3) (4) (4) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? 7. How many carbon atoms are contained in an ethyl group? 1 3 2 4 2. In the alkane series, each molecule

More information

Study Guide Chapters 19-20 Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkynes

Study Guide Chapters 19-20 Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkynes Study Guide Chapters 19-20 Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkynes 1) Carbon-Carbon Bonding in Alkanes (C-C), Alkenes (C=C) and Alkynes (C C). Understand the hybridization of atomic orbitals (ground state promotion

More information

Organic Chemistry. Organic Chemistry Table. Alkane Single bond - Propane. Alkene Double bond = Propene. Alkyne Triple bond Propyne

Organic Chemistry. Organic Chemistry Table. Alkane Single bond - Propane. Alkene Double bond = Propene. Alkyne Triple bond Propyne Organic Chemistry Organic Chemistry Table Homologous Series Functional Group Structure of Group Name Example Alkane Single bond - Propane Alkene Double bond = Propene Alkyne Triple bond Propyne Chloroalkane

More information

Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes. Chemistry: An Introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, Eleventh Edition

Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes. Chemistry: An Introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, Eleventh Edition 1 hapter 10 Introduction to Organic hemistry: Alkanes Organic hemistry and Organic ompounds 2 An organic compound is a compound made from carbon atoms has one or more atoms has many atoms may also contain

More information

Nomenclature International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC)

Nomenclature International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) Nomenclature International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) I. Alkanes A. Alkanes: Simple-Chain Alkanes consist of only hydrogen and carbon molecules and are known to be the simplest type of

More information

Chapter 4 Introduction to Organic Compounds

Chapter 4 Introduction to Organic Compounds Chapter 4 Introduction to Organic Compounds Outline 4.1 Alkanes: The Simplest Organic Compounds 4.2 Representing Structures of Organic Compounds 4.3 Families of Compounds Functional Groups 4.4 Nomenclature

More information

Chapter 4 Lecture Notes

Chapter 4 Lecture Notes Chapter 4 Lecture Notes Chapter 4 Educational Goals 1. Given the formula of a molecule, the student will be able to draw the line-bond (Lewis) structure. 2. Understand and construct condensed structural

More information

UNIT (7) ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: HYDROCARBONS

UNIT (7) ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: HYDROCARBONS UNIT (7) ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: YDROCARBONS Organic chemistry is the study carbon containing compounds. 7.1 Bonding in Organic Compounds Organic compounds are made up of only a few elements and the bonding

More information

CHAPTER 21 Hydrocarbons Section 1 - Alkanes Example Problem 1 Naming Branched-Chain Alkanes Name the following alkane.

CHAPTER 21 Hydrocarbons Section 1 - Alkanes Example Problem 1 Naming Branched-Chain Alkanes Name the following alkane. CHAPTER 21 Hydrocarbons Section 1 - Alkanes Example Problem 1 Naming Branched-Chain Alkanes Name the following alkane. 1. Name the compound represented by each of the following condensed structural formulas.

More information

the double or triple bond. If the multiple bond is CH 3 C CCHCCH 3

the double or triple bond. If the multiple bond is CH 3 C CCHCCH 3 Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic ompounds Alkenes and Alkynes Unsaturated contain carbon-carbon double and triple bond to which more hydrogen atoms can be added. Alkenes: carbon-carbon double bonds Alkynes:

More information

Organic Chemistry: Organic Halides and Alcohols

Organic Chemistry: Organic Halides and Alcohols Organic Chemistry: Organic Halides and Alcohols Today s Objectives: 1) Name and draw structural, condensed structural and line diagrams and formulas for organic halides and alcohols 2) Identify types of

More information

Name Date Class STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY. Alkanes In your textbook, read about organic chemistry, hydrocarbons, and straight-chain alkanes.

