Stress Control in AlN and Mo Films for Electro-Acoustic Devices

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1 Stress Control in AlN and Mo Films for Electro-Acoustic Devices Valery Felmetsger and Pavel Laptev Tegal Corporation IFCS 2008 Paper ID 3077 Slide 1

2 1 Introduction Piezoelectric AlN films with strong (002) crystal orientation are widely used in various resonator-based applications such as BAW and FBAR Low intrinsic stress is important requirement for membrane type devices consisting of AlN film sandwiched between two metal electrodes such as Pt, Ti, Al, Ru, and Mo In this report, we discuss technical and technological solutions enabling effective stress control in AlN films deposited with AC (40 khz) reactive sputtering processes by dual cathode S-Gun magnetron, and also in Mo electrodes deposited by DC powered version of S- Gun IFCS 2008 Paper ID 3077 Slide 2

3 2 S-Gun magnetron features S-Gun has two independently controlled conical targets mounted concentrically with central anode In DC powered S-Gun, power redistribution between inner and outer targets enables deposition of uniform metal films onto stationary substrates RF power may be applied to wafer land in order to generate negative self-bias potential on substrate creating ion bombardment during film growth Due to its dual target arrangement, AC powered S-Gun is uniquely able to realize reactive sputtering processes free of parasitic arcing and disappearing anode effects IFCS 2008 Paper ID 3077 Slide 3

4 3 S-Gun process module diagram HEATER P/S WAFER RF BIAS P/S CATHODE #1 P/S CATHODE #2 P/S ANODE P/S IFCS 2008 Paper ID 3077 Slide 4

5 4 S-Gun S magnetron for AC reactive sputtering In AC powered S-Gun, AC power supply is connected between two targets which act alternatively as anode and cathode IFCS 2008 Paper ID 3077 Slide 5

6 5 AlN film and process characteristics Deposition rate: nm/min Wafer temperature: < 350C (ambient) Film thickness: nm Film non-uniformity: < 05% 1 σ (150 mm wafers) Film thickness repeatability: < 05% wafer to wafer and run to run Residual stress: adjustable from compressive -300 MPa to near-zero or tensile +300 MPa if required Crystallography: stoichiometric AlN with strong (002) orientation FWHM: from 25 degrees (1000A thick film) to 09 degrees (3000A thick film) Well-oriented films were obtained on the following substrates/under-layers: Si, SiO 2, Mo, Ti, Cr, Ru, Al, AlCu IFCS 2008 Paper ID 3077 Slide 6

7 6 S-Gun reactive sputter process enables adjustable stress in AlN films Low compressive stress (-53 MPa) in 2 μm thick AlN film Tegal Confidential Copyright 2004 IFCS 2008 Paper ID 3077 Slide 7

8 7 Stress control in AlN films Residual stress in AlN films deposited by S-Gun is well controlled by varying Ar gas pressure in magnetron Disadvantage deposition rate and film uniformity depend on gas pressure too IFCS 2008 Paper ID 3077 Slide 8

9 8 Stress in AlN films vs RF bias Stress vs RF Power (Ar Flow = 65 sccm) Stress, MPa RF Power, W Sputtering with RF bias may be employed to reduce tensile stress in AlN films (usually at the beginning of Al target life) IFCS 2008 Paper ID 3077 Slide 9 Uniformity, % Film Uniformity vs RF Bias Power (Ar Flow = 65 sccm) RF Pow er, W

10 9 Stress control in AlN films During one half of AC wave, electron flow from inner target follows magnetic lines and does not experience significant resistance During another half of AC wave, electron flow from outer target follows against magnetic field of inner target IFCS 2008 Paper ID 3077 Slide 10

11 10 Stress control in AlN films Diffusion of low-energy cold electrons from plasma column to substrate vicinity encourages corresponding flux of positive ions to reach substrate Ion bombardment of growing film leads to formation of more compressive stress in AlN film due to atomic peening IFCS 2008 Paper ID 3077 Slide 11

12 11 Stress control in AlN films Stress Adjustment Unit reduces compressive stress in AlN films by controllably suppressing flux of charged particles to substrate by means of discharge current redistribution between targets and internal shields of S-Gun Independent stress control by variable resistor: regulation of cold electrons flux to substrate vicinity enables regulation of ion bombardment of growing film IFCS 2008 Paper ID 3077 Slide 12

