IDGH AMPLITUDE FRONTO-CENTRAL ALPHA AND THETA ACTIVITY DURING THE TRANSCENDENTAL MEDITATION TECHNIQUE

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "IDGH AMPLITUDE FRONTO-CENTRAL ALPHA AND THETA ACTIVITY DURING THE TRANSCENDENTAL MEDITATION TECHNIQUE"

Transcription

1 PAPER 211 IDGH AMPLITUDE FRONTO-CENTRAL ALPHA AND THETA ACTIVITY DURING THE TRANSCENDENTAL MEDITATION TECHNIQUE ANNE-MARIE ROUZERE, KHEIREDDINE BADAWI, and RENATE HARTMANN Department of Neurophysiology, Maharishi European Research University, Seelisberg, Switzerland Research completed January Bursts of alpha and theta activity in frontal and central areas of the brain were found to occur for a greater percentage of the test time in practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation technique, both during Transcendental Meditation and during periods of sitting with eyes closed, as compared with controls.-editors Bursts of alpha and theta activity with an amplitude over V and a duration exceeding one second were observed during the practice of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique, and were compared to those observed during the relaxation condition in non-meditating controls. These bursts were found to occur in frontal and central areas of the brain for a significantly greater percentage of the test period in TM subjects than in controls, both during the period of the TM technique as compared with relaxation condition (p<.05), and during periods of sitting eyes closed (p<.05). These results support the hypothesis that the TM technique produces a state of restful alertness, characterized by high synchronization and enhancement of normally existing rhythms. INTRODUCTION Studies on the electrophysiology of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique have reported distinctive EEG changes including increased intensity of alpha activity (7), slow high amplitude alpha activity extending to anterior channels (1), rhythmic amplitude modulated and synchronized beta waves 16S5

2 SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ON THE TRANSCENDENTAL MEDITATION AND TM-SIDHI PROGRAMME, VOL. 3 present over the whole scalp (2), and theta activity different from sleep or drowsiness, characterized by unusually high voltage and frequency of occurrence and associated with subjective experiences of inner wakefulness and contentment (5). The purpose of this study was to investigate the high voltage EEG synchronization manifested in the form of bursts of alpha and theta frequency bands in the anterior parts of the brain, in order to determine whether the state of meditation reached by advanced meditators can be characterized by this specific type of EEG pattern. To test this hypothesis, we compared 38 advanced practitioners of the TM technique with adequate controls. METHOD SUBJECTS-Two groups were considered, a TM group of 38 subjects (22 males and 16 females; mean age 28.5, range 20-43) who had been practising the TM technique for a mean of 80 months (range months) and a non-meditating control group of 16 subjects (6 males and 10 females; mean age 29.3, range 20-72). All subjects were healthy, normal people with no previous history of seizures or brain damage and no recent drug use. DATA ACQUISITION-The data were recorded on 13 channels of a Grass-78 Polygraph (9 EEG leads, EKG, respiratory rate, phasic skin resistance (GSR), and one technical trace for computer). EEGs were taken by referential electrode recording, from electrodes FJ, F4, CJ, Cz, C4, T3, T4, Ot, Oz of the International System with linked ears for the reference electrode. Subjects were seated comfortably in a dimly-lit quiet room equipped with closed circuit TV and intercom, adjacent to the instrument room. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN-The protocol of the study for the TM group was: 15 min Transcendental Meditation and for the non-meditating group: 15 min counting in an easy relaxed way: relaxation condition Control subjects were instructed to perform simple forward counting in an easy manner, in order to maintain relaxed wakefulness. Before the session, the TM subjects provided a written report of their general experiences in the TM programme. After the session, each TM subject gave a subjective report on a standard form grading their quality of experience compared with usual experience of TM and the degree of relaxation they felt. ANALYSIS-The EEG phenomena examined in this study by visual inspection of the paper records are referred to here by the generic term 'burst'. According to the criteria used for the theta bursts by Hebert and Lehmann (5), a burst must have an amplitude greater than 100!l V and a duration of longer than one second. We characterized the burst activity by (a) frequency, (b) amplitude, and (c) frequency of occurrence, considering only the frontal and central leads. RESULTS Table 1 gives an overall review of the number and percentage of subjects showing burst activity. Eighteen of the 38 TM subjects (48%) and two of the 16 controls (13%) showed fronto-central burst activity. FREQUENCY-The frequency of burst activity observed was generally lower than the frequency of the coexisting posterior alpha rhythms ( c/ sec) and ranged from 6 to 10.5 c/sec. Alpha and theta bursts in F -C Theta bursts Peak amplitude p.v p.v >200p.V Mean amplitude p.V p.v p.v Frequency of occurrence High (B > 10%) Low (B < 10%) TABLE 1 NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF SUBJECfS SHOWING PRONTO-CENTRAL BuRsT AcriviTY TMGROUP N=38 N % NON-MEDITATING GROUP N=16 N % 1656

3 Whereas no theta bursts were found in the controls, six TM subjects (16%) showed theta bursts with a background of synchronous alpha (or occasionally theta) activity of smaller amplitude (fig. 1). This description is consistent with the findings of Hebert and Lehmann (5). 02~f\~~~1~:d;l;~\~~~j~~~~~,~ ~ P----~ EKG~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ GSR FIG. 1. THETA BURST DURING TM. Maximum amplitude in frontal: 180 ~-tv; frequency: 6 c/sec; duration: 13.5 sees. AMPLITUDE-Peak Amplitude. Peak amplitude is the maximum burst voltage for each subject and for the whole recording. Fifteen TM subjects showed high peak amplitude in fronto-central areas, i.e. greater than 200 ~ V for four subjects (fig. 2) and b~tween 130 and 180~V for eleven subjects. Such high values are extremely unusual (3). The mean of the peak amplitude for the eighteen TM subjects with bursts is much higher (156.3 ~V, S.D ) than for the two controls with bursts (102 ~V, S.D. 2), the difference being significant (p <.05, unpaired t-test, two-tailed). Mean Amplitude. Mean amplitude is the mean of the maximum amplitude of all bursts observed in one subject. Four TM subjects showed a very high mean amplitude between 140 and 175 ~V (fig. 2). Eight TM subjects had a mean amplitude between 110 and 130 ~V. The other six TM subjects and the two controls with bursts had a mean amplitude between 100 and 110 ~V. The mean maximum voltage of the two groups differs significantly (TM group: 122 ~V, S.D. 20; Control group: 101 ~V, S.D. 1; p <.05, unpaired t-test, two..:tailed). FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE - Long trains of fronto-central alpha and theta bursts lasting more GSR FIG. 2. LONG TRAIN OF HIGH AMPLITUDE ALPHA ACTIVITY IN PRONTO-CENTRAL DURING TM. Maximum amplitude in frontal: 200 ~-tv; frequency; 8.5 c/sec. 1657