Name Date Class STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY. Alkanes In your textbook, read about organic chemistry, hydrocarbons, and straight-chain alkanes. ydrocarbons Section 22.1 Alkanes In your textbook, read about organic chemistry, hydrocarbons, and straight-chain alkanes. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage. hydrocarbons homologous

More information

Chapter 3 Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Their Stereochemistry

Chapter 3 Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Their Stereochemistry John E. McMurry www.cengage.com/chemistry/mcmurry Chapter 3 Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Their Stereochemistry 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Learning Objectives (3.1) Functional groups

More information

Chapter 4: Alkenes and Alkynes. Degree of unsaturation

Chapter 4: Alkenes and Alkynes. Degree of unsaturation hapter 4: Alkenes and Alkynes Unsaturated ydrocarbon: ontains one or more carbon-carbon double or triple bonds or benzene-like rings. Alkene: contains a carbon-carbon double bond and has the general formula

More information

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter Fourteen 1

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter Fourteen 1 An alcohol has an OH bonded to an alkyl group; a phenol has an OH bonded directly to an aromatic ring; and an ether has an O bonded to two organic groups. Chapter Fourteen 1 Ethyl alcohol, dimethyl ether,

More information

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN THREE DIMENSIONS

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN THREE DIMENSIONS (adapted from Blackburn et al., Laboratory Manual to Accompany World of hemistry, 2 nd ed., (1996) Saunders ollege Publishing: Fort Worth) Purpose: To become familiar with organic molecules in three dimensions

More information

Hydrocarbon Frameworks. Alkanes

Hydrocarbon Frameworks. Alkanes Hydrocarbon Frameworks. Alkanes SUMMARY Section 2.1 Section 2.2 Section 2.3 The classes of hydrocarbons are alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and arenes. Alkanes are hydrocarbons in which all of the bonds are

More information

CHEM 203 Exam 1. KEY Name Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

CHEM 203 Exam 1. KEY Name Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. CHEM 203 Exam 1 KEY Name Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. _D C 1. Which of the following elements is a large percentage of both

More information

Question (3): What are the different types of covalent bonds found in carbons compounds? Briefly explain with examples.

Question (3): What are the different types of covalent bonds found in carbons compounds? Briefly explain with examples. CLASS: X NCERT (CBSE) Chemistry: For Class 10 Page : 1 Question (1): What is organic chemistry? Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds of living matter i.e., plants and animals (CO 2, carbonates,

More information

Mr. Kent s Organic Chemistry Unit Notes I Basic Concepts

Mr. Kent s Organic Chemistry Unit Notes I Basic Concepts Mr. Kent s Organic Chemistry Unit Notes I Basic Concepts A. Organic Chemistry-The study of containing compounds. 1. They occur extensively in nature because all living things are made of containing compounds.

More information

Alcohols An alcohol contains a hydroxyl group ( OH) attached to a carbon chain. A phenol contains a hydroxyl group ( OH) attached to a benzene ring.

Alcohols An alcohol contains a hydroxyl group ( OH) attached to a carbon chain. A phenol contains a hydroxyl group ( OH) attached to a benzene ring. Chapter : rganic Compounds with xygen Alcohols, Ethers Alcohols An alcohol contains a hydroxyl group ( H) attached to a carbon chain. A phenol contains a hydroxyl group ( H) attached to a benzene ring.

More information

Chapter 24 Organic Chemistry

Chapter 24 Organic Chemistry Chapter 24 Organic Chemistry Student: 1. The general formula for alkenes is A. C n H 2n+2 B. C 2n H 2n C. C n H n+2 D. C n H 2n E. C n H 2n-2 2. The general formula of an alkane is A. C n H 2n B. C n H

More information

3/9/2012. First Ten Alkanes. Simple Organic Chemistry Basic Structure and Nomenclature. (Nomenclature) Rules for Naming Alkanes.