13 12 Stress in AlN films vs resistor value in stress adjustment unit Stress vs Resistor Value (Ar Flow = 6 sccm) Stress, MPa Resistance, Ohm Stress adjustment unit may be employed to reduce compressive stress in AlN films (usually at the end of Al target life when targets are essentially depleted) Uniformity, % Film Uniformity vs Resistance of RB (Ar Flow = 6 sccm) Resistance, Ohm IFCS 2008 Paper ID 3077 Slide 13

14 13 AlN sputter recipe optimization Our approach to AlN sputter recipe optimization is based on adjustment of film thickness and uniformity prior to introducing stress adjustment If this preliminary optimized recipe produces compressively stressed films when sputtered without stress adjustment unit (unit switched to open circuit), then we can reach desirable stress value in film by switching unit resistors from high to lower positions If optimized deposition recipe produces tensile stress, S- Gun creates opportunity for reducing stress value to zero, or converting it to compressive stress, by means of film deposition with active RF substrate bias IFCS 2008 Paper ID 3077 Slide 14

15 14 Texture of AlN film vs texture of bottom Mo electrode Crystal orientation of AlN films directly correlates with texture of Mo under layer Highly c-axis oriented AlN films with FWHM < 2 may be obtained on Mo electrodes if FWHM of Mo is below 3 IFCS 2008 Paper ID 3077 Slide 15

16 15 How to obtain strong texture in Mo bottom electrode? Process optimization for Mo bottom electrode besides seeking thickness uniformity, low surface roughness, and low stress, should also result in formation of well-textured film Texture (FWHM) of Mo films significantly depends on substrate texture and surface roughness Well-textured Mo films may be relatively easy obtained when deposited on crystalline Si wafers, but it is more complicated to get same result on amorphous SiO2 surfaces Effective approach to create well-oriented Mo on any type of substrate is using seed layers such as thin films of Ti or AlN (10-30 nm thick) We found also that introduction of seed layer worked significantly better if wafer was etched in Ar plasma of RF discharge right before seed layer deposition IFCS 2008 Paper ID 3077 Slide 16

17 16 Crystal orientation and intrinsic stress in Mo films vs RF bias Residual tensile stress in Mo films may be effectively reduced by performing deposition with RF substrate bias We found that the higher RF bias power (and thus lower tensile stress in Mo film), the worse texture of Mo film IFCS 2008 Paper ID 3077 Slide 17

18 17 Two-step Mo sputter process To overcome this problem, we have developed two-step Mo deposition process ensuring formation of superior crystal orientation as well as near-zero or, if required, compressive stress in Mo films Process flow for bottom Mo electrode consists of: i RF plasma etch of wafer surface ii Thin AlN or Ti seed layer deposition iii Deposition of first 10-30% of total thickness of Mo electrode without RF bias in sputter recipe iv Deposition of remaining 90-70% with bias IFCS 2008 Paper ID 3077 Slide 18

19 18 Mo electrode deposited by two-step process 300 nm thick Mo electrode exhibits strong (110) texture with FWHM < 2, 2 columnar grain structure and pebblelike surface morphology with rms = 05 nm IFCS 2008 Paper ID 3077 Slide 19

20 19 Highly c-axis oriented AlN film on well-textured Mo electrode Mo (110) Intensity [au] AlN (002) FWHM = 132 o FWHM = 208 o Omega [deg] Film stack: AlN seed layer 15 nm - Mo electrode 300 nm - AlN piezoelectric layer 1300 nm IFCS 2008 Paper ID 3077 Slide 20

21 20 Conclusion AlN films deposited by AC powered dual cathode S-Gun magnetron have compressive stress when deposited with relatively low Ar pressure Increasing Ar pressure allows reducing compressive stress or even converting it to tensile But this stress control method has limited practical application because AlN film uniformity depends on gas pressure too Independent stress control in AlN films is realized by: stress adjustment unit reducing compressive stress by effective suppressing flux of charged particles to substrate film deposition with RF substrate bias reducing tensile stress in AlN films by ion bombardment of growing film IFCS 2008 Paper ID 3077 Slide 21

22 21 Conclusion Highly textured AlN films with FWHM < 2 may be obtained only on highly textured Mo electrodes Sputter process by DC powered S-Gun magnetron in combination with pre-deposition RF plasma etch and thin Ti or AlN seed layer deposition enables formation of these well-oriented Mo electrodes Tensile stress in Mo films may be reduced by deposition with RF bias To avoid texture deterioration in the Mo films deposited with RF bias, two-step deposition process has been developed ensuring formation of welltextured and low stressed Mo films IFCS 2008 Paper ID 3077 Slide 22

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