4 SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ON THE TRANSCENDENTAL MEDITATION AND TM-SIDHI PROGRAMME, VOL. 3 than 7 seconds occurred in six TM subjects (fig. 3), with a maximum duration of 150 sees, and a peak amplitude of V (table 2). A great inter-subject variability was observed in F3~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~_. F ~~~~~~~~~~~IN~~~~.. GSR FIG. 3. IDGH SYNCHRONY MANIFESTED IN ALL LEADS AS LONG TRAINS OF IDGH AMPLITUDE ALPHA ACTIVITY DURING TM. Maximum amplitude in frontal: 125 ~V; in occipital: 150 ~V; frequency: 8.5 c/sec. TABLE 2 LoNG TRAINS OF ALPHA OR THETA BURST AcriVITY IN F-C the relative time spent in bur~ activity (called B), since B ranged from 0. 3 to 86 %of the test period. In table 3, the TM group is subdivided into a High B group (B > 10%) and a Low B group (B < 10%) in order to afford easier comparison between absolute scores for the groups. In the control group, B was always very low (N = 2, mean B =.63). The difference between the mean B of the two groups is statistically significant (p <.05 during eyes closed; p <.05 during TM compared to the relaxation period; two-tailed Mann-Whitney U test). SEX DIFFERENCES-The burst activity seemed generally more developed in females than in males. In the TM group 56% of females and 41% of males showed F -C burst activity; a higher frequency of occurrence (B) and higher amplitudes (peak and mean) were found in females. The differences between male and female subgroups were not significant due to the high variability within the groups. SUBJECfiVE EXPERIENCES - No correlation was found between the abundance of burst activity and the length of practice of the TM technique, or the quality of experi~nce reported by the TM subjects. However, all the subjects with abundant burst activity reported very deep relaxation and experiences of transcendental consciousness, the most quiet state of awareness experienced during the TM technique. TM DURATION FREQUENCY AMPLITUDE TEST SUBJECf (sees) (c/sec) MAXIMUM (!'V) PERIOD TM TM fig EC* TM fig TM fig TM *Eyes closed. TABLE 3 DISCUSSION The simultaneous recordings of EEG, EKG, GSR, and respiration show no disturbance in the autonomic balance of the TM subjects during burst activity, which accords with the subjective reports of quietness and deep relaxation. FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE OFF- C BURST ACTIVITY-MEANS FOR THE GROUPS (PER CENT) TM GROUP TEST PERIOD High (B > 10%) Low (B < 10%) All Subjects Mean S.D. Mean S.D. Mean S.D. Eyes closed * 11.8 (N=6) (N= 8) (N= 38) TM * 15.2 (N=6) (N = 12) (N = 38) Relaxation CONTROL GROUP All Subjects Mean 0* (N = 16) 0.08* (N = 16) p <.05 TM versus Controls (Two-tailed Mann-Whitney U test). 1658

5 The fact that the frequency of the anterior bursts ( c/sec) is lower than the frequency of the posterior alpha rhythms (10-12 c/ sec) suggests that these two activities are independent of one another and that the sustained activity which developed in anterior parts of the brain is probably a mu-type rhythm, well known to develop during immobility (4). The rhythms observed in this burst activity are similar in form and distribution to the known rhythms of the brain whether alpha, theta or mu (3, 6) but with an unusually high amplitude. The high regular rhythms in TM subjects may reflect the recruitment of larger numbers than usual of cortical neurons in existing resonant circuits. These results support the hypothesis that the TM technique produces a state of restful alertness characterized by high synchronization and enhancement of normally existing rhythms. REFERENCES 1. BANQUET, J.-P EEG and meditation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 33: 454. (Also in Scientific research on the Transcendental Meditation program: Collected papers, vol. I, ed. D. W. Orme-Johnson and J. T. Farrow, p Rheinweiler, W. Germany: MERU Press. Hereafter cited as Collected papers.) 2. BANQUET, J.-P Spectral analysis of the EEG in meditation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 35: (Also in Collected papers, vol. 1, pp ) 3. CHATRIAN, G. E., and LAIRY, G. C., ed The normal EEG throughout life. Part A: The EEG of the waking adult. In Handbook of electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology, vol. 6. Elsevier. 4. GASTAUT, H.; TERZIAN, H.; and GASTAUT, Y Etude d'une activite electroencephalographique meconnue : «Le rythme rolandique en arceau». Marseille Medical 89: HEBERT, R., and LEHMANN, D Theta bursts: An EEG pattern in normal subjects practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 42: SCHACTER, D. L EEG theta waves and psychological phenomena: A review and analysis. Biological Psychology 5: WALLACE, R. K., et al A wakeful hypometabolic physiologic state. American Journal of Physiology 221: (Also in Collected papers, vol. 1, pp )

EEG IN CHILDREN: NORMAL AND ABNORMAL. Warren T. Blume, MD,FRCPC EEG Course FSNC/CNSF JUNE 2007

EEG IN CHILDREN: NORMAL AND ABNORMAL. Warren T. Blume, MD,FRCPC EEG Course FSNC/CNSF JUNE 2007 EEG IN CHILDREN: NORMAL AND ABNORMAL Warren T. Blume, MD,FRCPC EEG Course FSNC/CNSF JUNE 2007 OBJECTIVES Survey some abnormal and normal patterns Maturation characteristics Artefact recognition Patterns

More information

William Dement and nathaniel Kleitman, 1957 THE RELATION OF EYE MOVEMENTS DURING SEEP TO DREAM ACTIVITY: AN OBJECTIVE METHOD FOR STUDYING DREAM