3/9/2012. First Ten Alkanes. Simple Organic Chemistry Basic Structure and Nomenclature. (Nomenclature) Rules for Naming Alkanes. C Simple Organic Chemistry Basic Structure and Nomenclature First Ten Alkanes Formula Name Formula Name CH4 Methane C6H14 Hexane C2H5 Ethane C7H16 Heptane C3H8 Propane C8H18 Octane C4H10 Butane C9H20 Nonane

More information

Chapter 13 Organic Chemistry

Chapter 13 Organic Chemistry Chapter 13 Organic Chemistry 13-1. Carbon Bonds 13-2. Alkanes 13-3. Petroleum Products 13-4. Structural Formulas 13-5. Isomers 13-6. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons 13-7. Benzene 13-8. Hydrocarbon Groups 13-9.

More information

Organic Functional Groups Chapter 7. Alcohols, Ethers and More

Organic Functional Groups Chapter 7. Alcohols, Ethers and More Organic Functional Groups Chapter 7 Alcohols, Ethers and More 1 What do you do when you are in Pain? What do you do when you are in a lot of pain? 2 Functional Groups A functional group is an atom, groups

More information

Alkenes: Alkynes: Example: What are all the structural possibilities for C 3 H 4? Unsaturated hydrocarbons: Bonding Patterns of Multiple Bonds

Alkenes: Alkynes: Example: What are all the structural possibilities for C 3 H 4? Unsaturated hydrocarbons: Bonding Patterns of Multiple Bonds Chapter 3 Organic Chem: Alkenes & Alkynes Don t need to know the following reactions found on summary pages 110-112: 1. Hydroboration-Oxidation 2. Cycloaddition to Conjugated Dienes 3. Alkyne reaction

More information

Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes. Alkanes

Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes. Alkanes Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes Alkanes Single bonds between carbon atoms General formula: C n H (2n+2) The maximum amount of hydrogen atoms are bonded so alkanes are referred to as saturated 1 IUPAC name Molecular

More information

Chemistry Entrance Examination Topics

Chemistry Entrance Examination Topics Chemistry Entrance Examination Topics 1. General characteristics of the group 6 elements of the main subgroups on the basis of the position in the Periodic table and of atomic structure. Sulfuric acid,

More information

Molecular Models Experiment #1

Molecular Models Experiment #1 Molecular Models Experiment #1 Objective: To become familiar with the 3-dimensional structure of organic molecules, especially the tetrahedral structure of alkyl carbon atoms and the planar structure of

More information

Unit 2 Review: Answers: Review for Organic Chemistry Unit Test

Unit 2 Review: Answers: Review for Organic Chemistry Unit Test Unit 2 Review: Answers: Review for Organic Chemistry Unit Test 2. Write the IUPAC names for the following organic molecules: a) acetone: propanone d) acetylene: ethyne b) acetic acid: ethanoic acid e)

More information

Chem 401 Lab Exercise #5 Nomenclature Worksheet for Alkanes and Cycloalkanes

Chem 401 Lab Exercise #5 Nomenclature Worksheet for Alkanes and Cycloalkanes hem 401 Lab Exercise #5 Nomenclature Worksheet for Alkanes and ycloalkanes Structure and Nomenclature of Alkanes Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons; that is, they contain only and which are bonded solely

More information

Chapter 5 Classification of Organic Compounds by Solubility

Chapter 5 Classification of Organic Compounds by Solubility Chapter 5 Classification of Organic Compounds by Solubility Deductions based upon interpretation of simple solubility tests can be extremely useful in organic structure determination. Both solubility and

More information

Chemistry B11 Chapter Alcohols, Ethers, Thiols and Chirality

Chemistry B11 Chapter Alcohols, Ethers, Thiols and Chirality hemistry B11 hapter 14-15 Alcohols, Ethers, Thiols and hirality Alcohols: the functional group of an alcohol is an hydroxyl group -O. 3 O 3 2 2 O Naming alcohols: 1. Select the longest chain that contains

More information

HYDROCARBONS. Methane is the smallest hydrocarbon with the chemical formula of CH 4 and the structural formula of H C H.

