1 Chest X-ray Interpretation for the Clinician Karen Laframboise Associate Professor of Medicine Division of Respirology, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine University of Saskatchewan
2 Chest X-ray Interpretation Objectives: 1) To review basic anatomy seen on the plain chest x-ray. 2) Discuss an approach to common chest x-ray presentations seen in common lung diseases. 3) Discuss uncommon chest x-ray presentations in lung diseases (common and uncommon). 4) Discuss an approach to chest x-ray interpretation in the critically ill patient.
3 CXR Interpretation for the Clinician Pearls of Wisdom Previous/prior CXRs are invaluable in aiding the interpretation, if possible have them available when looking at the current CXR. The knowledge of the patient s history and physical findings by the reader is very helpful. The hardest CXR to read? Normal CXR! Read 100s of CXRs. Read the CXR of every patient you see! Never accept the reading of Normal CXR without viewing it yourself! Don t read the radiologist s report before looking at the CXR. Look at each one as a test. Describe to yourself what you see before thinking of the differential diagnosis.
4 Reading a CXR Begin ~ 6 away and then move closer Don t stop with the first abnormality you see Directed systematic visual approach Non-mnemonic way to review whole CXR: Lung parenchyma and airways Mediastinum Chest wall including; ribs, diaphragms, pleura, vertebrae, all extrathoracic structures. If ICU/CCU patient, lines and tubes first.
5 Approach to the CXR: Technical Aspects Name of patient, date Type of film and position markers: PA vs AP/ Right vs Left Patients position: Upright or erect/ semi erect/ supine/ lateral etc. Technical Quality: Penetration/exposure Lung volumes Foreign objects: lines, tubes, drains, ECG leads. Non-medical objects; bullets, glass, etc.
6 Approach to the CXR: Technical Aspects Positioning/Rotation: - medial clavicle heads equidistant to the spinous process Lung volumes: 6 ribs anteriorly (5 to 7), 9 to 10 posteriorly Penetration/Exposure: - thoracic intervertebral disc space just visible (looking through the heart)
7 Chest Xray Technical Aspects PA film minimizes magnification of the cardiac silhouette/shadow. AP view magnifies the clavicles, sternum and mediastinal structures (heart, aorta, pulmonary vessels. Supine position widens the heart and mediastinum and changes the normal physiology of the pulmonary blood flow.
11 Thoracic Imaging Strategies Approach to image interpretation What is the expected normal and variant anatomy? Is something absent? Is there some additional structure present? Look at the bones and soft tissues Look at the heart and mediastinum Look at the lungs and pleura Look at the airways Look at the diaphragms and upper abdomen
12 Normal PA and Lateral Film
13 Look at the bones Examine scapulae, humeri, shoulder joints, clavicles, ribs and spine for symmetry Identify the 1 st rib by its anterior junction with the manubrium then count down the posterior ribs The location of an abnormal shadow can be described by its proximity to a particular rib or interspace
14 Survey the soft tissues Breast tissues (if applicable) Skin Supraclavicular areas Axillae Subcutaneous fat Muscles Which film is that of a woman?
17 What happened to this patient? Notice the asymmetry of the left breast shadow relative to the right and the surgical clips in the left axilla Diagnosis: Left breast cancer treated with lumpectomy and axillary node dissection
18 Subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum Notice the air within the right lateral soft tissues and in the supraclavicular region. There are also linear streaks of air outlining the mediastinal structures.
19 What s wrong with this radiograph?
20 What s wrong with this radiograph? Notice the absence of both clavicles. The heart and aortic arch are also on the right side (situs inversus), a congenital variant.
22 Normal Anatomy: Lateral Heart Aorta Pulmonary arteries Airways Spine
23 Heart and Mediastinum Three bumps on left side (PA view): aorta, main pulmonary artery and LV if more think of adenopathy or LA enlargement Superior mediastinum (at level of aortic knob) < 8cm Right paratracheal stripe < 0.5 cm The width of the adult heart should be < half the greatest thoracic diameter measured from inside the rib cage at its widest point near the level of the diaphragm.
25 Cardiac enlargement on plain film Small bronhus with rim of soft tissue opacity = peribronchiolar cuffing = fluid in the central pulmonary lobule Signs of congestive heart failure include indistinct pulmonary vessels, peribronchiolar cuffing, and interstitial Kerley lines; often accompanied by cardiac enlargement and pleural effusions
27 Hilar Enlargement Due to either enlarged vessels, lymph nodes, or presence of abnormal mass Enlarged vessel pulmonary hypertension Enlarged lymph node infection, inflammation, malignancy Abnormal mass usually mediastinal pathology
28 Lymphadenopathy Non-specific presentations: mediastinal widening hilar prominence Specific patterns: particular station enlargement
32 AP Window LAN
33 Pulmonary Hypertension
39 Vasculature Well-defined branching structures in the lung parenchyma Taper to the periphery, but are only faintly visible in this location On upright PA films upper zone vessels are smaller than lower zone vessels this finding cannot be used in supine portable films where vessels are the same size.