William Dement and nathaniel Kleitman, 1957 THE RELATION OF EYE MOVEMENTS DURING SEEP TO DREAM ACTIVITY: AN OBJECTIVE METHOD FOR STUDYING DREAM William Dement and nathaniel Kleitman, 1957 THE RELATION OF EYE MOVEMENTS DURING SEEP TO DREAM ACTIVITY: AN OBJECTIVE METHOD FOR STUDYING DREAM BACK GROUND AND CONTEXT The study of dream activity and its

More information

MODULE SCORING SLEEP

MODULE SCORING SLEEP MODULE SCORING SLEEP SCORING SLEEP Scoring a sleep study is divided into 4 parts: 3) Scoring sleep stages 4) Scoring respiratory events 5) Scoring arousals 6) Scoring periodic limb movements LESSON 1:

More information

Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) Communication Training of brain activity

Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) Communication Training of brain activity Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) Communication Training of brain activity Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) picture rights: Gerwin Schalk, Wadsworth Center, NY Components of a Brain Computer Interface Applications

More information

EEG ALTERATIONS DURING ABSENT "HEALING"

EEG ALTERATIONS DURING ABSENT HEALING Experimental EEG ALTERATIONS DURING ABSENT "HEALING" C. Norman Shealy, M.D., Ph.D.; Timothy Smith, Psy.D.; Saul Liss, Ph.D.; Vera Borgmeyer, R.N., M.A. ABSTRACT Five separate individuals who regard themselves

More information

EEG of Newborn and Infants. Ki Joong Kim MD PhD Pediatric Neurology Seoul National University Children s Hospital Seoul, Korea

EEG of Newborn and Infants. Ki Joong Kim MD PhD Pediatric Neurology Seoul National University Children s Hospital Seoul, Korea EEG of Newborn and Infants Ki Joong Kim MD PhD Pediatric Neurology Seoul National University Children s Hospital Seoul, Korea Maturation of EEG Maturation of EEG patterns parallels brain development Anatomical

More information

Selected References on the Scientific Research on Transcendental Meditation

Selected References on the Scientific Research on Transcendental Meditation A P P E N D I X B Selected References on the Scientific Research on Transcendental Meditation More than 500 research studies have been conducted on Transcendental Meditation by over 300 research scientists

More information

NEW MEDICAL TECHNOLOGIES FOUNDATION

NEW MEDICAL TECHNOLOGIES FOUNDATION NEW MEDICAL TECHNOLOGIES FOUNDATION MEDICAL CENTER REPORT ON THE RESEARCH WORK «Influence exerced by the electromagnetic anomalies neutraliser on changes of EEG parameters caused by exposure to the electromagnetic

More information

Brain, Meditation and Higher States of Consciousness. What is the role of the brain in conscious experience?

Brain, Meditation and Higher States of Consciousness. What is the role of the brain in conscious experience? Brain, Meditation and Higher States of Consciousness Professor Frederick Travis Director, Brain, Consciousness and Cognition Center Maharishi University of Management Fairfield, Iowa, USA 52557 What is

More information

DEMENT & KLEITMAN (1957) then and now

DEMENT & KLEITMAN (1957) then and now DEMENT & KLEITMAN (1957) then and now Dement & Kleitman (1957) is a classic study which explored sleep and dreaming using electronic recording as well as observation and diary methods. It is summarised

More information

FUNCTIONAL EEG ANALYZE IN AUTISM. Dr. Plamen Dimitrov

FUNCTIONAL EEG ANALYZE IN AUTISM. Dr. Plamen Dimitrov FUNCTIONAL EEG ANALYZE IN AUTISM Dr. Plamen Dimitrov Preamble Autism or Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a mental developmental disorder, manifested in the early childhood and is characterized by qualitative

More information

Super Brain Yoga ~ A Research Study ~ By Dr. Ramesh, MDS

Super Brain Yoga ~ A Research Study ~ By Dr. Ramesh, MDS Super Brain Yoga ~ A Research Study ~ By Dr. Ramesh, MDS As Master Choa Kok Sui says,~the Body is a living battery that requires constant recharging. This is done through different means, especially through

More information

About the Author. 1995 Maharishi International University

About the Author. 1995 Maharishi International University About the Author David Orme-Johnson is Dean of Research, Professor of Psychology, Chairman of the Psychology Department, Director of the Doctoral Program in Psychology, and Director of the Institute of

More information

CANADIAN SOCIETY OF CLINICAL N EU ROPHYSIO LOGISTS (CSCN ) EEG EXAMINATION

CANADIAN SOCIETY OF CLINICAL N EU ROPHYSIO LOGISTS (CSCN ) EEG EXAMINATION INTRODUCTION CANADIAN SOCIETY OF CLINICAL * * * Note: This document was revised October 2013. * ** OUTLINE OF CONTENT: TERMS and CONCEPTS The following outline is intended to assist candidates in preparation

More information

NATIONAL COMPETENCY SKILL STANDARDS FOR PERFORMING AN ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM

NATIONAL COMPETENCY SKILL STANDARDS FOR PERFORMING AN ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM NATIONAL COMPETENCY SKILL STANDARDS FOR PERFORMING AN ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM Electroencephalographic (EEG) providers practice in accordance with the facility policy and procedure manual which details every

More information

SCHWAB (From the Department of Neuropsychiatry, Harvard Medical School, and the Psychiatric Department

SCHWAB (From the Department of Neuropsychiatry, Harvard Medical School, and the Psychiatric Department CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NORMAL ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM. III. THE EFFECT OF VARYING BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS ON THE OCCIPITAL CORTICAL POTENTIALS IN ADULTS DURING HYPERVENTILATION 1 BY MARY A. B. BRAZIER, JACOB E.