HYDROCARBONS. Methane is the smallest hydrocarbon with the chemical formula of CH 4 and the structural formula of H C H. YDROCARBONS What is Organic Chemistry? Organic chemistry is the chemistry of compounds containing carbon. Examples include carbon dioxide, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, alcohol, rubber, petrol, plastics

More information

Chapter 13 Alkenes and Alkynes

Chapter 13 Alkenes and Alkynes hapter 13 Alkenes and Alkynes Types of Bonds Alkanes and haloalkanes consist of atoms held together by bonds. These can also be called sigma bonds (σ bonds) which means that the orbitals of each atom overlap

More information

PRACTICE PROBLEMS, CHAPTERS 1-3

PRACTICE PROBLEMS, CHAPTERS 1-3 PRATIE PRBLEMS, APTERS 1-3 (overed from h. 3: Alkane and Alkyl alide nomenclature only) 1. The atomic number of boron is 5. The correct electronic configuration of boron is: A. 1s 2 2s 3 B. 1s 2 2p 3.

More information

Nomenclature of organic compounds

Nomenclature of organic compounds P.1 Nomenclature of organic compounds A. Alkanes (C n H 2n+2 ) i. The following table give the names of some root names different number of carbon atoms of hydrocarbon. CH 4 methane C 6 H 14 hexane C 2

More information

Unit VII Compound Formula Writing and Nomenclature Review Sheet. Chapter 6: Basic Naming & Formula Writing

Unit VII Compound Formula Writing and Nomenclature Review Sheet. Chapter 6: Basic Naming & Formula Writing Unit VII Compound Formula Writing and Nomenclature Review Sheet Chapter 6: Basic Naming & Formula Writing 1. Distinguish among: a. Atoms b. Molecules: combinations of covalently bonded nonmetals c. Formula

More information

Topic 7 National 4 & 5 Chemistry Summary Notes. Hydrocarbons

Topic 7 National 4 & 5 Chemistry Summary Notes. Hydrocarbons Topic 7 National 4 & 5 Chemistry Summary Notes Hydrocarbons A vast number of different hydrocarbons exist and so chemists have grouped them into sub-sets to make them easier to study. In this topic we

More information

Experiment 12 Lipids. Structures of Common Fatty Acids Name Number of carbons

Experiment 12 Lipids. Structures of Common Fatty Acids Name Number of carbons Experiment 12 Lipids Lipids are a class of biological molecules that are insoluble in water and soluble in nonpolar solvents. There are many different categories of lipids and each category has different

More information

Chapter 13 Organic Chemistry

Chapter 13 Organic Chemistry Chapter 13 Organic Chemistry Introduction Organic chemistry is the study of carbon based compounds. The structural and genetic materials of living organisms are organic compounds. Many of the substances

More information

Fuels. sea bed. land. 7. When sulfur dioxide reacts with water in the atmosphere, acid rain is produced.

Fuels. sea bed. land. 7. When sulfur dioxide reacts with water in the atmosphere, acid rain is produced. Fuels 1. What is meant by the term fuel? 2. Name the gas required for a fuel to burn. 3. Give another name for burning. 3. What is meant by the term exothermic? 4. Oil is a fossil fuel. Name another two

More information

IUPAC System of Nomenclature

IUPAC System of Nomenclature IUPAC System of Nomenclature The IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) is composed of chemists representing the national chemical societies of several countries. ne committee of the

More information

IUPAC naming and formulae

IUPAC naming and formulae IUPAC naming and formulae What is IUPAC naming? In order to give compounds a name, certain rules must be followed. When naming organic compounds, the IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry)

More information

HOMEWORK PROBLEMS: IR SPECTROSCOPY AND 13C NMR. The peak at 1720 indicates a C=O bond (carbonyl). One possibility is acetone:

HOMEWORK PROBLEMS: IR SPECTROSCOPY AND 13C NMR. The peak at 1720 indicates a C=O bond (carbonyl). One possibility is acetone: HMEWRK PRBLEMS: IR SPECTRSCPY AND 13C NMR 1. You find a bottle on the shelf only labeled C 3 H 6. You take an IR spectrum of the compound and find major peaks at 2950, 1720, and 1400 cm -1. Draw a molecule

More information

Number of carbon atoms. 3 propane 8 octane. 4 butane 9 nonane. 5 pentane 10 decane

Number of carbon atoms. 3 propane 8 octane. 4 butane 9 nonane. 5 pentane 10 decane Name: Date: Pd: Accelerated Chemistry - Naming Hydrocarbons Alkane Nomenclature 1. Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons, with each C bonded to as many atoms as possible (4 other atoms, C or H). For example,

More information

Alkanes. Hydrocarbons. Structural Isomers. Butane Isomers. Contain only carbon and hydrogen

Alkanes. Hydrocarbons. Structural Isomers. Butane Isomers. Contain only carbon and hydrogen ydrocarbons Alkanes ontain only carbon and hydrogen ydrocarbons Alkanes Alkenes Alkynes Aromatics General formula n 2n+2 Each carbon is sp 3 hybridized Bond angles are 109.5 o Methane Ethane Propane Butane

More information

Organic Chemistry. Saturated Hydrocarbons: The Alkanes. methane H C H CH 4. ethane H C C H CH 3 CH 3

Organic Chemistry. Saturated Hydrocarbons: The Alkanes. methane H C H CH 4. ethane H C C H CH 3 CH 3 rganic hemistry The classification of chemical compounds in to the general areas of organic and inorganic derives from the use of the "mineral, vegetable and animal" designation by the early workers in

More information

Chapter 18: Organic Chemistry

Chapter 18: Organic Chemistry h 18 Page 1 hapter 18: rganic hemistry rganic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that focuses on compounds that contain carbon (Exceptions:, 2, 3 2-, and N - ) Even though organic compounds only contain

More information

Organic Nomenclature for the NSW HSC RACI NSW Chemical Education Group date: Jan 2007 edited: Jan 2013

Organic Nomenclature for the NSW HSC RACI NSW Chemical Education Group date: Jan 2007 edited: Jan 2013 Organic Nomenclature for the NSW HSC RACI NSW Chemical Education Group date: Jan 2007 edited: Jan 2013 This RACI nomenclature document is being reissued due to growing concerns that teachers of chemistry

More information

Molecular Formula Determination

Molecular Formula Determination Molecular Formula Determination Classical Approach Qualitative elemental analysis Quantitative elemental analysis Determination of empirical formula Molecular weight determination Molecular formula determination

More information

LECTURE 1. ALKANES (PARAFFINS), ALKENES (OLEFINS), ALKYNES (ACETYLENES): GENERAL

LECTURE 1. ALKANES (PARAFFINS), ALKENES (OLEFINS), ALKYNES (ACETYLENES): GENERAL LECTURE 1. ALKANES (PARAFFINS), ALKENES (OLEFINS), ALKYNES (ACETYLENES): GENERAL Basic Nomenclature a saturated hydrocarbon is denoted by the suffix ANE an unsaturated hydrocarbon with one double bond

More information

ALCOHOLS: Properties & Preparation

ALCOHOLS: Properties & Preparation ALLS: Properties & Preparation General formula: R-, where R is alkyl or substitued alkyl. Ar-: phenol - different properties. Nomenclature 1. ommon names: Name of alkyl group, followed by word alcohol.

