Chapter 13, Section 4: The Mexican War

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1 Chapter 13, Section 4: The Mexican War In this section we will: explain how the United States gained Oregon & Texas Name the new lands the United States acquired as a result of the Mexican War. Describe how a mix of cultures shaped California and the Southwest. 1

2 Possible War over Oregon and Texas Polk takes office in Elected in wake of support for expansion. He takes steps to gain control of Oregon, risking war in the process with. Polk agrees to a compromise over Oregon--it would be divided at latitude 49 degrees North. U.S. gets land south of the line. Great Britain gets land to the north. 2

3 The U.S. named its lands the "Oregon Territory." 3

4 Later the following three states were carved out of the Oregon Territory: in 1859 in 1889 in

5 Meanwhile, Texas proved more difficult. Sign in the dentist's window: Be true to your teeth or they'll be false to you. The United States Senate refused to annex Texas in 1844 because some senators feared this would cause war with. 5

6 Texas president Sam Houston wanted to be annexed so bad by the U.S. that he threatened to ally with Britain. Americans did not want British influence in America, so in 1845, Congress passed a joint resolution admitting Texas to the Union. Texas became the 28th state in

7 The United States and Mexico clash the annexation of Texas outraged Mexicans. They had never really accepted Texan independence. Mexicans believed Americans would encourage rebellions in CA & New Mexico. Americans resented Mexico upset at refusal to sell CA & NM felt Mexico stood in the way of Manifest. 7

8 War begins: Let's look at p.395 of our text. war began after a border dispute over land situated between the Rio Grande & the Nueces River. President Polk ordered soldiers to the disputed area in January 1846, expecting war to break out. April 1846, Mexican soldiers crossed the Rio Grande and fighting erupted. Men on both sides are killed. Polk asks Congress to declare war and Congress does just that!! 8

9 The United States attacked in Mexico on many fronts. Polk hoped that this would lead to a quick victory. General Zachary Taylor crossed the Rio Grande into Mexico. He met Mexican Gen. Santa Anna at the "Battle of Buena Vista" in Feb Outnumbered two to one, the Americans forced Santa Anna's army into retreat! Front 1 9

10 Front 2 American Gen. Winfield Scott lands at Veracruz, an important port city. Scott takes the city and now heads to Mexico City, the capital. 10

11 Front 3 a third army captured Santa Fe without firing a shot, led by Gen. Stephen Kearney he then went to CA, where he won control of it after several battles. 11

12 Even before hearing of the Mexican-American War, Americans in Northern California had begun a revolt against Mexican rule. rebels declared CA an independent republic on June 14, they nicknamed their new nation the "Bear Flag Republic." Californians were led by a young American named John C. Fremont, who drove the Mexican troops out of Northern California. 12

13 By 1847, the U.S. controlled all of New Mexico and California. Gen. Scott had reached Mexico City, facing strong Mexican resistance. young Mexican soldiers made a heroic stand at the Battle of Chapultepec. 13

14 With the capital city under American control, the Mexican government moved to make peace. Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe- Hidalgo in Mexico had to cede, or give up, all of California & New Mexico to the U.S. These lands were called the "Mexican." 14

15 The United States paid Mexico $15 million and agreed to respect the rights of Spanish-speaking folks in the Mexican Cession. 5 yrs later, in 1853, the U.S. paid Mexico $10 million more for a strip of land in presentday Arizona and New Mexico. Americans needed this land to complete a. this land was called the Gadsden Purchase 15

16 A mix of cultures after 1848 English speaking settlers now flocked to the Southwest. Mexican-Americans teach them how to mine silver and irrigate crops. Earlier residents try hard to retain their traditions and rights. in the Southwest, Americans kept some Mexican laws. 16

17 Let's take a look at what we've discussed today!! tion.com/index.cfm? guidassetid=18605db5 FD C4832C71AB7 &blnfromsearch=1 &productcode=us 17

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