Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes. Organic Chemistry Organic Compounds. Organic vs. Inorganic.

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes. Organic Chemistry. 10.1 Organic Compounds. Organic vs. Inorganic."

Transcription

1 Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes 10.1 Organic Compounds Organic Chemistry An organic compound is a compound made from carbon atoms. has one or more C atoms. has many H atoms. may also contain O, S, N, and halogens. 1 2 Organic Compounds Organic vs. Inorganic Typical organic compounds have covalent bonds. have low melting points. have low boiling points. are flammable. are soluble in nonpolar solvents. are not soluble in water. oil (organic) and water (inorganic) Propane, C 3 H 8, is an organic compound used as a fuel. NaCl, salt, is an inorganic compound composed of Na + and Cl ions. Why is propane organic, but NaCl is not? 3 4 Comparing Organic and Inorganic Compounds Identify each characteristic as most typical of compounds that are 1) inorganic or 2) organic. A. has a high melting point. B. is not soluble in water. C. has a formula CH 3 CH 2 CH 3. D. has a formula MgCl 2. E. burns easily in air. F. has covalent bonds. 5 6

2 Solution Identify each characteristic as most typical of compounds that are 1) inorganic or 2) organic. 1 A. has a high melting point. 2 B. is not soluble in water. 2 C. has a formula CH 3 CH 2 CH 3. 1 D. has a formula MgCl 2. 2 E. burns easily in air. 2 F. has covalent bonds. Writing Formulas for Alkanes In organic compounds, carbon has 4 valence electrons and hydrogen has 1. C H carbon achieves an octet by forming four bonds. H H H : C : H H C H H H CH 4, methane 7 8 Tetrahedral Structure of Carbon Organic Molecules VSEPR theory predicts that a carbon atom with four single, covalent bonds has a tetrahedral shape. In organic molecules, valence electrons are shared. covalent bonds form between carbon atoms. H H H H H : C : C : H H C C H H H H H Ethane, CH 3 CH Tetrahedral Structure of Carbon In molecules with two or more carbon atoms, each carbon atom with four single bonds has a tetrahedral shape. Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes 10.2 Alkanes 11 12

3 Structural Formulas Expanded and Condensed Structures Alkanes are written with structural formulas that are expanded to show each bond. condensed to show each carbon atom and its attached hydrogen atoms. Expanded H Condensed H C H CH 4, methane H Structural Formulas Condensed formulas are written for expanded structural formula by showing each carbon and the attached hydrogen atoms. Expanded Condensed H H H H H C C C C H CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 H H H H Names of Alkanes The names of alkanes are determined by the IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) system. end in ane. with 1-4 carbons in a chain use prefixes as follows: Name # Carbons Condensed Structural Formula Methane 1 CH 4 Ethane 2 CH 3 CH 3 Propane 3 CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 Butane 4 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH Names of Alkanes Alkanes with 5-10 carbon atoms in a chain use Greek prefixes. Name # Carbons Structural Formula Pentane 5 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 Hexane 6 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 Heptane 7 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 Octane 8 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 Nonane 9 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 Decane 10 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 A. Write the condensed formula for: H H H H H H C C C C C H H H H H H B. What is its molecular formula? C. What is its name? 17 18

4 Solution Writing Structural Formulas A. CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 B. C 5 H 12 C. pentane Carbon atoms in a chain maintain tetrahedral shape. are connected in a zigzag pattern. are drawn as 2-dimensional. can be written in several conformations Some Structures for Butane Hexane Has Six Carbon Atoms Hexane is an alkane with six carbon atoms in a continuous chain. has a zigzag look because each carbon atom is at the center of a tetrahedron. is represented by a ball-and-stick model as shown below Solution Write the condensed structural formula for A. ethane. Write the condensed structural formula for A. ethane CH 3 CH 3 B. heptane. B. heptane CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH

5 Cycloalkanes Cycloalkanes Cycloalkanes The structural formulas of cycloalkanes are usually represented by geometric figures. are cyclic alkanes. have two hydrogen atoms fewer than the open chain. are named by using the prefix cyclo- before the name of the alkane chain with the same number of carbon atoms More Cycloalkanes Name the following. A. CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 B. C. CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 D Solution Name the following: A. CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 butane Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes 10.3 Alkanes with Substituents B. cyclopropane C. CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 octane D. cyclohexane 29 30

6 Isomers of Butane Isomers have the same molecular formula. have different atom arrangements. of butane (C 4 H 10 ) are a straight chain and a branched chain. Alkyl groups Alkyl groups are alkanes that are missing one H. substituents attached to carbon chains. named with a yl ending. CH 3 methyl CH 3 CH 2 ethyl Naming Substituents Guide to Naming Alkanes In the IUPAC system, a carbon branch is named as an alkyl group. halogen atoms are named as halo Alkanes with Substituents Naming Alkanes CH 3 Give the name of CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH CH 3 methylpropane methyl groups CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH CH 2 CH CH 3 2,4-dimethylpentane STEP 1: CH 3 CH CH CH 3 Name the longest continuous chain. CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH CH CH 3 butane 35 36