More information

Chemistry B11 Chapters Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes and Benzene

Chemistry B11 Chapters Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes and Benzene Chemistry B11 Chapters 10-13 Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes and Benzene Organic compounds: organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon and only a few other elements-chiefly, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur,

More information

Introduction to Organic Chemistry Syllabus Day 1: Session 1 (evening session):

Introduction to Organic Chemistry Syllabus Day 1: Session 1 (evening session): Introduction to Organic Chemistry Syllabus Day 1: Session 1 (evening session): 1. Introduction to Organic Chemistry: 2. General discussion about what is chemistry? 3. What is organic chemistry? 4. What

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Ch14_PT MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Compounds with the -OH group attached to a saturated alkane-like carbon are known as A)

More information

Ch 12. Alkanes Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Simple Hydrocarbons

Ch 12. Alkanes Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Simple Hydrocarbons Ch 12. Alkanes Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Simple Hydrocarbons Diagram of Methane. Member of Alkane family of hydrocarbons. Alkanes have only single bonds. When carbon is bonded to four atoms, the

More information

Alcohols, phenols and ethers

Alcohols, phenols and ethers Alcohols, phenols and ethers Chapter 14 water alcohol ether without pain Opioid analgesics phenol ether ester amine alcohol Morphine Codeine Heroin Functional groups: collections of atoms that define a

More information

Chapter 12 Organic Compounds with Oxygen and Sulfur

Chapter 12 Organic Compounds with Oxygen and Sulfur Chapter 12 Organic Compounds with Oxygen and Sulfur 1 Alcohols An alcohol contains a hydroxyl group ( OH) that replaces a hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon. A phenol contains a hydroxyl group ( OH) attached

More information

Chemistry 1110 Organic Chemistry IUPAC Nomenclature

Chemistry 1110 Organic Chemistry IUPAC Nomenclature hemistry 1110 rganic hemistry IUPA Nomenclature 1 f the approximately 32 million unique chemical compounds presently known, over 95% of them can be classified as organic; i.e., containing carbon. The IUPA

More information

Alcohols. Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OH 1-propanol OH

Alcohols. Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OH 1-propanol OH Chapter 12 rganic Compounds with xygen and Sulfur 12.1 Alcohols, Thiols, and Ethers Alcohols An alcohol contains a hydroxyl group ( ) attached to a carbon chain. A phenol contains a hydroxyl group ( )

More information

Lipids. There are 2 types of lipids; those that contain the structural component of a fatty acid; and

Lipids. There are 2 types of lipids; those that contain the structural component of a fatty acid; and Lipids Lipids are biomolecules that contain fatty acids or a steroid nucleus. soluble in organic solvents, but not in water. named for the Greek word lipos, which means fat. extracted from cells using

More information

Chemistry 110. Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell. Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry Chapter 14 Alcohols, Ethers and Thiols

Chemistry 110. Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell. Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry Chapter 14 Alcohols, Ethers and Thiols Chemistry 110 Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell Ninth Edition Introduction to General, rganic and Biochemistry Chapter 14 Alcohols, Ethers and Thiols Alcohols have a ydroxyl Group, -, bonded to tetrahedral

More information

1 Lecture 5 Resonance 1. Lone pair next to empty 2p orbital

1 Lecture 5 Resonance 1. Lone pair next to empty 2p orbital 1 Lecture 5 esonance 1. Lone pair next to empty 2p orbital sp 2 + is more common sp + is less common + needs electrons, has to overlap with a. an adjacent 2p lone pair with electrons b. an adjacent pi

More information

Alkynes: An Introduction to Organic Synthesis. Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition, Chapter 8

Alkynes: An Introduction to Organic Synthesis. Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition, Chapter 8 Alkynes: An Introduction to Organic Synthesis Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition, Chapter 8 Alkynes! Hydrocarbons that contain carbon-carbon triple bonds! Acetylene, the simplest alkyne

More information

12. Alcohols and Phenols. Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition

12. Alcohols and Phenols. Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition 12. Alcohols and Phenols Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition Alcohols and Phenols Alcohols contain an OH group connected to a saturated C (sp 3 ) They are important solvents and synthesis

More information

Structural Isomers Just how many structures can you make from a simple formula?

