INDEX TOC. Dressing Percentage in Slaughter Cattle. Alberta Agriculture Market Specialists. Introduction. Dressing Percentage in Perspective

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1 TOC INDEX Feeder Associations of Alberta Ltd. Dressing Percentage in Slaughter Cattle Alberta Agriculture Market Specialists Introduction Dressing Percentage in Perspective The decision to market cattle is predominantly based on price but there are other variables such as dressing percentage which influence an animal s value. A basic knowledge of dressing percentage is important in understanding the pricing system and its variability. This module explains why the livestock industry is interested in dressing percentage and discusses the factors affecting it. Dressing percentage is calculated by dividing the warm carcass weight by the shrunk live weight of the animal, and expressing it as a percentage. For example, an animal delivered to the packing plant weighs 1200 pounds. After being killed the hide, head, feet and gut are removed. The carcass then weighs 700 pounds. The dressing per cent of this animal would be 700 divided by 1200 multiplied by 100 or 58.3 per cent. This figure represents the meat and skeletal portion of an animal relative to its live weight. Note that the animal is weighed after transportation to the packing plant so that live weight is a shrunk weight and that the carcass is weighed warm as opposed to cold. (see How Shrinkage Affects Returns for Feeder and Slaughter Cattle). Cold carcass dressing percentages can be 2.0 per cent lower than warm carcass dressing percentages. The industry is interested in the dressing percentage because it establishes the weight upon which payment is calculated for animals sold on a live weight basis. For example, a 0.5 per cent difference in the dressing percentage between steer A and B in Table 1, results in a \$9.00 difference per animal. The higher yielding steer is worth an extra \$0.75 per cwt on a live weight basis. A higher dressing percentage will not always yield higher dollar returns, so dressing percentages should be viewed in relation to other carcass quality factors. For example, a yield grade (YG) 3 steer carcass could have a dressing percentage that is 1.5 per cent higher than an A1 steer carcass. Because the Alberta Feedlot Management Guide 4P1:1

2 Table 1. Effect of Dressing Percentages on Animal Value Steer A B Calculation Method Shrunk liveweight, lb Delivered to plant weight Warm carcass weight, lb Dressing per cent 58.3% 57.8% (Warm carcass weight liveweight) x 100 Carcass price, \$/lb \$1.50 \$1.50 Total value per head \$ \$ Carcass weight x carcass price Live price per cwt \$87.50 \$86.75 Value per head liveweight industry does not want over fat carcasses, prices will be discounted. Therefore, even though the dressing percentage is higher and the carcass weight is heavier, the total return could be less. This is illustrated in Table 2. Table 2. Effect of Changing Grade and Dressing Percent on Animal Value Steer Yield Grade 1 Yield Grade 3 Calculation Method Slaughter liveweight, lb Delivered to plant weight Warm carcass weight, lb Dressing per cent 58.5% 60.0% (Warm carcass weight liveweight) x100 Carcass price, \$/lb \$1.50 \$1.38¹ Total value per head \$ \$ Carcass weight x carcass price Live price per cwt \$87.75 \$82.95 Value per head liveweight ¹ \$0.12 discount for A3 Dressing percentages are highly variable because they are influenced by factors such as live weight, fat level, age, sex, diet, breed, distance trucked, and the type of market where cattle are sold. Effective Live Weight, Fat Level and Age on Dressing Percentage Dressing percentages increase as live weight or as fat depth increases in feedlot cattle (Table 1). As feedlot cattle get closer to finishing weights and condition, the amount of body fat increases at a faster rate than other body components, i.e., muscle, bone, hide, viscera, or gut contents. Body fat is deposited within the body cavity, within Alberta Feedlot Management Guide 4P1:2

3 the muscle or meat (known as marbling) and immediately under the hide. Since much of this body fat stays with the carcass at slaughter, increasing body fat results in higher dressing percentages. Breed effects Meaningful comparisons of dressing percentages among breeds are difficult to make without knowing the reasons for the differences. For example, one breed may typically have a higher dressing percentage because that breed tends to be fatter. If, however, body fat is trimmed off, then comparisons become meaningless. Dairy cattle commonly yield 3 per cent less in dressing percentage than beef cattle. Dairy cattle tend to lack both fatness and muscularity and as such will have a lower dressing percentage. A University of Alberta study suggested that rather than beef or dairy type influencing dressing percentages, it may be that the mature size has more of an influence. As mature body size increases, slaughter weight must increase if carcass composition is to remain similar. While dressing percentage differences can be related to mature size, there are other factors such as the weight of the hide, head, feet and viscera which have an impact. Breeds, such as Hereford or Simmental, which tend to have a heavier hide, head, feet and viscera will have a lower dressing percentage since these body parts are excluded from the carcass weight. By contrast, Angus or Limousin breeds tend to have higher dressing percentages because of the relatively smaller portion of their live weight is composed of hide, head, feet and viscera. Sex effects Heifers usually have a 1.5 to 2.0 per cent lower dressing percentage than steers at a similar fat level. Heifers tend to carry more waste fat in the udder, around the internal organs and on the carcass as a whole compared to steers. The difference in dressing percentage narrows as heifers become fatter than steers. Since heifers mature earlier, they are usually marketed 100 to 150 pounds lighter than steers. There is a risk that heifers are pregnant at the time of slaughter. Pregnant heifers have a lower dressing percentage than heifers which are not. The drop in dressing percentage relates to the size of the fetus, embryonic tissue and fluids. Alberta Feedlot Management Guide 4P1:3