More information

Kenrico Sap Sheet - Brain Wave Research. Clinical Study (June 6th, 2003) Test article: Kenrico Sap Sheet TRMX (Tourmaline) Test device: EEG

Kenrico Sap Sheet - Brain Wave Research. Clinical Study (June 6th, 2003) Test article: Kenrico Sap Sheet TRMX (Tourmaline) Test device: EEG Kenrico Sap Sheet - Brain Wave Research Clinical Study (June 6th, 2003) Test article: Kenrico Sap Sheet TRMX (Tourmaline) Test device: EEG An electroencephalography (EEG) (elek- tro- in- SEF- all- oh-

More information

Computational model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

Computational model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Computational model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Piotr Mirowski From Wendling et al, 2000, 2002, 2005 CBLL meeting, February 6, 2008 [Wendling et al, 2002] 1 Brain anatomy and temporal lobe Frontal lobe Hippocampus

More information

A Study of Brainwave Entrainment Based on EEG Brain Dynamics

A Study of Brainwave Entrainment Based on EEG Brain Dynamics A Study of Brainwave Entrainment Based on EEG Brain Dynamics Tianbao Zhuang School of Educational Technology, Shenyang Normal University Shenyang 110034, China E-mail: bfztb@sina.com Hong Zhao Graduate

More information

The Effects of Spearmint Chewing Gum on Cognition and Electroencephalogram

The Effects of Spearmint Chewing Gum on Cognition and Electroencephalogram The Effects of Spearmint Chewing Gum on Cognition and Electroencephalogram Kristen Campbell, Vanessa Malochleb, Maia Assaf, Wally Moreno, Donald Jones Faculty Sponsor: Julius Militante Department of Biology;

More information

Don t Forget to Warm-Up Your Brain! Caroline Liddy. Before beginning a race, do you jump right into it and run as fast as you can,

Don t Forget to Warm-Up Your Brain! Caroline Liddy. Before beginning a race, do you jump right into it and run as fast as you can, Don t Forget to Warm-Up Your Brain! Caroline Liddy Background Before beginning a race, do you jump right into it and run as fast as you can, or do you do a warm-up to loosen up and wake up your muscles

More information

Change Your Mind with. Neurofeedback. By Gerry Radano, LMSW, AIBT

Change Your Mind with. Neurofeedback. By Gerry Radano, LMSW, AIBT Change Your Mind with Neurofeedback By Gerry Radano, LMSW, AIBT Neurofeedback For thousands of years, people have used meditation and prayer to change the brain by training the mind. In the past 50 years,

More information

EEG BIOFEEDBACK WHAT IS EEG BIOFEEDBACK USED FOR

EEG BIOFEEDBACK WHAT IS EEG BIOFEEDBACK USED FOR EEG BIOFEEDBACK EEG Biofeedback is a learning strategy that enables persons to alter their brain waves. When information about a person's own brain wave characteristics is made available to him, he can

More information

Investigation of Brain Potentials in Sleeping Humans Exposed to the Electromagnetic Field of Mobile Phones

Investigation of Brain Potentials in Sleeping Humans Exposed to the Electromagnetic Field of Mobile Phones Critical Reviews TM in Biomedical Engineering Investigation of Brain Potentials in Sleeping Humans Exposed to the of Mobile Phones N. N. Lebedeva 1, A. V. Sulimov 2, O. P. Sulimova 3, T. I. Korotkovskaya

More information

CLINICAL NEUROPHYSIOLOGY

CLINICAL NEUROPHYSIOLOGY CLINICAL NEUROPHYSIOLOGY Barry S. Oken, MD, Carter D. Wray MD Objectives: 1. Know the role of EMG/NCS in evaluating nerve and muscle function 2. Recognize common EEG findings and their significance 3.

More information

DRIVER SLEEPINESS ASSESSED BY ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY DIFFERENT METHODS APPLIED TO ONE SINGLE DATA SET

DRIVER SLEEPINESS ASSESSED BY ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY DIFFERENT METHODS APPLIED TO ONE SINGLE DATA SET DRIVER SLEEPINESS ASSESSED BY ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY DIFFERENT METHODS APPLIED TO ONE SINGLE DATA SET Martin Golz 1, David Sommer 1, Jarek Krajewski 2 1 University of Applied Sciences Schmalkalden, Germany

More information

THE INFLUENCE OF LOW FREQUENCY SOUND ON THE CHANGES OF EEG SIGNAL MORPHOLOGY

THE INFLUENCE OF LOW FREQUENCY SOUND ON THE CHANGES OF EEG SIGNAL MORPHOLOGY Molecular and Quantum Acoustics vol. 28 (2007) 65 THE INFLUENCE OF LOW FREQUENCY SOUND ON THE CHANGES OF EEG SIGNAL MORPHOLOGY Zbigniew DAMIJAN, Jerzy WICIAK University of Science and Technology - AGH,

More information

Investigating the Neurophysiological Effects of Direct Current Stimulation. Joaquin de Rojas Steven Siegel Roy Hamilton

Investigating the Neurophysiological Effects of Direct Current Stimulation. Joaquin de Rojas Steven Siegel Roy Hamilton Investigating the Neurophysiological Effects of Direct Current Stimulation Joaquin de Rojas Steven Siegel Roy Hamilton Doing summer research 1. Define area of interest Interface of Cognitive Neurology

More information

The Influence of Color on Physiological Response. By: S. Freiders, S. Lee, D. Statz, and T. Kim (Group 7)

The Influence of Color on Physiological Response. By: S. Freiders, S. Lee, D. Statz, and T. Kim (Group 7) The Influence of Color on Physiological Response By: S. Freiders, S. Lee, D. Statz, and T. Kim (Group 7) Abstract: Colors are an important part of our sensations and senses. To try to explain this observation,

More information

Benign epileptiform variants

Benign epileptiform variants Benign epileptiform variants Seyed M Mirsattari, MD, PhD, FRCPC Departments of Clinical Neurological Sciences, Medical Biophysics, Diagnostic Imaging, Psychology University of Western Ontario London, Ontario

More information

E. W. TSANG S. A. KOREN M. A. PERSINGER. Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory Sudbury, Ontario Canada

E. W. TSANG S. A. KOREN M. A. PERSINGER. Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory Sudbury, Ontario Canada Intern. J. Neuroscience, 114:1183 1193, 2004 Copyright Taylor & Francis Inc. ISSN: 0020-7454 / 1543-5245 online DOI: 10.1080/00207450490475643 POWER INCREASES WITHIN THE GAMMA RANGE OVER THE FRONTAL AND

More information

SHAPING ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE BRAND THROUGH PERCEPTION OF THE PERFUME AROMA. M. Sheresheva, A. Luzhin, K. Kolkova, N. Galkina, M.