Structural Isomers Just how many structures can you make from a simple formula? Structural Isomers Just how many structures can you make from a simple formula?. methane: 4 condensed formula 2D formula 3D formula 4 methane 2. ethane: 2 6 nce the two carbons are connected, there are

More information

NOMENCLATURE OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS 2010, 2003, 1980, by David A. Katz. All rights reserved.

NOMENCLATURE OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS 2010, 2003, 1980, by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. NMENCLATURE F RGANIC CMPUNDS 2010, 2003, 1980, by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. rganic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon compounds. Carbon has the ability to bond with itself to form long chains

More information

Answers to Review #3: Naming, Physical Properties and Reactions of Organic Compounds (Chap.1 & 2)

Answers to Review #3: Naming, Physical Properties and Reactions of Organic Compounds (Chap.1 & 2) Answers to Review #3: Naming, Physical Properties and Reactions of Organic Compounds (Chap.1 & 2) 1. Name the following organic compounds using their IUPAC names. Identify the type (family) of each compound.

More information

Regents Review Organic Worksheet Mr. Beauchamp

Regents Review Organic Worksheet Mr. Beauchamp Regents Review Mr. Beauchamp 1. Which general formula represents t he homologous serie s of hydrocarbons that includes the compound l-heptyne? 10. Which formula represents an unsatur ated hydrocarbon?

More information

How to Quickly Solve Spectrometry Problems

How to Quickly Solve Spectrometry Problems How to Quickly Solve Spectrometry Problems You should be looking for: Mass Spectrometry (MS) Chemical Formula DBE Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) Important Functional Groups o Alcohol O-H o Carboxylic Acid

More information

Unit 2: Nature s Chemistry

Unit 2: Nature s Chemistry Unit 2: Nature s Chemistry 1. A Fuel is a substance which burns giving out energy. 2. Oxygen is needed for anything to burn 3. Combustion is another name for burning Test for Oxygen - Relights a glowing

More information

Interpreting Infrared Spectra Painlessly, Quickly, and Correctly

Interpreting Infrared Spectra Painlessly, Quickly, and Correctly Interpreting Infrared Spectra Painlessly, Quickly, and Correctly Knowing how to interpret infrared (IR) spectra is of immense help to structure determination. Not only will it tell you what functional

More information

Chapter 2 Alkanes and Cycloalkanes;

Chapter 2 Alkanes and Cycloalkanes; Chapter 2 Alkanes and Cycloalkanes; Conformational and Geometric Isomerism Feb, 2008 Dr. Abdullah I. Saleh/236-2 1 Hydrocarbons The main components of petroleum and natural gas. Hydrocarbons: compounds

More information

Calculating the Degrees of Unsaturation From a Compound s Molecular Formula

Calculating the Degrees of Unsaturation From a Compound s Molecular Formula Calculating the Degrees of Unsaturation From a Compound s Molecular Formula Alkanes have the molecular formula C n. Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons because each member of the family has the maximum

More information

The dipolar nature of acids

The dipolar nature of acids I. Introduction arboxylic Acid Structure and hemistry: Part 1 Jack Deuiter arboxylic acids are hydrocarbon derivatives containing a carboxyl () moiety. ecall that carbon has four valence electrons and

More information

CHEM 121 Chapter 13. Name: Date:

CHEM 121 Chapter 13. Name: Date: CHEM 121 Chapter 13. Name: Date: 1. The common feature found in all unsaturated hydrocarbons is A) one or more carbon-carbon double bonds. B) one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds. C) one or more carbon-carbon

More information

II cm -1. Carbon hydrogen bonds absorb here. Alkanes absorb cm-1, Akene C-H cm-1 Aromatic C-H shorter and spikey

II cm -1. Carbon hydrogen bonds absorb here. Alkanes absorb cm-1, Akene C-H cm-1 Aromatic C-H shorter and spikey How to Interpret an IR Spectrum The IR may be broken down into 5 distinct regions. I. 3100-3600cm -1. Alcohols, Carboxylic Acids, Amines and Terminal Alkynes absorb here. The shape and exact location of

More information