7 Naming Alkanes Give the name of CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH CH CH 3 STEP 2: Number chain. CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH CH CH STEP 3: Locate substituents and name. 2,3-dimethylbutane Write the name of Cl CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CH CH CH Solution STEP 1: Longest chain is pentane. Give the IUPAC name for each of the following: STEP 2: STEP 3: Number chain from end nearest substituent. Cl CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CH CH CH Locate substituents and name alphabetically. 3-chloro-2-methylpentane A. CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH CH 2 CH CH 3 B. Cl CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CH CH 2 C CH 2 CH 3 Cl Solution Guide to Drawing Alkane Formulas A. CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH CH 2 CH CH ,4-dimethylpentane B. Cl CH 3 more substituents on C3 CH 3 CH 2 CH CH 2 C CH 2 CH 3 Cl ,5-dichloro-3-methylheptane 41 42

8 Draw the condensed structural formula for 3-bromo-1-chlorobutane. Solution 3-bromo-1-chlorobutane STEP 1: Longest chain has 4 carbon atoms. C C C C STEP 2: Number chain and add substituents. Br C C C C Cl STEP 3: Add hydrogen to complete 4 bonds to each C. Br CH 3 CH CH 2 CH 2 Cl Naming Cycloalkanes with Substituents The name of a substituent is placed in front of the cycloalkane name. Name each of the following. 1. CH 3 methylcyclobutane CH 3 chlorocyclopentane Cl 2. CH 2 CH Solution Name each of the following. 1. methylcyclopropane Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes 10.4 Properties of Alkanes 2. ethylcyclohexane 47 48

9 Some Properties of Alkanes Some Properties of Alkanes Alkanes are nonpolar. insoluble in water. less dense than water. flammable in air. Alkanes with 1-4 carbon atoms are methane, ethane, propane, and butane. gases at room temperature. used as heating fuels Some Properties of Alkanes Some Properties of Alkanes Alkanes with 5-8 carbon atoms are liquids at room temperature. pentane, hexane, heptane, and octane. very volatile. used to make gasoline. Alkanes with 18 or more carbon atoms have high molar masses. are waxy solids at room temperature. used in waxy coatings of fruits and vegetables. Alkanes with 9-17 carbon atoms are liquids at room temperature have higher boiling points. are found in kerosene, diesel, and jet fuels Combustion In combustion reactions, alkanes react with oxygen. CO 2, H 2 O, and energy are produced. Alkane + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + heat Write a balanced equation for the complete combustion of propane

10 Solution Unbalanced equation C 3 H 8 + O 2 Balance C C 3 H 8 + O 2 Balance H C 3 H 8 + O 2 Balance O C 3 H 8 + 5O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O 3CO 2 + H 2 O 3CO 2 + 4H 2 O 3CO 2 + 4H 2 O (Balanced) Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes 10.5 Functional Groups Elements in Organic Compounds Functional Groups In organic molecules, carbon atoms bond with four bonds. mostly with H and other C atoms. sometimes to O, N, S. sometimes to halogens F, Cl, and Br. Functional groups are a characteristic feature of organic molecules that behave in a predictable way. composed of an atom or group of atoms. groups that replace a hydrogen atom in the corresponding alkane. a way to classify families of organic compounds Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Compounds Comparing Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Compounds Alkenes contain a double bond between adjacent carbon atoms. Alkynes contain a triple bond. Aromatic compounds contain a ring of six carbon atoms called benzene

11 Alcohols and Ethers Aldehydes and Ketones An alcohol contains the hydroxyl (-OH) functional group. A thiol contains the thiol (-SH) functional group. An ether contains an oxygen atom bonded to two carbon atoms. An aldehyde contains a carbonyl group (C=O), which is a carbon atom with a double bond to an oxygen atom. The carbonyl is attached to a hydrogen. In a ketone, the carbon of the carbonyl group (C=O) is attached to two carbon atoms. Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc, Carboxylic Acids and Esters Amines and Amides Carboxylic acids contain the carboxyl group, which is a carbonyl group attached to a hydroxyl group. O C OH An ester contains the carboxyl group between carbon atoms. In amines, the functional group is a nitrogen atom. N In amides, the hydroxyl group of a carboxylic acid is replaced by a nitrogen group. Amines An amide Summary of Functional Groups Classify each of the following as: alcohol, ether, aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, amine, or amide. 1) CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OH 2) CH 3 O CH 2 CH 3 3) CH 3 CH 2 NH 2 O O 4) CH 3 C OH 5) CH 3 C O CH

12 Solution 1) CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OH alcohol 2) CH 3 O CH 2 CH 3 ether 3) CH 3 CH 2 NH 2 amine O O 4) CH 3 C OH 5) CH 3 C O CH 3 carboxylic acid ester 67

Chapter: Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes

Chapter: Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes Chapter: Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes Organic Chemistry An organic compound is a compound made from carbon atoms. has one or more C atoms. has many H atoms. may also contain O, S, N, and

More information

Chapter 11 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes

Chapter 11 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes Chapter 11 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes 11.1 Organic Compounds Copyright 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 1 Organic Compounds An organic compound Is a compound

More information

Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes

Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes hapter 10 Introduction to Organic hemistry: Alkanes 1 Organic hemistry An organic compound is a compound made from carbon atoms has one or more atoms has many atoms may also contain O, S, N, and halogens

