# COMPARISON OF THERMAL COMFORT BETWEEN RADIANT HEATING AND CONVECTIVE HEATING IN HEATING ROOM. Shigeru Imai. Shoichi Kojima

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3 Figure 1: Analysis object model Figure 2: Cross-sectional view of the model (Unit: mm) Figure 3: Floor plan of the model (Unit: mm) Table 1: Specification of room model Building dimensions (mm) 3800(X) 6000(Y) 2600(Z) Dimension (mm) 2800(Width) 1300(Height) Aperture Specification Double-glazing Window bottom height (mm) 800 North side door (mm) 900(Width) 2100(Height) Building orientation South Table 2: Numerical condition Mesh division 19(X) 30(Y) 13(Z) 7410mesh Turbulence model Standard k-ε model Difference scheme Hybrid method Solution SIMPLE method Air outlet area (mm) 200(X) 300(Y) Mass flow rate (kg/s) Outflow conditions Turbulence energy Turbulent dissipation rate Air outlet temperature 40 Inflow condition Absorption area (mm) 300(Y) 200(Z) 201

4 Table 3: Heat transfer coefficients of walls Position Heat transfer coefficient (W/(m 2 K)) Ceiling Floor External wall Partition Window Surface Temperature Calculation Method In order to determine the indoor surface temperature as boundary conditions in CFD calculation, the initial room temperature was determined by assuming that the outdoor temperature is 5 C and substituting the coefficient of heat loss and internal heat generation into equation (1). Incidentally, the value of the design documentation assembly was used in internal heat generation amount of the equation (1). The heat loss coefficient was used value which stipulated in the area of Region Ⅳ according to the geo-climalic regional division of Energy Conservation 1999 in Japan. Therefore, initial room temperature was set at 15 C when the outside air temperature was 5 C. T Q Q (1) i T : Temperature difference between indoor and outdoor Q : Internal heat generation amount W/m 2 i Q : Heat loss coefficient 2.7W/(m 2 K) Assuming steady state wall, heat flux between indoor and outdoor through a wall is equal to heat flux from wall surface to air. Following equation was used to determine the indoor surface temperature. Heat transfer coefficients of walls were shown in Table 3, and the surface temperature of walls is shown in Table 4. T si T U T i i T o (2) h T si T i : Indoor side surface temperature : Initial room temperature U : Heat transfer coefficient (W/(m 2 K)) hi : Indoor side heat transfer coefficient (W/(m 2 K)) ho : Outside air temperature 202

6 Figure 6: The temperature distribution at the Y-Z cross section in the X-axis 1900mm point Figure 7: The temperature distribution at the Y-Z cross section in the X-axis 1900mm point 3. CFD ANALYSIS RESULT In this paper, the difference of indoor thermal environment between radiant heating and convective heating is discussed to compare the analysis results of the case of floor heating with the case of hot air outlet at south side under window. 3.1 Air Temperature Distribution Results of Vertical Cross-Section The Case of Hot Air Outlet of South Side Under Window Temperature distribution of the Y-Z cross section in the case of hot air outlet south under window is shown in Figure 6. The hot air blown out horizontally from the floor 500mm reaches ceiling surface to rise sharply. After that it can be seen momentum is weakened by colliding with the ceiling surface, and hot air goes to spread to Y axis direction along the ceiling surface. Further, the air is circulated around the point where distance of approximately 1000mm in the Y-axis direction from the north wall. Hot air blown out from the outlet is keeping the height of 2000mm in the horizontal direction, but the space under the air outlet is not warmed up The Case of Floor Heating Temperature distribution of the Y-Z cross section in the case of floor heating is shown in Figure 7. Warm air can be seen signs of rise in the floor, but it can be seen to have been held down by the downdraft of ambient air. Temperature range is only 0.5 because temperature distribution does not appear prominently. It is shown that increase in air temperature is difficult to occur by radiant heating in Figure