4 Table 3. Relationship of Age, Liveweight, and Fat Level to Dressing Percentage. Slaughter age in days Shrunk liveweight, lb Warm carcass weight, lb Minimum fat level, cm Dressing per cent Source: University of Alberta At similar weights, steers have more thoracic, abdominal and kidney fat than bulls. Because fat distribution on steers and bulls differ, steers can be expected to have a lower dressing percentage than bulls at similar external fat levels. Diet effects Cattle on high roughage diets such as hay, silage or pasture have a lower dressing percentage than cattle on a high proportion grain diet, even if marketed at very similar fat levels. At the Lethbridge Research Station, the entire digestive tract of slaughtered steers was weighed. Gut fills as a percent of live weight was higher in steers on a hay diet than those on a grain diet. In this trial, steers on the grain diet had an 8 per cent higher dressing percentage than steers on the hay diet. But when carcass weights were based on body weights excluding gut fills, there was no difference between steers on either diet. Other studies have compared Charolais, Hereford and Limousin cross dairy steers on either fast gaining (mostly grain) or slow gaining (mostly roughage) rations. Dressing percentages averaged 2 per cent higher for the steers on fast gaining rations. Similarly, in another study, heifers fed ground alfalfa hay with or without barley grain compared to a 90 per cent barley grain diet showed dressing percentages increased as the grain level increased. A study at the University of Alberta also fed bulls and steers diets containing either 20, 50 or 80 per cent roughage and slaughtered the cattle at either 990 or 1265 pounds live weight Table 4. Effects of Diet on Dressing Percentage and Fat Depth. Treatment Number Dressing Fat Depth (%) (cm) Slaughter weight 990 lb 20% roughage % roughage % roughage Slaughter weight 1265 lb 20% roughage % roughage % roughage Source: University of Alberta (Table 4). Researchers found that dressing percentages deceased with increasing roughage levels in the diet. The reasons for the decrease were the increased gut fill and reduced amounts of carcass fat as the roughage level increased. Alberta Feedlot Management Guide 4P1:4

5 The Pembina Forage Association marketed 18 steers weighing from 995 to 1220 pounds directly off a grass pasture. The steers had been on pasture for approximately 100 days. All carcasses graded A1 except for one carcass which was discounted for being a dark cutter. The dressing percentages varied from 52.9 to 56.9 per cent with the average being 54.5 per cent. If feedlot finished steer carcasses dress from 57 to 59 per cent, then this data suggests there can be a 3.5 per cent reduction in dressing percentages of carcasses marketed directly from pasture. The number of days an animal spends in the feedlot on a high grain diet influences the dressing percentage. The feedlot industry suggests that even after a minimum 60 days in the feedlot, dressing percentages will be 2 per cent lower than for the more ideal 90 days. Cull cows marketed directly after weaning a calf may dress out between 48 and 51 per cent. These same cows, after a 60 day high energy feeding period, could have a dressing percentage as high as 53 to 55 per cent. Seasonal effects Dressing percentages will vary by 1.5 to 3 per cent throughout the year. The period of highest dressing percentages occurs from May through August. This is a period when feedlot conditions are dry, when calves have been on feed for an extended time, and when calves have a light hair coat. Dressing percentages start declining in September as hair coats on cattle gets thicker and more tag accumulates on the cattle. Also, yearlings that have been on the feedlot for only 60 to 80 days, start coming to market at this time. The lowest dressing percentages tend to occur in December and January. Marketings during this period consist largely of yearlings that have been in the feedlot for less than 100 days, and which have a heavy hair coat and accumulated tag. Dressing percentages increase through March and April as animals shed their winter hair coat and last year s calves begin coming to market. Last year s calves have been on higher grain diets for periods greater than 150 days. Any weather conditions that affect the hair coat of an animal can have an impact on that animal s dressing percentage. For example, rainy weather can dramatically lower dressing percentages, especially if the hair coat is thick. Alberta Feedlot Management Guide 4P1:5