More information

Last Time: Neutralization Equations

Last Time: Neutralization Equations Announcements & Agenda (0/8/07) You should be reading Ch 10! and Ch 11! Open review today @ pm! Quiz on Friday! Today Introduction to Organic Chemistry (10.1) Alkanes (10.), Properties of Alkanes (10.4)

More information

Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes. Chemistry: An Introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, Eleventh Edition

Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes. Chemistry: An Introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, Eleventh Edition 1 hapter 10 Introduction to Organic hemistry: Alkanes Organic hemistry and Organic ompounds 2 An organic compound is a compound made from carbon atoms has one or more atoms has many atoms may also contain

More information

Chapter 11 Organic Chemistry. The study of the compounds of carbon

Chapter 11 Organic Chemistry. The study of the compounds of carbon Chapter 11 Organic Chemistry The study of the compounds of carbon Some Properties Typical of Organic Compounds Organic compounds form covalent bonds have low melting points and boiling points tend to be

More information

Monday, September 10th

Monday, September 10th Monday, September 10th Review Chapter 11 iclicker Quiz #1 Chapter 12 Chapter 13(maybe) Group assignment Keep checking the class webpage at www.bhsu.edu/danasunskis. Go to the course tab then CHEM107 Lecture

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. CHM 210 Chemistry Homework #6 Alkanes (Ch. 10) Due: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Compounds that have the same molecular formula

More information

2. Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Cycloalkanes. Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition, Chapter 3

2. Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Cycloalkanes. Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition, Chapter 3 2. Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Cycloalkanes Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition, Chapter 3 Families of Organic Compounds Organic compounds can be grouped into families by their common

More information

AP Chemistry Chapter 22 - Organic Chemistry

AP Chemistry Chapter 22 - Organic Chemistry AP Chemistry Chapter - Organic Chemistry.1 Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons A. Straight-chain Hydrocarbons 1. Straight-chain alkanes have the formula C n H n+. Carbons are sp hybridized The First 10 Alkanes

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) All of the following statements are general properties of organic compounds except The bonds are

More information

AP Chemistry Chapter 22 - Organic and Biological Molecules

AP Chemistry Chapter 22 - Organic and Biological Molecules AP Chemistry Chapter - Organic and Biological Molecules.1 Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons A. Straight-chain Hydrocarbons 1. Straight-chain alkanes have the formula C n H n+. Carbons are sp hybridized The

More information

Alkanes. Chapter 1.1

Alkanes. Chapter 1.1 Alkanes Chapter 1.1 Organic Chemistry The study of carbon-containing compounds and their properties What s so special about carbon? Carbon has 4 bonding electrons. Thus, it can form 4 strong covalent bonds

More information

Organic Chemistry Chapter Assignment & Problem Set

Organic Chemistry Chapter Assignment & Problem Set Name Warm-Ups (Show your work for credit) Date 1. Date 2. Date 3. Date 4. Date 5. Date 6. Date 7. Date 8. 2 Study Guide: Things You Must Know Vocabulary (know the definition and what it means): organic

More information

Show the bonding patterns and the approximate shapes of the molecules Each covalent bond is represented by a between atoms

Show the bonding patterns and the approximate shapes of the molecules Each covalent bond is represented by a between atoms PACKET 10: ORGANIC CHEMISTRY The study of and its compounds Carbon atoms form bonds not only with atoms of other elements, but they also form bonds with other carbon atoms. The number of organic compounds

More information

Unit Vocabulary: o Organic Acid o Alcohol. o Ester o Ether. o Amine o Aldehyde

Unit Vocabulary: o Organic Acid o Alcohol. o Ester o Ether. o Amine o Aldehyde Unit Vocabulary: Addition rxn Esterification Polymer Alcohol Ether Polymerization Aldehyde Fermentation Primary Alkane Functional group Saponification Alkene Halide (halocarbon) Saturated hydrocarbon Alkyne

More information

Announcements & Agenda (02/26/07)

Announcements & Agenda (02/26/07) Announcements & Agenda (02/26/07) You should be reading Ch 10! Quiz on Friday! Today Acid & base reactions (8.6) Conjugate acids & bases (8.2), buffers (8.7) Introduction to Organic Chemistry (Ch 10) 1

More information

Chapter 25 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Chemistry. 25.1 Some General Characteristics of Organic Molecules

Chapter 25 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Chemistry. 25.1 Some General Characteristics of Organic Molecules Chapter 25 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Chemistry general characteristics of organic molecules introduction to hydrocarbons alkanes unsaturated hydrocarbons functional groups: alcohols and ethers compounds

More information

Nomenclature International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC)

Nomenclature International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) Nomenclature International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) I. Alkanes A. Alkanes: Simple-Chain Alkanes consist of only hydrogen and carbon molecules and are known to be the simplest type of

More information

Functional group - collection of atoms at a site within a molecule with a common bonding pattern The group reacts in a typical way, generally

Functional group - collection of atoms at a site within a molecule with a common bonding pattern The group reacts in a typical way, generally Functional Groups Functional group - collection of atoms at a site within a molecule with a common bonding pattern The group reacts in a typical way, generally independent of the rest of the molecule For

More information

Nomenclature of organic compounds

Nomenclature of organic compounds P.1 Nomenclature of organic compounds A. Alkanes (C n H 2n+2 ) i. The following table give the names of some root names different number of carbon atoms of hydrocarbon. CH 4 methane C 6 H 14 hexane C 2