7 Figure 8: Temperature distribution at the X-Y cross section in the floor 700mm Figure 9: Temperature distribution at the X-Y cross section in the floor 700mm 3.2 Air Temperature Distribution Results of Horizontal Section Vertical The Case of Hot Air Outlet of South Side Under Window Temperature distribution of the X-Y cross section in the case of hot air outlet south under the window is shown in Figure 8. The hot air can be confirmed in cross-section of the human seating position above the floor 700mm because air outlet is low position above the floor 500mm. Air temperature decreases toward the south wall from the north wall in the case of other heating. But, this heating system is estimated that it is warmed by involving the air of the south wall around, because hot air is blown from air outlet area The Case of Floor Heating Temperature distribution of the X-Y cross section in the case of floor heating is shown in Figure 9. Temperature range is shown at 0.5 C in Figure 9, but temperature is low and no distribution at 700mm above the floor which is a human seated position. Improvement of thermal comfort by air temperature increasing cannot be expected in the seated position from this result. 4. CALCULATION CONDITION OF SET* SET* is calculated using the temperature distribution results. Calculated area is horizontal X-Y cross section with X-coordinate of 0 to 3800mm, Y-coordinate of 0 to 6000mm. The area is calculated 700mm above the floor which assuming a human seating position. The SET* calculation conditions is shown in Table

8 Condition Room temperature The MRT (Mean Radiant Temperature) is calculated according to the equation (3) i g MRT T i : Temperature of surface i Input value Calculated value of CFD Relative humidity (%) 30 Wind speed (m/s) 0.1 Metabolic rate (Met) 1.1 Amount of clothing (clo) 1.1 Mean radiant temperature Calculated MRT according to equation (3) 1i Table 5: SET * calculation condition : Form factor as seen from point surface 1 to surface i (-) In addition, the thermal comfort range of SET* is assumed from 22 to 26 C. (3) Figure 10: SET* distribution at the X-Y cross section in the floor 700mm 5. SET* CALCULATION RESULT 5.1 The Case of Hot Air Outlet South Side Under Window The results of SET* of the case of hot air outlet south under window is shown in Figure 10. SET* near the outlet is satisfied with thermal comfort, but that of other area cannot be satisfied. As a result, area where thermal comfort can be obtained is limited in the range of airflow blowing directly. 5.2 The Case of Floor Heating The results of SET* of the case of floor heating is shown in Figure 11. Although air temperature distribution was about 15 C uniformly, SET* was about 22 C at the area where the center of the room in the depth of 4000mm and in the wide of 2000mm. Furthermore, SET* of the other area in the room is maintained about 21 C, and so floor heating system is easy to obtain the thermal comfort. Figure 11: SET* distribution at the X-Y cross section in the floor 700mm 206

9 6. CONCLUSION Characteristic has been confirmed that radiant heating can be satisfied with the thermal comfort even if air temperature is low. On the other hand, the thermal comfort of convective heating depends on the outlet air temperature or the range of airflow reaching. Further, radiant heating is not able to circulate the air because generating air flow is difficult. Moreover, convective heating increases the vertical temperature gradient as a problem. Therefore instead of using one or other as a heating system, it is important to combine them efficiently. REFERENCE Akabayashi, S., Sakaguchi, J., Kaji, H. (2006) Research on air-conditioning and ventilation system in house: part 1 the efficiency of various air-conditioning and ventilation systems analyzed by CFD. Architectural Institute of Japan Hokuriku Chapter Research Report Collection 49, Clarke,J.A., Dempster,W.M., Negrao,C. (1995) The implementation of a computational fluid dynamics algorithm within the ESP-r system. Building Simulation'95, Itagaki, M., Omori, T., Tanabe, S. (2007) Evaluation of indoor thermal environment by coupled simulation of convection and radiation part 5: comparison of analysis results with thermal manikin experiments. Summaries of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting Architectural Institute of Japan, D-2, Kaji, H., Akabayashi, S., Sakaguchi, J. (2007) Research on air-conditioning and ventilation system in house: part 2 the comparison of indoor environment in the case of air-conditioning and floor heating by CFD analysis. Architectural Institute of Japan Hokuriku Chapter Research Report Collection 50, Kodama, Y., Takemasa, K., Miyaoka, D., Matsumoto, Y. (2011) The Architectural Environment Simulation Introduction by Radiance and ESP-r. Ohmsya Negrao, C. (1995) Conflation of computational fluid dynamics and building thermal simulation. University of Strathclyde Sakaguchi, J., Akabayashi, S., Hasegawa, H., Asama, H. (2008) Study on the heat loss of the detached house when heated by both floor heating and air-conditioning. Journal of Environmental Engineering (Transactions of AIJ), 73, Yoshimura, J., Ito, K., Nagasawa, Y., Kim, T., Hayashi, T. (2009) Evaluation and benchmark test of various commercial CFD codes in predicting indoor flow fields. Transactions of Society of Heating Air-Conditioning and Sanitary Engineers of Japan, 194,

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