SHAPING ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE BRAND THROUGH PERCEPTION OF THE PERFUME AROMA. M. Sheresheva, A. Luzhin, K. Kolkova, N. Galkina, M. SHAPING ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE BRAND THROUGH PERCEPTION OF THE PERFUME AROMA M. Sheresheva, A. Luzhin, K. Kolkova, N. Galkina, M. Koroleva RELATIONSHIP MARKETING IN EMERGING MARKETS SOCIAL NETWORKS IN BUSINESS,

More information

Music Therapy in the Assessment and Rehabilitation of Prolonged Disorders of Consciousness: Lessons from Research

Music Therapy in the Assessment and Rehabilitation of Prolonged Disorders of Consciousness: Lessons from Research Music Therapy in the Assessment and Rehabilitation of Prolonged Disorders of Consciousness: Lessons from Research Sophie Rappich Honorary Research Clinician in Music Therapy Royal Hospital for Neuro-disability

More information

Predicting Advertising Success: New Insights from Neuroscience and Market Response Modeling

Predicting Advertising Success: New Insights from Neuroscience and Market Response Modeling Predicting Advertising Success: New Insights from Neuroscience and Market Response Modeling Bryan Bollinger, Hal Hershfield, Masakazu Ishihara, Russ Winer New York University Vinod Venkatraman, Angelika

More information

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of EEG. Neurofeedback Training for ADHD in a Clinical Setting. as measured by changes in T.O.V.A.

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of EEG. Neurofeedback Training for ADHD in a Clinical Setting. as measured by changes in T.O.V.A. 1 Evaluation of the Effectiveness of EEG Neurofeedback Training for ADHD in a Clinical Setting as measured by changes in T.O.V.A. Scores, Behavioral Ratings, and WISC-R Performance Joel F. Lubar Michie

More information

Guideline One: Minimum Technical Requirements for Performing Clinical Electroencephalography

Guideline One: Minimum Technical Requirements for Performing Clinical Electroencephalography Guideline One: Minimum Technical Requirements for Performing Clinical Electroencephalography Introduction Although no single best method exists for recording EEGs under all circumstances, the following

More information

Portions of the Design Document for a course on Neonatal Electroencephalography

Portions of the Design Document for a course on Neonatal Electroencephalography Portions of the Design Document for a course on Neonatal Electroencephalography 1 Introduction... 2 1.1. Organizational Setting... 2 1.1.1. Type of Business... 2 1.1.2. Who They Serve... 2 1.2. Current

More information

Everything you must know about sleep but are too tired to ask

Everything you must know about sleep but are too tired to ask Everything you must know about sleep but are too tired to ask The Sleep Deprivation Crisis Most people are moderately to severely sleep deprived. 71% do not meet the recommended 8 hrs/nt. (7.1 or 6.1?)

More information

Pictures of the brain's activity during Yoga Nidra

Pictures of the brain's activity during Yoga Nidra Pictures of the brain's activity during Yoga Nidra by Robert Nilsson "We had not expected the meditators to be able to control their consciousness to such an extent." (Brain researcher Troels Kjær, The

More information

Rapid Eye Movement Detection using Support Vector Machine. Cristian H. Díaz, Leonardo A. Causa, Javier J. Causa and Claudio M.

Rapid Eye Movement Detection using Support Vector Machine. Cristian H. Díaz, Leonardo A. Causa, Javier J. Causa and Claudio M. Rapid Eye Movement Detection using Support Vector Machine Cristian H. Díaz, Leonardo A. Causa, Javier J. Causa and Claudio M. Held INTRODUCTION Sleep states and stages are identified by the presence of

More information

From A to Z of Quantitative Electroencephalography Event Related Potentials & Neurotherapy

From A to Z of Quantitative Electroencephalography Event Related Potentials & Neurotherapy From A to Z of Quantitative Electroencephalography Event Related Potentials & Neurotherapy 21-25 March 2012, Mantra on Salt Beach Resort, Kingscliff, NSW Australia 5 days in-depth training course with

More information

LifeFlow Meditation 2.0 LifeFlow Audio Technology Instructions

LifeFlow Meditation 2.0 LifeFlow Audio Technology Instructions LifeFlow Meditation 2.0 LifeFlow Audio Technology Instructions LifeFlow Meditation 2.0 LifeFlow Audio Technology How To Use LifeFlow To Combat Stress and Experience Peace and Tranquillity Increase Focus,

More information

An Introduction to ERP Studies of Attention

An Introduction to ERP Studies of Attention An Introduction to ERP Studies of Attention Logan Trujillo, Ph.D. Post-Doctoral Fellow University of Texas at Austin Cognitive Science Course, Fall 2008 What is Attention? Everyone knows what attention

More information

. Handbook of Clinical Neurophysiology

. Handbook of Clinical Neurophysiology Wave Length and Action Potentials: History of the IFCN (Supplements to Clinical Neurophysiology, Vol. 61) By: M.R. Nuwer and C.H. Lücking # 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved 207 Appendix 3 Handbook

More information

MODULE MULTIPLE SLEEP LATENCY TEST (MSLT) AND MAINTENANCE OF WAKEFULNESS TEST (MWT)

MODULE MULTIPLE SLEEP LATENCY TEST (MSLT) AND MAINTENANCE OF WAKEFULNESS TEST (MWT) MODULE MULTIPLE SLEEP LATENCY TEST AND MAINTENANCE OF WAKEFULNESS TEST (MWT) MULTIPLE SLEEP LATENCY TEST AND MAINTENANCE OF WAKEFULNESS TEST (MWT) OBJECTIVES: At the end of this module the student must

More information

Sleep Composition and Sleep EEG: Age, Sex, Ethnicity and Alcohol Effects in NCANDA. Ian M. Colrain

Sleep Composition and Sleep EEG: Age, Sex, Ethnicity and Alcohol Effects in NCANDA. Ian M. Colrain Sleep Composition and Sleep EEG: Age, Sex, Ethnicity and Alcohol Effects in NCANDA Ian M. Colrain Why is sleep important? Sleep architecture and timing undergo dramatic changes during adolescence 50% reduction

More information

Blink behaviour based drowsiness detection

Blink behaviour based drowsiness detection VTI särtryck 362A 2004 Blink behaviour based drowsiness detection method development and validation Master s thesis project in Applied Physics and Electrical Engineering Reprint from Linköping University,

More information

Obtaining Knowledge. Lecture 7 Methods of Scientific Observation and Analysis in Behavioral Psychology and Neuropsychology.