More information

SAMPLE PROBLEM Naming Alcohols SOLUTION. STUDY CHECK Give the IUPAC name for the following: Give the IUPAC name for the following:

SAMPLE PROBLEM Naming Alcohols SOLUTION. STUDY CHECK Give the IUPAC name for the following: Give the IUPAC name for the following: Naming Alcohols Give the IUPAC name for the following: SAMPLE PROBLEM 13.1 STEP 1 Name the longest carbon chain containing the OH group. The parent chain is pentane; the alcohol is named pentanol. STEP

More information

Chapter 11 Organic Compounds: Alkanes

Chapter 11 Organic Compounds: Alkanes Spencer L. Seager Michael R. Slabaugh www.cengage.com/chemistry/seager Chapter 11 Organic Compounds: Alkanes Jennifer P. Harris ORGANIC COMPOUNDS In 1828, Friedrich Wöhler first synthesized an organic

More information

HISTORY OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

HISTORY OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY HISTORY OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY In the early days of chemistry, scientists classified chemical substances into 2 groups: 1. Inorganic: those that were composed of minerals, such as rocks and nonliving matter.

More information

The Nature of Organic Molecules

The Nature of Organic Molecules The Nature of Organic Molecules Organic chemistry: The study of carbon compounds. Carbon is tetravalent; it always forms four bonds. In methane carbon is connected to four hydrogen atoms. Copyright 2010

More information

Last Time: Alkanes (C n H 2n+2 ) Last Time: Organic Compounds. Last Time: Intermolecular Forces- BP Increases w/ Increasing Size

Last Time: Alkanes (C n H 2n+2 ) Last Time: Organic Compounds. Last Time: Intermolecular Forces- BP Increases w/ Increasing Size Announcements & Agenda (0/02/07) Welcome Visitors! Please make yourselves comfortable; we will start with a quiz Mid-term grades are only based on lecture I will give you detailed grade sheets on Monday

More information

CORE ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

CORE ORGANIC CHEMISTRY MODULE 4 CORE ORGANIC CHEMISTRY CHEMISTRY NOTES I have designed and compiled these beautiful notes to provide a detailed but concise summary of this module. I have spent a lot of time perfecting the content

More information

HYDROCARBON COMPOUNDS

HYDROCARBON COMPOUNDS 22 HYDROCARBON COMPOUNDS SECTION 22.1 HYDROCARBONS (pages 693 701) This section describes the bonding in hydrocarbons and distinguishes straight-chain from branched-chain alkanes. It also provides rules

More information

9/20/2010. Functional Groups. Functional Groups. Functional Groups

9/20/2010. Functional Groups. Functional Groups. Functional Groups Functional Groups Functional group A given functional group behaves in nearly the same way in every molecule it is a part of The chemistry of every organic molecule, regardless of size and complexity,

More information

Organic Chemistry. Chapter 3 Saturated Hydrocarbons

Organic Chemistry. Chapter 3 Saturated Hydrocarbons Organic Chemistry Organic Chemistry Chapter 3 Saturated Hydrocarbons Organic Chemistry is an entire branch of chemistry because carbon can 1) 2) 3) Vital Force Theory origination of organic term 3.1 Molecular

More information

EXERCISES, LESSON 3 MD

EXERCISES, LESSON 3 MD EXERCISES, LESSN 3 INSTRUCTINS. Write the word, words, symbols, or numbers that properly completes the statement in the space provided or mark the correct word/phrase from those given. After you complete

More information

Chapter 2: Structure and Properties of Organic Molecules

Chapter 2: Structure and Properties of Organic Molecules Chapter 2: Structure and Properties of Organic Molecules Atomic Orbitals (2.1-2.5) Wave functions that represent the probability of finding electrons in a specific region of space s, p, d, f orbitals In

More information

Organic Chemistry. Hydrocarbons. Introduction to Organic Molecules. The simplest organic molecules containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms

Organic Chemistry. Hydrocarbons. Introduction to Organic Molecules. The simplest organic molecules containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms Introduction to Organic Molecules Organic Chemistry: (1828) Friedrich Wohler first synthesized an organic compound from an inorganic source leading to the birth of Organic Chemistry. Organic chemistry

More information

H 3 C CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3. Copyright 2012 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 1: Organic Compounds 1.1-1

H 3 C CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3. Copyright 2012 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 1: Organic Compounds 1.1-1 Section 1.1: Alkanes Mini Investigation: Arranging Carbon Atoms, page 10 A. Three different molecules of C 5 H 12 are possible. B. Five arrangements are possible for C 6 H 14, as predicted: H 3 C CH 2

More information

Chapter 3 Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Their Stereochemistry

Chapter 3 Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Their Stereochemistry John E. McMurry www.cengage.com/chemistry/mcmurry Chapter 3 Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Their Stereochemistry 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Learning Objectives (3.1) Functional groups

More information

Answers and Solutions to Text Problems

Answers and Solutions to Text Problems 12 Answers and Solutions to Text Problems 12.1 a. The formula C n H 2n + 2 indicates an alkane with a formula C 7 H 16. The formula C n H 2n + 2 indicates 2 (5) + 2 = 12 H atoms. The formula C n H 2n +

