STRAIGHT CHAIN ALKANES

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1 ydrocarbons are compounds containing only and Also known as saturated hydrocarbons all - bonds are an be found in straight chain form, but also have rings and branches STRAIGT AIN ALKANES ave the general formula: n 2n+2 Bond angle between carbon based bonds in the chain are ( arrangement) The physical arrangement or configuration of a straight chain alkane is a zig-zag Table 1: Straight hain Alkanes from Methane to Decane # of arbon atoms hemical Formula Structural formula Schematic formula 3D View Name Boiling Point ( o ) methane -162 ethane propane butane pentane hexane heptane octane nonane decane 174

2 STRUTURAL ISOMERS AND BRANES Some hydrocarbons contain one or more hydrocarbon branches that are attached in the main structure of the molecule. The branch is called an alkyl group. The naming of alkyl groups usually contain a prefix (indicating the number of carbons in the branch) followed by the yl suffix. These branches (and others) that would normally replace a hydrogen in an organic molecule are called substituent groups Structural isomers are compounds that contain the same molecular formula, but have a different structure or arrangement of atoms. 2,2-dimethylpropane 2-methylbutane pentane 3 ( 3 ) ( 3 ) Table 2: Branches of Alkyl Groups Methyl - 3 Ethyl Propyl Isopropyl 3-3 OR 3 3 Butyl Sec-Butyl OR NAMING ALKANES 1. Find and name the longest continuous carbon chain (parent chain). It does not have to be straight. This gives the root name. 2. Identify and name groups attached to this chain (branches). 3. Number the chain consecutively, starting at the end nearest a substituent group (branching alkyl- group). 4. Designate the location of each substituent group by an appropriate number and name. 5. Assemble the name, listing groups in alphabetical order. The prefixes di, tri, tetra etc., used to designate several groups of the same kind, are not considered when alphabetizing.

3 Example: DRAWING ALKANES Example 1: 2,3-dimethylhexane 1. Identify the root and suffix of the name hexane. ex- tells us 6 carbons and ane tells us that the compound is an alkane. 2. Draw the main chain in a straight line. 3. hoose one end of the chain to be carbon #1. Find the carbon atoms where branches should be added. There is one methyl branch on carbon #2 and another methyl branch on carbon #3. 4. Add the appropriate number of hydrogens beside each carbon. Each carbon has a valence of 4 and can form a maximum of 4 bonds. Example 2: 4-ethyl-3,5-dimethylnonane Example: 3: 7-ethyl-2-methyl-4-secbutyldecane

4 YLOALKANES These are alkanes that are closed and have no ends they are in a cyclic shape The simplest cycloalkane is it looks like an equilateral triangle (bond angle = ) For drawing cycloalkanes, use can use line diagrams, where the bonds between carbons, are shown as a straight lines Each point between the lines is a carbon atoms, but hydrogen atoms are not shown ere are four basic shapes: cyclopropane cyclobutane cyclopentane cyclohexane NAMING YLOALKANES 1. The name of the ring is preceded by the cyclo and the prefix that indicates the number of carbon atoms in the ring ending in -ane, -ene, -yne 2. A multiple bond gets priority for the lowest number 3. Alkyl groups are numbered so that each must have the lowest possible position number, alphabetically. You can count in any direction around the ring. Examples: 3 ere, since only one carbon has a branch attached to the ring, this is considered carbon #1. TIS IS 1-methylcyclobutane 3 This is 1,2-dimethylcyclobutane 3 3 In the case of two or more branches, each should have the lowest position number. 1-ethyl-1,2-dimethylcyclobutane DRAWING YLOALKANES Example: 1-ethyl-2-propylcyclobutane

5 PROPERTIES OF ALKANES Elements making up alkanes: carbon and hydrogen have The bonds are These molecules tend to be The predominant forces between alkanes are the very weak Alkanes have low and The the chain of an alkane, the the melting and boiling points REATIONS OF ALKANES Generally unreactive and are used as lubricating materials and structural materials Alkanes and other hydrocarbons undergo complete combustion the product being a large amount of energy, and 4 10(g) + O 2(g) O 2(g) + 2 O (g) + thermal energy Smaller alkanes are very flammable, because the temperature at which they vaporize is much lower, and therefore they are easier to ignite ALKYL ALIDES Named by writing the root of the halogen name first followed by the o suffix When halogens are added to hydrocarbons they make the molecule more polar because of their The polarity of the molecule increases the number of The melting points and boiling points of alkyl halides are than alkanes of similar structure Methane-like molecules with chlorine and fluorine are called are damaging to the ozone layer, but have been used as collant fluids in fridges and air conditioners Alkyl halides are formed from substitution reactions 4 + l 2 3 l + l 3 l + l 2 2 l 2 + l 2 l 2 + l l 3 + l l 3 + l l 4 + l Examples of Alkyl alides OMEWORK: Read Pages 8-16 and do Practice #1-2 on Page 14 and Questions #1-9 on Page 17 (Also Explain Fractional Distillation)

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