41 Chest Radiographic Patterns of Disease Air space opacity Interstitial opacity Nodules and masses Lymphadenopathy Cysts and cavities Lung volumes Pleural diseases
42 Chest Radiographic Patterns of Disease Cardiomediastinal contour abnormalities Bone and soft tissue abnormalities Below the diaphragm: abdominal and retroperitoneal disease
44 Pathology - Pattern Recognition Many radiographic findings are not specific for a disease process Several findings in combination are usually more helpful In most cases a differential will still exist, but can be aided by the clinical examination.
45 Air Space Opacity Components: air bronchogram: air-filled bronchus surrounded by airless lung confluent opacity extending to pleural surfaces segmental distribution
46 Air Space Opacity: DDX Blood (hemorrhage) Pus (pneumonia) Water (edema) hydrostatic or non-cardiogenic Cells (tumor) Protein/fat: alveolar proteinosis and lipoid pneumonia
48 Silhouette Sign Loss of the expected interface normally created by juxtaposition of two structures of different density No boundary can be seen between two structures of similar density
54 Nodules and Masses Nodule: any pulmonary lesion represented in a radiograph by a sharply defined, discrete, nearly circular opacity 2-30 mm in diameter Mass: larger than 3 cm Miliary: < 3 mm
55 Lung Nodules and Masses Assumed malignant until proven otherwise Important features Patient s age Smoking status Size of lesion Stability of lesion Presence of calcification Border features Other causes include benign tumors, inflammatory granulomas, AVMs, hamartomas, sequestration, septic emboli
56 Nodules and Masses Definition: sharply defined, intermediate, poorly defined Shape: round, ovoid, lobular, irregular Contour: smooth, intermediate, spiculated Density: ground glass opacity, mixed, solid Size Location: central vs peripheral, subpleural/perifissural, perivascular, peribronchial, apical, diaphragmatic Calcification: present/absent, distribution (bullseye, popcorn, laminated diffuse (solid) vs eccentric
57 Well-Defined Calcification Ill-Defined Mass
58 Pleural Disease: Basic Patterns Effusion angle blunting to massive mobility Thickening distortion, no mobility Mass Air Calcification
59 Pleural Effusion If free will localize to the dependant portions Cannot differentiate transudate, exudate, malignancy, empyema, etc. unless associated findings Unless shown to move, usually cannot differentiate from pleural thickening/masses on radiographs
60 Pleural Effusion Lateral: May see > 100 cc homogeneous opacification of the posterior costophrenic angle Superior concave meniscus If lateral normal, a clinically significant effusion is excluded
61 Pleural Effusion PA film May see > 175 cc, usually cc Obliteration of costophrenic/cardiophrenic angles Meniscus convex toward the lung
62 Pleural Effusion Supine: Seen when > 500 cc Opacification of lateral costophrenic angles Generalized density/haziness to hemithorax obscured diaphragm contour Will still see well-defined vessels if mildmoderate in size (not in consolidation or atelectasis)
66 Lines and Tubes Endotracheal tube should sit a minimum of 2 cm above the carina. Mid-trachea, T4 6, below the clavicles. With flexion and extension the ETT can move 2 to 3 cm.
89 Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Disease Or Interstitial Lung Diseases Idiopathic Interstitial pneumonias Connective Tissue Diseases Occupational and Environmental Exposures Drug-Induced Lung Injury Other Systemic Disorders
101 Diffuse Lung Disease Infection: > than 40 causes Drugs: > 50 causes Air space/edema: cardiogenic or noncardiogenic: > 30 or more causes Inflammatory: Sarcoidosis, Hypereosinophilic Syndromes, vasculitides CTD: ~ 10 causes Occupational/hypersensitivi ty pneumonitis: > 50 causes Pulmonary hemorrhage: Good Pasture s, idiopathic hemosiderosis, others Interstitial pneumonias: DIP/RB-ILD, NSIP, AIP, LIP, UIP, IIP, COP Malignancy/lymphoprolifera tive disorders Miscellaneous: Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, LAM, LCH (Histiocytosis X), CF, alveolar microlithiasis, tuberous sclerosis, etc.
103 CXR Interpretation Summary Practice and repetition. Speak with your Radiologist. Prior CXRs are very useful! Plain CXR is the starting point, findings on the CXR will direct you towards further imaging. Some diseases have certain CXR patterns, but this is not written in stone! Always keep the patient clinical presenting features in mind when coming up with your differential diagnosis.
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