More information

CH102 Practice Exam #1 WAY longer than actual exam, answers are at the end

CH102 Practice Exam #1 WAY longer than actual exam, answers are at the end CH102 Practice Exam #1 WAY longer than actual exam, answers are at the end True/False Indicate whether the sentence or statement true or false. 1. Organic chemtry can be defined as the chemtry of carbon-containing

More information

Classifying Hydrocarbons

Classifying Hydrocarbons Classifying Hydrocarbons alkanes- single C-C bonds, if all C s have H s attached, molecules are called hydrocarbons alkenes- have one or more C=C bonds alkynes- have one or more CΞC bonds alkenes & alkynes

More information

STRAIGHT CHAIN ALKANES

STRAIGHT CHAIN ALKANES ydrocarbons are compounds containing only and Also known as saturated hydrocarbons all - bonds are an be found in straight chain form, but also have rings and branches STRAIGT AIN ALKANES ave the general

More information

EXPERIMENT 1: Survival Organic Chemistry: Molecular Models

EXPERIMENT 1: Survival Organic Chemistry: Molecular Models EXPERIMENT 1: Survival Organic Chemistry: Molecular Models Introduction: The goal in this laboratory experience is for you to easily and quickly move between empirical formulas, molecular formulas, condensed

More information

Number of carbon atoms. 3 propane 8 octane. 4 butane 9 nonane. 5 pentane 10 decane

Number of carbon atoms. 3 propane 8 octane. 4 butane 9 nonane. 5 pentane 10 decane Name: Date: Pd: Accelerated Chemistry - Naming Hydrocarbons Alkane Nomenclature 1. Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons, with each C bonded to as many atoms as possible (4 other atoms, C or H). For example,

More information

Pre-lab 2: Naming and Modeling Organic Compounds

Pre-lab 2: Naming and Modeling Organic Compounds Name: Pre-lab 2: Naming and Modeling Organic Compounds Section: Read the background information and answer the following questions before lab. 1. Write the electron-dot formula for ethane and determine

More information

Survival Organic Chemistry Part I: Molecular Models

Survival Organic Chemistry Part I: Molecular Models Survival Organic Chemistry Part I: Molecular Models The goal in this laboratory experience is to get you so you can easily and quickly move between empirical formulas, molecular formulas, condensed formulas,

More information

Alkanes. Hydrocarbons. Structural Isomers. Butane Isomers. Contain only carbon and hydrogen

Alkanes. Hydrocarbons. Structural Isomers. Butane Isomers. Contain only carbon and hydrogen ydrocarbons Alkanes ontain only carbon and hydrogen ydrocarbons Alkanes Alkenes Alkynes Aromatics General formula n 2n+2 Each carbon is sp 3 hybridized Bond angles are 109.5 o Methane Ethane Propane Butane

More information

CHM 100 CHEMISTRY MAN & ENVIRONMENT Organic Chemistry Sample Test

CHM 100 CHEMISTRY MAN & ENVIRONMENT Organic Chemistry Sample Test CHM 100 CHEMISTRY MAN & ENVIRONMENT Organic Chemistry Sample Test Multiple Choice: Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of these is the correct name for

More information

Chapter 4 Lecture Notes

Chapter 4 Lecture Notes Chapter 4 Lecture Notes Chapter 4 Educational Goals 1. Given the formula of a molecule, the student will be able to draw the line-bond (Lewis) structure. 2. Understand and construct condensed structural

More information

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. C 17 H 21 NO 4 cocaine C 10 H 14 N 2 nicotine

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. C 17 H 21 NO 4 cocaine C 10 H 14 N 2 nicotine ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Organic Compounds: Contain carbon atoms usually bonded with other carbon and hydrogen atoms (they can contain other atoms especially halogens such as nitrogen and oxygen) Organic Chemistry:

More information

Essential Organic Chemistry

Essential Organic Chemistry Essential Organic Chemistry Reading: Ch. 3 (up to and including section 3.12) Practice problems: problems in text and 34, 35, 36, 38, 39, 41, 42, 45, 46, 52, 54, 56, 59, 61 An Introduction to Organic Compounds:

More information

Organic Chemistry: The Infinite Variety of Carbon Compounds

Organic Chemistry: The Infinite Variety of Carbon Compounds Chapter 9 Organic Chemistry: The Infinite Variety of Carbon Compounds Organic Chemistry Organic chemistry is defined as the chemistry of carbon compounds. Of tens of millions of known chemical compounds,

More information

3/9/2012. First Ten Alkanes. Simple Organic Chemistry Basic Structure and Nomenclature. (Nomenclature) Rules for Naming Alkanes.

3/9/2012. First Ten Alkanes. Simple Organic Chemistry Basic Structure and Nomenclature. (Nomenclature) Rules for Naming Alkanes. C Simple Organic Chemistry Basic Structure and Nomenclature First Ten Alkanes Formula Name Formula Name CH4 Methane C6H14 Hexane C2H5 Ethane C7H16 Heptane C3H8 Propane C8H18 Octane C4H10 Butane C9H20 Nonane

More information

UNIT (7) ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: HYDROCARBONS

UNIT (7) ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: HYDROCARBONS UNIT (7) ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: YDROCARBONS Organic chemistry is the study carbon containing compounds. 7.1 Bonding in Organic Compounds Organic compounds are made up of only a few elements and the bonding

More information

Chem 11 Spring 2012 Practice Test 3

Chem 11 Spring 2012 Practice Test 3 Chem 11 Spring 2012 Practice Test 3 1) In the three-dimensional structure of methane, CH 4, the hydrogen atoms attached to a carbon atom are aligned A) in a straight line. B) at the corners of a square.