Obtaining Knowledge. Lecture 7 Methods of Scientific Observation and Analysis in Behavioral Psychology and Neuropsychology. Lecture 7 Methods of Scientific Observation and Analysis in Behavioral Psychology and Neuropsychology 1.Obtaining Knowledge 1. Correlation 2. Causation 2.Hypothesis Generation & Measures 3.Looking into

More information

The effect of increased stress levels on memory test performance

The effect of increased stress levels on memory test performance The effect of increased stress levels on memory test performance Hoffman, Marie; Mukete, Valerie; Szmanda, Julia; Witt, Chelsea Spring 211 Physiology 435 Class, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison,

More information

UNDERSTANDING AFFIRMATIONS

UNDERSTANDING AFFIRMATIONS UNDERSTANDING AFFIRMATIONS An affirmation is an act of confirming something to be true. It could be written, or spoken as an oral statement that confirms something. Words have power whether used in a positive

More information

Combining Optogenetics with Electrophysiology Measurements

Combining Optogenetics with Electrophysiology Measurements Combining Optogenetics with Electrophysiology Measurements This research was supported by the National Institute of Aging of the National Institutes of Health under award number R44AG046030. The content

More information

Tinnitus and the Brain

Tinnitus and the Brain Tinnitus and the Brain Dirk De Ridder & Berthold Langguth Moving animals have developed a brain in order to reduce the inherent uncertainty present in an ever changing environment. The auditory system

More information

α α λ α = = λ λ α ψ = = α α α λ λ ψ α = + β = > θ θ β > β β θ θ θ β θ β γ θ β = γ θ > β > γ θ β γ = θ β = θ β = θ β = β θ = β β θ = = = β β θ = + α α α α α = = λ λ λ λ λ λ λ = λ λ α α α α λ ψ + α =

More information

BrainMaster tm System Type 2E Module & BMT Software for Windows tm. Helpful Hints

BrainMaster tm System Type 2E Module & BMT Software for Windows tm. Helpful Hints . BrainMaster tm System Type 2E Module & BMT Software for Windows tm Helpful Hints 1995-2004 BrainMaster Technologies, Inc., All Rights Reserved BrainMaster and From the Decade of the Brain are registered

More information

Belief Brain Training Guidelines.

Belief Brain Training Guidelines. Belief Brain Training Guidelines. Belief Brain Training uses a unique binaural beats sound technology combined with the Gamma Healing techniques to maximise the integration of new empowering belief systems

More information

The Science Behind The Sounds: Brainwaves And States Of Mind

The Science Behind The Sounds: Brainwaves And States Of Mind The Science Behind The Sounds: Brainwaves And States Of Mind Disclaimer: Nothing in this information is intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any medical condition of whatever nature, and shall

More information

Electroencephalography Analysis Using Neural Network and Support Vector Machine during Sleep

Electroencephalography Analysis Using Neural Network and Support Vector Machine during Sleep Engineering, 23, 5, 88-92 doi:.4236/eng.23.55b8 Published Online May 23 (http://www.scirp.org/journal/eng) Electroencephalography Analysis Using Neural Network and Support Vector Machine during Sleep JeeEun

More information

About Hypothesis Testing

About Hypothesis Testing About Hypothesis Testing TABLE OF CONTENTS About Hypothesis Testing... 1 What is a HYPOTHESIS TEST?... 1 Hypothesis Testing... 1 Hypothesis Testing... 1 Steps in Hypothesis Testing... 2 Steps in Hypothesis

More information

A Physiological and Subjective Evaluation of Meditation, Hypnosis, and Relaxation

A Physiological and Subjective Evaluation of Meditation, Hypnosis, and Relaxation A Physiological and Subjective Evaluation of Meditation, Hypnosis, and Relaxation DONALD R. MORSE, DDS, MA,* JOHN S. MARTIN, PHD,** MERRICK L. FURST, PHD.t AND LOUIS L, DUBIN, MA, DDS,* Ss were monitored

More information

N.Galley, R.Schleicher and L.Galley Blink parameter for sleepiness detection 1

N.Galley, R.Schleicher and L.Galley Blink parameter for sleepiness detection 1 N.Galley, R.Schleicher and L.Galley Blink parameter for sleepiness detection 1 Blink Parameter as Indicators of Driver s Sleepiness Possibilities and Limitations. Niels Galley 1, Robert Schleicher 1 &

More information

Connectivity theory of Autism: Using connectivity measures in the assessment and treatment of autistic disorders

Connectivity theory of Autism: Using connectivity measures in the assessment and treatment of autistic disorders Connectivity theory of Autism: Using connectivity measures in the assessment and treatment of autistic disorders Presented at Advances in Cerebral Connectivity Monterey, California Robert Coben,PhD Neuroimaging

More information

13 Electroencephalography

13 Electroencephalography 1 z 9 2008-06-15 12:50 13 Electroencephalography 13.1 INTRODUCTION The first recording of the electric field of the human brain was made by the German psychiatrist Hans Berger in 1924 in Jena. He gave

More information

Brain Controlled Prosthetic Leg

Brain Controlled Prosthetic Leg ISSN: 2454-132X Impact factor: 4.295 (Volume2, Issue6) Available online at: www.ijariit.com Brain Controlled Prosthetic Leg Manu R 1, Mithu Markose 2, Tonio P Thomas 3 1 B.Tech student Dept. of Electronics

More information

Activation neuroimaging studies - GABA receptor function - alcohol cues in alcoholism

Activation neuroimaging studies - GABA receptor function - alcohol cues in alcoholism Activation neuroimaging studies - GABA receptor function A - alcohol cues in alcoholism Professor David Nutt Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol. MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London. Study

More information

Summary of research findings

Summary of research findings Summary of research findings Clinical Findings from the Mind Body Medical Institute at Harvard Medical School. Chronic pain patients reduce their physician visits by 36%. The Clinical Journal of Pain,

More information

Occipital gamma activation during Vipassana meditation

Occipital gamma activation during Vipassana meditation DOI 10.1007/s10339-009-0352-1 RESEARCH REPORT Occipital gamma activation during Vipassana meditation B. Rael Cahn Arnaud Delorme John Polich Received: 27 October 2009 / Accepted: 26 November 2009 Ó The

More information

Chapter 6: HRV Measurement and Interpretation

Chapter 6: HRV Measurement and Interpretation Chapter 6: HRV Measurement and Interpretation Heart-rhythm analysis is more than a measurement of heart rate; it is a much deeper measurement of the complex interactions between the brain, the heart and

More information

Snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnea (updated 09/06)

Snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnea (updated 09/06) Snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnea (updated 09/06) 1. Define: apnea, hypopnea, RDI, obstructive sleep apnea, central sleep apnea and upper airway resistance syndrome. BG 2. What are the criteria for mild,

More information

Consciousness-Based Education: A Simple Solution to the Fundamental Problems in Education.

