Lecture Outline. Middle East & North Africa. History of Islam. Facts of Islam (p.175-6) More Facts of Islam

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1 Lecture Outline Middle East & North Africa May 13, 2010 GEOG 1982 Islam History & Facts Distribution Veiling Political Islam Middle East 20 th century history Arab Israeli Conflict Northern Africa History of Islam Founded by the prophet Muhammad in 622 Islam is understood as an outgrowth of Judaism and Christianity (the 3 have a similar early history) Islam was dispersed by Islamic empires c.e. by armies and traders c.e. to southeast Asia c.e. Rules of conduct shaped country laws Facts of Islam (p.175-6) Holy book: Qur an (Koran) 5 pillars of Islamic practice: One God, Daily prayer, Ramadan fast, Zakat (almsgiving), Hajj (pilgrimage) Islamic religious law: shari a Sunni Muslims (85%) Shi a (Shi ite) Muslims (Iran, Iraq, Lebanon) Extremely Diverse!!!! More Facts of Islam No religious hierarchy or central administration Wide variety of interpretations Historically tolerant of other religions seclusion and veiling of women predate Islam Population of adherents: about 1 billion 1

2 Cartogram Distribution of Islamic Population 30% of Islamic people live in the Middle East & N. Africa Veiling Seclusion in public space Anonymity & privacy Symbol of devout Muslim women Fashion Feminist choice? Political Islam Religious leaders attempt to gain political power E.g. Iran 1979 secular (authoritarian) government overthrown by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini Sometimes associated with Islamic Fundamentalism Sometimes peaceful, popular movements Often suppressed, causing violent response Islamic fundamentalism rejects Western modernization and secularization (p.176) Hijab Shop, Party Wear: Sports Jilbab: 2

3 Middle East: 20th Century History Tehran and Istanbul both have populations near 13 million and are in high risk earthquake areas The Ottoman empire fell to the Allies & was divided up between France and Britain post-wwi (except Turkey as mandates (neither colony nor independent state) Bedouin tribes consolidated under Sheik Ibn Saud in 1932 later became Saudi Arabia European & U.S. oil companies worked with local elites British oil exploration in the area began in 1906 U.S. oil prospectors worked with Saudi Arabia in the 1930s Oil played a role in WWII Arab-Israeli Conflict Balfour Declaration of 1917 British intention to create a Jewish national homeland in Palestine 1947 the state of Israel was created Zionists Balfour Declaration - British support for Jewish national home in SW Asia Partition 1949 Israel s, Jordan s, Egypt s expansion Expansion of Israel 1967 Six Day War 1973 Yom Kippur War Settlements 3

4 Peace Process UN resolution 242 (land for peace) 1979 Camp David Accords 1991 Madrid Peace Talks 1993 Oslo Accords: Palestinian Authority gains some autonomy in West Bank, Gaza Strip 2000 Camp David Accords Road Map for Peace Current Politics in Israel-Palestine Fatah party created by Yasser Arafat HAMAS Islamic Resistance Movement Won Jan elections in Palestinian parliament Labeled a terrorist organization by U.S. Gaza Strip high levels violence West Bank water conflicts access Kurdish people Turkey (p.186) of Selimaye Mosque Mustafa Kemal Ataturk Northeast Africa (The Nile) Nile River, Lake Nasser Aswan High Dam (1970) Sudan desert north, Muslim (Khartoum) steppe middle, (SW) Darfur, Arab-speaking Muslim swampy south, Christian & indigenous 1983 Muslim law enforced in Sudan, civil wars South 1983 Darfur Northwest Africa (The Maghreb) Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Western Sahara Atlas Mountains (trigger rainfall on coast) Sahara Desert (south) Algeria: 1962 Independence 1990s Structural adjustment programs 1990s Civil war targeted media, women 1997 Moderate Islam party won election Oil: Algeria & Libya supply ¼ of EU s oil 4

5 Lebanon Civil War Sunni in power (backed by Saudi Arabia, U.S.) Hezbollah party (Shiite, majority, urban; backed by Iran, Syria) War between Israel & Hezbollah (1 month) Hezbollah invades western Beirut for share of governmental power Review Basic history and facts of Islam What is political Islam & how does it differ from Islam? Major mountains locations Rough timeline for Arab-Israeli conflict & meaning of 1967 boundaries Terms from the text Balfour Declaration Informal economy Internally displaced person Intifada Islam Jihad Mandate Nationalist movement Oasis zionism 5

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