More information

EXPERIMENT 1: Survival Organic Chemistry: Molecular Models

EXPERIMENT 1: Survival Organic Chemistry: Molecular Models EXPERIMENT 1: Survival Organic Chemistry: Molecular Models Introduction: The goal in this laboratory experience is for you to easily and quickly move between empirical formulas, molecular formulas, condensed

More information

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. 2. Generally have melting points and boiling points. 4. Most are and tend to dissolve in non-polar solvents

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. 2. Generally have melting points and boiling points. 4. Most are and tend to dissolve in non-polar solvents ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Organic Chemistry is the study of carbon and most carbon compounds. Elemental carbon is found in nature as a solid. However, this solid can make many different forms, such as diamond

More information

Survival Organic Chemistry Part I: Molecular Models

Survival Organic Chemistry Part I: Molecular Models Survival Organic Chemistry Part I: Molecular Models The goal in this laboratory experience is to get you so you can easily and quickly move between empirical formulas, molecular formulas, condensed formulas,

More information

Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes. Alkanes

Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes. Alkanes Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes Alkanes Single bonds between carbon atoms General formula: C n H (2n+2) The maximum amount of hydrogen atoms are bonded so alkanes are referred to as saturated 1 IUPAC name Molecular

More information

2. Which of the following molecules would you expect to react with Br 2 in an addition reaction?

2. Which of the following molecules would you expect to react with Br 2 in an addition reaction? CHEM 12, Exam I February 7, 2001 Form A 1. What is the correct IUPAC name of the following alkane? 2. Which of the following molecules would you expect to react with Br 2 in an addition reaction? II) I)

More information

Chem 350 Jasperse Ch. 2 Handouts 1

Chem 350 Jasperse Ch. 2 Handouts 1 hem 350 Jasperse h. 2 Handouts 1 Hybrid rbitals (Sections 2.4, 2.6); π bonding (Section 2.3) 1s + 3p 4 sp 3 hybrids 109º 1s + 2p (+ 1 unhybridized p) 3 sp 2 hybrids (+ 1 unhybridized p) 120º 1s + 1p (+

More information

Holt Chemistry Chapter 19 Carbon and Organic Compounds

Holt Chemistry Chapter 19 Carbon and Organic Compounds 19-1 Alkanes Describe the structures of alkanes. Name an alkane by examining its structure. Draw the structure of an alkane given its name. Holt Chemistry Chapter 19 Carbon and Organic Compounds A. Organic

More information

Topic 13: Organic Chemistry

Topic 13: Organic Chemistry Topic 13: Organic Chemistry Organic Chemistry: is the study of carbon and its compounds. All living things are made up of organic compounds. organic compounds must have carbon (and hydrogen) carbon has

More information

The University of Trinidad and Tobago THE NATURE OF PROPERTIES OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

The University of Trinidad and Tobago THE NATURE OF PROPERTIES OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC COMPOUNDS The University of Trinidad and Tobago Course: CCCH 110D Course Instructors: Balram Mahabir Centre for Biomedical Engineering Point Lisas Campus. Ph: 642-8UTT (8888) ext.: 25096 or 374-8104 Email: pharista_99@yahoo.com

More information

Question Bank Organic Chemistry-I

Question Bank Organic Chemistry-I Question Bank Organic Chemistry-I 1. (a) What do you understand by the following terms : (i) Organic chemistry (ii) Organic compounds (iii) Catenation? [3] (b) Why are there very large number of organic

More information

1/19/2008. 3-ethylpentane

1/19/2008. 3-ethylpentane Nomenclature: Organic Chemistry ydrocarbon chains where all the bonds between carbons are SINGLE bonds Name uses the ending ane Examples: Methane ane,, Propane, Butane ane, Octane, 2-methylpent methylpentane

More information

Chapter 9 Organic Chemistry

Chapter 9 Organic Chemistry Chemistry for Changing Times 11 th Edition Hill and Kolb Chapter 9 Organic Chemistry John Singer Jackson Community College, Jackson, MI 2007 Prentice Hall Organic Chemistry Organic chemistry is defined

More information

IUPAC System of Nomenclature

IUPAC System of Nomenclature IUPAC System of Nomenclature The IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) is composed of chemists representing the national chemical societies of several countries. ne committee of the

More information

Chapter 24 Organic Chemistry

Chapter 24 Organic Chemistry Chapter 24 Organic Chemistry Student: 1. The general formula for alkenes is A. C n H 2n+2 B. C 2n H 2n C. C n H n+2 D. C n H 2n E. C n H 2n-2 2. The general formula of an alkane is A. C n H 2n B. C n H

More information

Organic Chemistry Questions

Organic Chemistry Questions Organic Chemistry Questions 1 Molecules of 1-propanol and 2-propanol have different (1) percentage compositions (2) molecular masses (3) molecular formulas (4) structural formulas 2 Which compound is an

More information

Organic Compounds. Carbon can form a wide variety of compounds with many unique and distinct properties because:

Organic Compounds. Carbon can form a wide variety of compounds with many unique and distinct properties because: Organic Compounds Organic compounds covalently bonded compounds usually containing the element carbon. EXCEPTION: carbonates and oxides are inorganic compounds. Carbon can form a wide variety of compounds

More information

Mr. Kent s Organic Chemistry Unit Notes I Basic Concepts

Mr. Kent s Organic Chemistry Unit Notes I Basic Concepts Mr. Kent s Organic Chemistry Unit Notes I Basic Concepts A. Organic Chemistry-The study of containing compounds. 1. They occur extensively in nature because all living things are made of containing compounds.