Consciousness-Based Education: A Simple Solution to the Fundamental Problems in Education. Consciousness-Based Education: A Simple Solution to the Fundamental Problems in Education. Ashley Deans, Ph.D., Director, Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment, and Professor of Consciousness-Based

More information

Ch 7 Altered States of Consciousness

Ch 7 Altered States of Consciousness Ch 7 Altered States of Consciousness Consciousness a state of awareness Altered State of Consciousness involves a change in mental processes in which one is not completely aware Sleep is a state of altered

More information

Classification of Waking, Sleep Onset and Deep Sleep by Single Measures

Classification of Waking, Sleep Onset and Deep Sleep by Single Measures Classification of Waking, Sleep Onset and Deep Sleep by Single Measures K. Šušmáková, A. Krakovská Institute of Measurement Science, Slovak Academy of Sciences Dúbravská cesta 9, 842 19 Bratislava, Slovak

More information

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS, VALIDATION, AND RESEARCH USE CONTENTS:

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS, VALIDATION, AND RESEARCH USE CONTENTS: TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS, VALIDATION, AND RESEARCH USE CONTENTS: Introduction to Muse... 2 Technical Specifications... 3 Research Validation... 4 Visualizing and Recording EEG... 6 INTRODUCTION TO MUSE

More information

The Healing Power of the Drum. Cristine Rego Ojibway, Lac Seul First Nation

The Healing Power of the Drum. Cristine Rego Ojibway, Lac Seul First Nation The Healing Power of the Drum Cristine Rego Ojibway, Lac Seul First Nation Moving toward Healing: The Good Life Mino-Bimaadiziwin or the good life requires working toward a balance in our physical, mental,

More information

Image Streaming Brain Exercise and Problem Solving Technique

Image Streaming Brain Exercise and Problem Solving Technique Image Streaming Brain Exercise and Problem Solving Techniques page 1 of 6 pages Image Streaming Brain Exercise and Problem Solving Technique Burton Linne July 2008 Image Streaming Brain Exercise and Problem

More information

General Information about Sleep Studies and What to Expect

General Information about Sleep Studies and What to Expect General Information about Sleep Studies and What to Expect Why do I need a sleep study? Your doctor has ordered a sleep study because your doctor is concerned you may have a sleep disorder that is impacting

More information

Seizure reduction after deep brain stimulation in a patient with Parkinson disease associated with idiopathic generalized epilepsy

Seizure reduction after deep brain stimulation in a patient with Parkinson disease associated with idiopathic generalized epilepsy Seizure reduction after deep brain stimulation in a patient with Parkinson disease associated with idiopathic generalized epilepsy Epilepsy Center, National Hospital Organization, Nara Medical Center Tohru

More information

Experiment B-37 Emotional Stress Measurement

Experiment B-37 Emotional Stress Measurement 1 Experiment B-37 Emotional Stress Measurement Objectives To learn about the fight or flight response. To examine how stimulation of the human system (by touch, smell, sight or sound) causes the sweat

More information

Indoor Environment Electromagnetic Radiation

Indoor Environment Electromagnetic Radiation Indoor Environment Electromagnetic Radiation Purpose: To increase the students awareness of the sources of electric and magnetic fields and the potential for adverse health effects from prolonged exposure

More information

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF MICROWAVE RADIATION NEUTRALIZERS ON PHYSIOLOGICAL STATE OF HUMAN SUBJECTS

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF MICROWAVE RADIATION NEUTRALIZERS ON PHYSIOLOGICAL STATE OF HUMAN SUBJECTS COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF MICROWAVE RADIATION NEUTRALIZERS ON PHYSIOLOGICAL STATE OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Igor Smirnov, Ph. D. and M. S. 2005 All Copyrights reserved by I.Smirnov Affiliation: GLOBAL

More information

EEG AND SPECT DATA OF A SELECTED SUBJECT DURING PSI TASKS: THE DISCOVERY OF A NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL CORRELATE 1

EEG AND SPECT DATA OF A SELECTED SUBJECT DURING PSI TASKS: THE DISCOVERY OF A NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL CORRELATE 1 Alexander et al: EEG & SPECT Data 1 (Appears in Proceedings of Presented Papers: The Parapsychological Association 41st Annual Convention, pp. 3 13.) EEG AND SPECT DATA OF A SELECTED SUBJECT DURING PSI

More information

THE EFFECTS OF LOW FREQUENCY SOUND ON THE LEVELS OF ACTIVATION

THE EFFECTS OF LOW FREQUENCY SOUND ON THE LEVELS OF ACTIVATION ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS 32, 4 (Supplement), 123 128 (2007) THE EFFECTS OF LOW FREQUENCY SOUND ON THE LEVELS OF ACTIVATION Cezary KASPRZAK AGH University of Science and Technology Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

More information

Uses of EEG in diagnosis and management of epilepsy

Uses of EEG in diagnosis and management of epilepsy KES 2009 Comprehensive Review of Clinical EEG EEG of Epilepsy and Epileptic Syndromes Ki Joong Kim MD PhD Pediatric Neurology Seoul National University Children s Hospital Seoul, Korea Uses of EEG in diagnosis

More information

Characteristics of Auditory Brainstem Response Latencies in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Characteristics of Auditory Brainstem Response Latencies in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Characteristics of Auditory Brainstem Response Latencies in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Dr. ABEIR OSMAN DABBOUS Professor of Audiology (Audio-Vestibular Medicine), Kasr Al-Ainy Faculty of

