BIOMASS GASIFICATION : CHALLENGES AND THEIR SOLUTIONS BY - J. MUKHERJEE

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1 BIOMASS GASIFICATION : CHALLENGES AND THEIR SOLUTIONS BY - J. MUKHERJEE

2 Background of GP Energy GP Energy is in the field of Biomass Gasification Since 1987 when MNRE was not born. It is the first in India to develop commercial sized plants. It has successfully installed more than 100 such plants in India, Nepal, Thailand and South America. Some of its valued clients include

3 GP Gasifier System It is based on fixed bed updraft technology. It is a multi-fuel system can accept various forest waste and agro waste from a wide range in the same plant. It is a continuous operating system and capable running for 24 hours a day and up to 350 days in a year. The calorific value of gas is in the order of Kcal/Nm 3. The elaborate gas cleaning system ensures tar and particulate concentration in gas remain below 10 mg/nm 3.

4 Advantages of Biomass Gasifier Low investment. Cheap and renewable source High efficiency De-centralized stand alone system Wide range of economically viable capacities from few kilowatts to few megawatts.

5 Challenges and their Solutions Continuous supply of biomass throughout the year at a stable price. For rural electrification biomass consumption is very low. Hence, normally it does not pose any problem. GP Energy has successfully developed Gasifier Stove which facilitates controlled flame and reduce fuel consumption by 60-65%. Considerable quantity of biomass saved by converting from traditional chullah to cook stove can be used in Gasifier.

6 GP Gasifier Stove domestic type with single burner commercial type with double burner

7 Challenges and their Solutions For industrial use, the gasifier should accept multi fuels allowing flexibility in feed stock Fast growing Briquetting Industry is a reliable and dependable source of supply. For large requirement, GP Energy has partnered with Gussing Renewable Energy GmbH, Austria to introduce their world class gasification technology on MSW gasification.

8 Gussing Gasification System Heat Electricity Synthetic natural gas Gasoline, diesel Dual fluidised bed steam gasification system developed by GREA

9 Gussing Technology

10 Properties of Gas & Acceptable feedstock Gas Composition : CO 2 = % CO = % CH 4 = 8 12 % H 2 = % N 2 = 3 5 % Calorific Value (Gross) = 3,825 3,875 K.cal/ Nm 3 Feed Stock Tried Wood Chips Sewage sludge (Pellets) Saw dust Barley Clover pellets Brown coal Animal residues Rape seed grisp MSW

11 Challenges and their Solutions Disposal of Ash Ash from wood gasification comes out as char has a high market value. Ash from other agro-waste gasification contains 10-15% unburnt carbon and reused in the agricultural field or in the brick, roofing tiles and other clay industries.

12 Disposal of Tar Challenges and their Solutions Generated tar has wide range of applications. When quantity is high, tar can be used : - as black paint - as fuel for the furnaces - as fuel for distillation For small quantity, there is no buyer, tar can be put back to the gasification reactor for burning and disposal.

13 Challenges and their Solutions Disposal of Re-cycled water Water when reused for cleaning of the gas, contains high level of BOD and COD and cannot be drained untreated. For small installations, water may not be recycled and may be drained with dilution, if required. GP Energy has incorporated effluent treatment plant in its systems for proper treatment and re-use of the same treated water. Few Systems have arrived where water is not used for gas cleaning. GP Energy has gone one step ahead and now brought a unique gasification system which is absolutely tar free. NO GAS CLEANING REQUIRED AT ALL.

14

15 Properties of Gas & Acceptable feedstock Composition: Hydrogen % Carbon Monoxide % Methane % Ethane % Calorific Value Kcal/Nm 3 Tar & Particulate % Feedstock Tried -Coal Dust, Wood Scrap wastes, Grass and water hyacinth. -Agricultural waste - coconut husk, palm waste, maize cobs, rice husk -Cashew nut and groundnut shell, alfalfa seeds etc. -Paper and plastic briquettes, leather, sawdust briquettes -MSW briquettes and sewage sludge

16 Economics for energy generation Cost of generation depends on Size of the plant Cost of in-put i.e. biomass, labour etc. Maximum utilization of plant (PLF)

17 Government Support To popularize biomass based systems, active support from the government is a must in the following areas : - Creation of Biomass Depots where all kinds of biomass in loose form and/or in briquetted form shall be available. Biooil, vermi-compost, biogas in balloons etc. shall also be available under the same roof. Organising awareness and training program in the rural areas for collection and briquetting of forest waste and agricultural residues/waste including RDF. The programme should concentrate on the locally available biomass.

18 Government Support Creation of electrical load in the rural areas by way of encouraging irrigation and cottage industries which may be suitable as per specific site condition like rice huller, atta chakhi, saw mill, mini cold storage, milk processing plant etc. with the help of various departments. Since RDF is considered as bio-fuel, there is huge potential for generation of power from MSW. As such municipalities should be compelled to take up MSW based power projects on PPP model.

19 Thank you for your kind attention

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