More information

Name Review Organic Reactions

Name Review Organic Reactions Name Review Organic Reactions Date 1. A molecule of a compound contains a total of 10 hydrogen atoms and has the general formula CnH2n+2. Which prefix is used in the name of this compound? A) but- B) dec-

More information

Nomenclature. IUPAC nomenclature for organic chemistry

Nomenclature. IUPAC nomenclature for organic chemistry Nomenclature IUPAC nomenclature for organic chemistry What is IUPAC nomenclature? A systematic method of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied

More information

Given the model below where C atoms are labeled and H atoms are the small white balls:

Given the model below where C atoms are labeled and H atoms are the small white balls: Chapter 24 rganic Chemistry Concept Check 24.1 Given the model below where C atoms are labeled and H atoms are the small white balls: a. Write the molecular formula. b. Write the condensed structural formula.

More information

Saturday X-tra X-Sheet: 8

Saturday X-tra X-Sheet: 8 Saturday X-tra X-Sheet: 8 Organic Molecules ydrocarbons Key oncepts This lesson will focus on the following; Organic chemistry ydrocarbons Saturated hydrocarbons Unsaturated hydrocarbons Isomers omologous

More information

Chapter 22, Organic Chemistry

Chapter 22, Organic Chemistry Chapter 22, Organic Chemistry I. The Nature of Organic Molecules A. C is tetravalent. Implications? B. C forms covalent bonds. Could you have predicted? 1. Non-polar 2. Polar C. C forms single, double,

More information

Chapter 23, Organic Chemistry

Chapter 23, Organic Chemistry Chapter 23, Organic Chemistry I. The Nature of Organic Molecules A. C is tetravalent. Implications? B. C forms covalent bonds. Could you have predicted? 1. Non-polar 2. Polar C. C forms single, double,

More information

Topic 7 National 4 & 5 Chemistry Summary Notes. Hydrocarbons

Topic 7 National 4 & 5 Chemistry Summary Notes. Hydrocarbons Topic 7 National 4 & 5 Chemistry Summary Notes Hydrocarbons A vast number of different hydrocarbons exist and so chemists have grouped them into sub-sets to make them easier to study. In this topic we

More information

CHAPTER 3 1. ALKANES A. General Information

CHAPTER 3 1. ALKANES A. General Information CHAPTER 3 1. ALKANES A. General Information Hydrocarbons (contain only C,H) Saturated (all single bonds) alkanes, cycloalkanes Unsaturated (cont. double, triple bonds) alkenes, alkynes, aromatic Need to

More information

II. Properties of Water. II. Organic Chemistry. A. Hydrocar bons--nonpolar

II. Properties of Water. II. Organic Chemistry. A. Hydrocar bons--nonpolar II. Properties of Water 1. Ice and Liquid water structure 2. Cohesion / Surface Tension 3. High Heat Capacity 4. Solvent Properties 5. Dissociation: Acids & Bases / ph II. Organic Chemistry A. Hydrocar

More information

Chemistry 1506: Allied Health Chemistry 2. Section 1: Structure and Bonding in Alkanes. Basics of Structure and Bonding. Outline

Chemistry 1506: Allied Health Chemistry 2. Section 1: Structure and Bonding in Alkanes. Basics of Structure and Bonding. Outline Chemistry 1506 Dr. Hunter s Class Section 1 Notes - Page 1/32 Chemistry 1506: Allied Health Chemistry 2 Section 1: Structure and Bonding in Alkanes Basics of Structure and Bonding Outline SECTION 1.1 WHAT

More information

Chem 401 Lab Exercise #5 Nomenclature Worksheet for Alkanes and Cycloalkanes

Chem 401 Lab Exercise #5 Nomenclature Worksheet for Alkanes and Cycloalkanes hem 401 Lab Exercise #5 Nomenclature Worksheet for Alkanes and ycloalkanes Structure and Nomenclature of Alkanes Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons; that is, they contain only and which are bonded solely

More information

CHEM 121 Chapter 12. Name: Date:

CHEM 121 Chapter 12. Name: Date: CHEM 121 Chapter 12. Name: Date: 1. Which of the following statements concerning organic compounds is correct? A) organic compounds are found only in non-living systems B) organic compounds are always

More information

Chem 341 Jasperse Ch. 3 Handouts 1

Chem 341 Jasperse Ch. 3 Handouts 1 hem 341 Jasperse h. 3 Handouts 1 lassification of rganic ompounds. The Functional Groups (Section 3-1) Hydrocarbons: + H only 0. Alkanes and ycloalkanes a. Single bonds only b. Names end ane (methane,