More information

TOWARDS A COUNTERMEASURE DETECT FATIGUE IN DRIVERS

TOWARDS A COUNTERMEASURE DETECT FATIGUE IN DRIVERS TOWARDS A COUNTERMEASURE DETECT FATIGUE IN DRIVERS DEVICE TO Dr Saroj Lal, Bsc, Msc, Phd, Academic & National Health And Medical Research Council Fellow, Faculty Of Science, University Of Technology, Sydney

More information

Hypothesis Testing - Relationships

Hypothesis Testing - Relationships - Relationships Session 3 AHX43 (28) 1 Lecture Outline Correlational Research. The Correlation Coefficient. An example. Considerations. One and Two-tailed Tests. Errors. Power. for Relationships AHX43

More information

Using Feedforward Neural Networks to Monitor Alertness from Changes in EEG Correlation and Coherence

Using Feedforward Neural Networks to Monitor Alertness from Changes in EEG Correlation and Coherence Using Feedforward Neural Networks to Monitor Alertness from Changes in EEG Correlation and Coherence Scott Makeig Naval Health Research Center, P.O. Box 85122 San Diego, CA 92186-5122 Tzyy-Ping Jung Naval

More information

CHAPTER 2 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF UTERUS AND FOETAL HEART

CHAPTER 2 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF UTERUS AND FOETAL HEART 10 CHAPTER 2 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF UTERUS AND FOETAL HEART the foetal heart. This chapter describes the anatomy and physiology of the uterus and 2.1 ANATOMY OF THE UTERUS The uterus is a pear shaped

More information

Bijan Raahemi, Ph.D., P.Eng, SMIEEE Associate Professor Telfer School of Management and School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

Bijan Raahemi, Ph.D., P.Eng, SMIEEE Associate Professor Telfer School of Management and School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Bijan Raahemi, Ph.D., P.Eng, SMIEEE Associate Professor Telfer School of Management and School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science University of Ottawa April 30, 2014 1 Data Mining Data Mining

More information

Methods in Cognitive Neuroscience. Methods for studying the brain. Single Cell Recording

Methods in Cognitive Neuroscience. Methods for studying the brain. Single Cell Recording Methods in Cognitive Neuroscience Dr. Sukhvinder Obhi Department of Psychology & Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience 1 Methods for studying the brain Single Cell Recording Lesion Method Human Psychophysiology

More information

Activation of the Human Sympathetic Nervous System: Effects on Memory Performance

Activation of the Human Sympathetic Nervous System: Effects on Memory Performance Activation of the Human Sympathetic Nervous System: Effects on Memory Performance Authors: Alicia Ramsey 1, Kevin Rolnick 1, Ryan Smith 1, Chuanxin Weng 2, Yicheng Li 2, Dr. Andrew Lokuta 1 1 UW Department

More information

ERP old/new effects: memory strength and decisional factor(s)

ERP old/new effects: memory strength and decisional factor(s) Neuropsychologia 40 (2002) 2288 2304 ERP old/new effects: memory strength and decisional factor(s) Simon Finnigan a,, Michael S. Humphreys b, Simon Dennis b, Gina Geffen c a School of Psychology, The University

More information

FPz T10 FT9 F7 TP9 TP10

FPz T10 FT9 F7 TP9 TP10 Automatic Marker Recognition on MR Images for EEG Electrode Localization Gert Van Hoey 1;2, Bart Vanrumste 1;2, Rik Van de Walle 1;3, Paul Boon 2, Ignace Lemahieu 1 1 University of Ghent, ELIS Department,

More information

Introduction. Hypothesis Testing. Hypothesis Testing. Significance Testing

Introduction. Hypothesis Testing. Hypothesis Testing. Significance Testing Introduction Hypothesis Testing Mark Lunt Arthritis Research UK Centre for Ecellence in Epidemiology University of Manchester 13/10/2015 We saw last week that we can never know the population parameters

More information

Applying Meditation to Therapy by C. Alexander Simpkins, PhD & Annellen M. Simpkins, PhD

Applying Meditation to Therapy by C. Alexander Simpkins, PhD & Annellen M. Simpkins, PhD Applying Meditation to Therapy by C. Alexander Simpkins, PhD & Annellen M. Simpkins, PhD Meditation has enhanced human potential for more than 2500 years. Now, supported by efficacy and neuroscience studies,

More information

Research. What the Research has to say about Brainwave Entrainment...

Research. What the Research has to say about Brainwave Entrainment... Research What the Research has to say about Brainwave Entrainment... Triggers the brain to release the chemicals associated with pleasure, learning, memory & creativity Eleven patients had peridural and

More information

Basic ultradian components of daytime sleepiness in human subjects

Basic ultradian components of daytime sleepiness in human subjects Psychological Research 1990, Vol.32, No.3, 12-136 Basic ultradian components of daytime sleepiness in human subjects MITSUO HAYASHI and TADAO HORI Department of Behavioral Sciences, Fireully, of Integrated

More information

Jean-Michel Boucheix and Madeline Chevret

Jean-Michel Boucheix and Madeline Chevret Alternative Strategies in Processing 3D Objects Diagrams: Static, Animated and Interactive Presentation of a Mental Rotation Test in an Eye Movements Cued Retrospective Study Jean-Michel Boucheix and Madeline

More information

The Online Journal of New Horizons in Education Volume 3, Issue 3

The Online Journal of New Horizons in Education Volume 3, Issue 3 Undergraduates Who Have a Lower Perception of Controlling Time Fail To Adjust Time Estimation Even When Given Feedback Yoshihiro S. OKAZAKI [1], Tomoya IMURA [2], Masahiro TAKAMURA [3], Satoko TOKUNAGA

More information

Brain development through the experience of a unique fourth state of consciousness

Brain development through the experience of a unique fourth state of consciousness A new approach to human growth Brain development through the experience of a unique fourth state of consciousness By Jaan Suurküla, M.D. To the executive summary To summary for the layman Abstract The

More information

Chapter Five: Paired Samples Methods 1/38

Chapter Five: Paired Samples Methods 1/38 Chapter Five: Paired Samples Methods 1/38 5.1 Introduction 2/38 Introduction Paired data arise with some frequency in a variety of research contexts. Patients might have a particular type of laser surgery

More information