# CH203 Handout Alkanes: Naming and Assigning Position numbers to Substituents. Begin numbering carbons in the parent from an end of the chain

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1 CH0 Handout Alkanes: Naming and Assigning Position numbers to Substituents Begin numbering carbons in the parent from an end of the chain Consider different numbering systems: choose the numbering system that gives the lowest number to a substituent at the first point of difference in the numbering systems Equivalent substituent numbering systems? Choose the numbering system that gives the lowest number to the substituent that is first alphabetically Example First, find the parent chain in the molecule shown below. Then, assign position numbers to its substituents. CH Solution We consider starting numbering the carbons from both ends of the parent chain. We prefer the numbering scheme that assigns the lowest number to a substituent at the first point of difference in the numbering systems. if this is carbon, 6, 8, 8 if this is carbon, ; this one wins because is lower than Page

2 -The prefix iso is written with no hyphen and is treated during alphabetical priority assignment. - The prefixes sec- and tert- are written with a hyphen and not treated during alphabetical priority assignment. Please consider ~see page 89 of text for discussion -For alphabetalization of more formal naming, consider di, and tri prefixes when assigning order priority. Please consider: see page 89 of text for discussion Example Assign position numbers to the substituents in this molecule. Solution The parent is cyclohexane. Again, we consider different numbering schemes and prefer the numbering scheme that assigns the lowest number to a substituent at the first point of difference in the numbering systems. Page

3 if this is carbon and you number clockwise, ; if you number anticlockwise, if this is carbon and you number clockwise, ; if you number anticlockwise, 6 if this is carbon and you number clockwise, 6; if you number anticlockwise, All of the numbering systems have a as the first number: no decision can be made so we look at the second number. Two of the numbering systems have a as the second number, but still no decision can be made. Look at the third number:,, wins out over,, because is lower than. The correct numbering is The correct name of this compound is,,-trimethylcyclohexane Example Assign position numbers to the substituents in this molecule. CH Solution The parent is pentane. Both numbering schemes yield substituents at and : Page

4 if this is carbon, if this is carbon, To break the tie, we note that cyclopropyl is alphabetized before methyl. The preferred numbering gives the lowest number to the substituent that is alphabetically first, but this rule is used only as a tie-breaker! The correct numbering is CH Formulating systematic names: Putting it all together List substituents with their position numbers alphabetically Indicate the number of identical substituents by using replicating prefixes (i.e., di, tri, tetra, etc.) Ignore replicating prefixes when alphabetizing; for example, triethyl comes before methyl because e comes before m -- we simply pretend that the tri is not there Cyclo is not a replicating prefix -- don t ignore it Problem Write the systematic name. Solution The parent is cyclooctane. The correct numbering is Page

5 The name is -ethyl-,-dimethylcyclooctane. Several features worth noting: ethyl comes before methyl, so ethyl is written first -- we pretend that the di in dimethyl is not there hyphens set off numbers from words commas separate numbers all systematic names, except those of carboxylic acids and of esters are one-word names, sort of like Madonna, Cher and Nelly Problem Write the systematic name. Solution The parent is cyclohexane because the six-carbon ring is larger than the fivecarbon ring. The correct numbering is If we number from carbon clockwise, we get substituents at,,, and. If we number from carbon anticlockwise, we get substituents at,,, and. We have a tie in the numbering systems so we prefer the numbering that gives the lowest number to the substituent that is first alphabetically: -ethyl is preferred over -propyl. The name is - cyclopentyl--ethyl--methyl--propylcyclohexane. Page

6 Additional Examples ) CH The,, numbering wins out over the,, numbering because < CH The correct name of the compound is -chloro--ethyl--methylcyclohexane (not -chloro--ethyl--methylcyclohexane) ) CH Both numbering systems are,,: break the tie by assigning the lowest number to the substituent that is first alphabetically CH The correct name of the compound is -chloro--ethyl--methylcyclopentane ) Consider the numbering systems of the compound below: 6 6 All the numbering systems have a as the first number. Look at the second number: the numbering systems that have a as the second number (,, and,,) win out over all the remaining systems.,, is the overall winner because <. Page 6

7 Additional Practice problems: Provide the name for the following cycloalkanes: a b F a b -bromo--chloro--methylcyclohexane -bromo-6-chloro--fluoro--methylcycloheptane Page 7

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Naming Rules for rganic ompounds The names of organic molecules are divided into three parts; 1. the root name, indicative of the number of carbon atoms in the longest continuous chain, which includes