More information

Unit 2: Nature s Chemistry

Unit 2: Nature s Chemistry Unit 2: Nature s Chemistry 1. A Fuel is a substance which burns giving out energy. 2. Oxygen is needed for anything to burn 3. Combustion is another name for burning Test for Oxygen - Relights a glowing

More information

10.1 Introduction 4 hours. Assessment statement Obj Teacher s notes Describe the features of a homologous series.

10.1 Introduction 4 hours. Assessment statement Obj Teacher s notes Describe the features of a homologous series. Topic 10: Organic chemistry (1 hours) Int, aim 8: Today, we may be starting to experience the consequences of using fossil fuels as our main source of energy. There is a vast range of products that can

More information

Organic Chem Test Master

Organic Chem Test Master Organic Chem Test Master Matching - Match each item with the correct statement below. substituent e. asymmetric carbon b. structural isomers f. trans configuration geometric isomers g. cis configuration

More information

EXPERIMENT 3 (Organic Chemistry I)

EXPERIMENT 3 (Organic Chemistry I) CEM 2423 Structures of ydrocarbons EXPERIMENT 3 (Organic Chemistry I) Structures of ydrocarbons - Experiment with Models Purpose a) Draw formulas for alkanes from their three dimensional models. b) Write

More information

Organic Chemistry. The Magic of Carbon

Organic Chemistry. The Magic of Carbon Organic Chemistry The Magic of Carbon Carbon What s special about carbon? 1. Forms 4 bonds. 2. It s bonds are stable, but not too stable. 3. It can covalently bond to numerous other elements. Why is that

More information

Organic Lab I Experiment 1

Organic Lab I Experiment 1 Organic Lab I Experiment 1 Molecular Geometry: Experience with Models Objective: To become familiar with the three-dimensional aspects of organic molecules. Materials: Molecular models (ball and stick).

More information

Chapter 25. Organic and

Chapter 25. Organic and , The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 25 John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO Organic Organic chemistry is

More information

Draw the first 4 member of alkane serie. Are saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons

Draw the first 4 member of alkane serie. Are saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons Draw the first 4 member of alkane serie Are saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons Each molecule differs from the next by the structural unit CH 2 This is a homologous series when each member increases by the

More information

Page 1. 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? (1) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? (1) (2) (2) (3) (3) (4) (4)

Page 1. 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? (1) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? (1) (2) (2) (3) (3) (4) (4) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? 7. How many carbon atoms are contained in an ethyl group? 1 3 2 4 2. In the alkane series, each molecule

More information

APPENDIX 1 INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

APPENDIX 1 INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC CHEMISTRY APPENDIX 1 INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC CHEMISTRY For most courses, organic chemistry is a Semester 2 topic and generally presupposes little previous knowledge. However, reference is frequently made to organic

More information

CHEM 102 Winter 10 Exam 1(a)

CHEM 102 Winter 10 Exam 1(a) CHEM 102 Winter 10 Exam 1(a) On the answer sheet (scantron) write your Name, Student ID Number, and Recitation Section Number. Choose the best (most correct) answer for each question AND ENTER IT ON YOUR

More information

Chapter 3: Structure and Nomenclature of Organic Compounds Focus on Alkanes

Chapter 3: Structure and Nomenclature of Organic Compounds Focus on Alkanes hapter 3: Structure and Nomenclature of rganic ompounds Focus on Alkanes rganic molecules are composed of one or more functional groups attached to one or more hydrocarbon groups (alkyl or groups) I. Functional

More information

Name: Class: Date: SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided.

Name: Class: Date: SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. CHAPTER 22 REVIEW Organic Chemistry SECTION 1 SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. Name two types of carbon-containing molecules that are not organic. 2. Carbon atoms form

More information

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter Fourteen 1

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter Fourteen 1 An alcohol has an OH bonded to an alkyl group; a phenol has an OH bonded directly to an aromatic ring; and an ether has an O bonded to two organic groups. Chapter Fourteen 1 Ethyl alcohol, dimethyl ether,

More information

Hydrocarbons & Homologous Series

Hydrocarbons & Homologous Series St Peter the Apostle High School Chemistry Department Hydrocarbons & Homologous Series N4 & N5 Homework Questions Answer questions as directed by your teacher. National 4 level questions are first followed

More information

Page 1. Name: 1) Which of the following is the structural formula for an unsaturated compound?

Page 1. Name: 1) Which of the following is the structural formula for an unsaturated compound? Name: 1) Which of the following is the structural formula for an unsaturated compound? 4942-1 - Page 1 2) Which structural formula represents a saturated compound? 3) Given the compound: The symbol represents

More information

Organic Chemistry An Introduction

Organic Chemistry An Introduction Organic Chemistry An Introduction I am not the best person to be giving a lecture on organic chemistry the world is filled with two kinds of people, the ones who despise organic, and the ones who love

More information

Chapter Thirteen. Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Compounds

Chapter Thirteen. Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Compounds Chapter Thirteen Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Compounds Saturated: A molecule whose carbon atoms bond to the maximum number of hydrogen atoms. Unsaturated: A molecule that contains a carbon carbon multiple

More information