6 Other factors Marketing procedures affect beef carcass yields. A feedlot that is 30 km from a packing plant can have lower dressing percentages than a feedlot 400 km from the plant. The difference in dressing percentages will be related to the difference in shrinkage that occurs while the animals are being transported (see How Shrinkage Affects Returns for Feeder and Slaughter Cattle). But, if the shrinkage is only gut shrinkage and not tissue or carcass shrinkage, then the difference in dressing percentages is not important for animals sold on a rail grade basis. Studies at the Lacombe Research Station demonstrated that slaughter weight steers and heifers which fast for 48 or 72 hours prior to slaughter had warm carcass yields nearly 1.0 to 1.5 per cent lower than equivalent cattle slaughtered after a 24 hour fast. This weight loss was attributed to losses in carcass lean, fat and water. Management practices such as quiet, efficient sorting and loading, time in transit, loading trucks to recommended weight and proper delivery time at the plant will help reduce the time cattle are without feed and the stress level for long haul animals. This ultimately increases the value of the animal. Other factors may affect carcass yield, but these are controlled by the packing plant rather than the feedlot; therefore, the producer price is not directly influenced by these practices. For example, intermittent cold water spray chilling can reduce carcass shrink by 0.7 to 1.5 per cent. Shrouding carcasses can reduce the loss to evaporation by 0.75 to 2.0 per cent. Even carcass spacing within coolers and the feeding of an electrolyte solution to the animal prior to slaughter has shown to influence carcass shrinkage. The dressing percentage of cattle marketed in Canada will differ from that of similar animals marketed in the United States. The US carcass weight includes the weight of the kidney, pelvic and heart fat which is not included in the Canadian carcass weight. Dressing percentages are, therefore, 2.5 to 3.0 per cent higher in the United States than in Canada (see Exporting Cattle to the United States). Summary The factors affecting dressing percentage are summarized in Table 5. These results will vary but they provide a general indication of the influence of these factors. Although dressing percentages are higher and the carcass weight heavier with A2 and A3 grades, this does not mean a higher return for the Alberta Feedlot Management Guide 4P1:6

7 Table 5. Example Dressing Percentages for Various Frame Sizes, Sexes and Grades. Grade Frame Sex (Weight) YG 1 YG 2 YG 3 Dressing Percentages Large Steer (1200 lb) Heifer (1050 lb) Medium Steer (1125 lb) Heifer (975 lb) Small Steer (1050 lb) Heifer (900 lb) Additional Information References animal. Dressing percentages are highly variable because they are influenced by factors such as days on feed, the season and the market where an animal is sold. Producers should record and analyze sale weights from feedlots to understand how these factors influence dressing percentages. Note: Dressing percentages given above decline by 2% for livestock on feed 60 days, by 1% for cattle on feed 80 days and are unchanged when cattle are on feed 100 days. On average the dressing percentages are 0.75% lower in March, April, September and October; are 1.5% lower in November, December, January and February. Livestock marketing in United States with a typical grade split of 30% Choice, 70% Select to 50% Choice, 50% Select will have a dressing percentage of 2.5% higher than grade A1/A2 and 3.0% higher than grade A2/A3. Dale Engstrom Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development at Edmonton Phone (780) Bailey, C.B.M Gut fill affects liveweight gains. Weekly Letter #2606, Lethbridge Research Station, Agriculture Canada. 2. Beacom, S.E A comparison of four system for finishing beef heifers. Research Report, Melfort Research Station, Agriculture Canada, p Berg, R.T. and R.M. Butterfield New concepts of cattle growth. Sydney University Press. Press Bldg., University of Sydney, Australia. 4. Fahmy, M.H Performance of crossbred beef and dairy steers finished on fast and slow gain feeding regimes. Ag. Can. Canadex publication Johnson, R.D., M.C. Hunt, D.M. Allen, C.L. Kastner, R.J. Danler, and C.C. Shrock Moisture uptake during washing and spray chilling of Holstein and beef type steer carcasses. J. Anim. Sci. 66: Alberta Feedlot Management Guide 4P1:7

8 6. Jones, S.D.M., M.A. Price, and G.W. Mathison The effects of dietary roughage level on the growth and productivity of intensively fed bulls. 57th Annual University of Alberta Feeders Day Report, p Jones, S.D.M., J.A. Newman, A.K.W. Tong, A.H. Martin, and W.M. Robertson Feedlot performance, carcass composition and efficiency of muscle gain in bulls and steers difference mature size slaughtered at similar levels of fatness. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 64: Jones, S.D.M., A.L. Schaeffer, A.K.W. Tong, and B.C. Vincent The effects of fasting and transportation on beef cattle. 2. Body component changes, carcass composition and meat quality. Livestock Prod n Sci. 20: Price, M.A Dressing Percent - What does it mean. Ag. Can. Canadex publication Price, M.A The effects of increasing market weight on beef production. 56th Annual University of Alberta Feeders Day Report, p Schaeffer, A.L., S.D.M. Jones, A.K.W. Tong and B.A. Young Effect of transport and electrolyte supplementation on ion concentration, carcass yield and quality in bulls. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 70:107. Alberta Feedlot Management Guide 4P1:8

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