A Study on the Effects of Teacher Creativity and Teaching Expertise on Creative Teaching Behaviors

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1 , pp A Study on the Effects of Teacher Creativity and Teaching Expertise on Creative Teaching Behaviors Danbi Choe 1, Soo-Young Lee 2, Sung-Sik Kim 3 1 YoungJoong Elementary School 185 Yangsan-Ro, Yeongdeungpo-Gu, Seoul , KOREA 2 Dept. of Elementary Education, Seoul National University of Education 96, Seochojungang-Ro, Seocho-Gu, Seoul , KOREA Corresponding Author : 3 Dept. of Elementary Education, Seoul National University of Education 96, Seochojungang-Ro, Seocho-Gu, Seoul , KOREA Abstract. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between teacher creativity, teaching expertise, and creative teaching behaviors. The subjects were 304 pre-service elementary teachers in Korea. According to the results, teacher creativity and teaching expertise had a meaningful impact on the creative teaching behaviors. Also, creativity had a greater influence on creative teaching behaviors than teaching expertise. In conclusion, to foster creative teaching behaviors, the curriculum for pre-service teachers should focus on the development of pre-service teachers own creativity and teaching expertise as well. This study also verified that the concept of Creative Teacher Competences contain creative teaching behaviors, teacher creativity, and teaching expertise as sub factors. In a follow-up study, the relationships between those three factors will be investigated through structure equation analysis and multi-group analysis. By analyzing path coefficient differences by gender and grade, specific suggestions regarding the curriculum for pre-service teachers will be discussed. Keywords: Creative Teaching Behaviors, Teacher Creativity, Teaching Expertise, Creative Teacher Competences, Pre-service Elementary Teachers 1 Introduction Creativity has been emphasized as a highly important aspect in education since the issuance of the 6 th National Curriculum and remains a vital aspect to this day. The characteristics of the 2015 revised National Curriculum, similarly, focused on improving the talented student of Creativity and Convergence. Due to this focus, lots of research has been conducted and interest in studies about teachers creativity has increased due to the teachers strong influence on the learners. From this, teacher crea- ISSN: ASTL Copyright 2016 SERSC

2 tivity can be distinguished from the common definition of creativity due to the fact that teacher creativity is specifically formulated from teachers personal creativity and expertise, based on interactions in the classroom [1]. In Lee et. al. s (2015) work, this particular concept of Teacher Creativity was elaborated and expanded upon to create the new concept of Creative Teacher Competences. Creative Teacher Competences contains not only teacher s own creativity and teaching expertise but also teaching behaviors which ultimately improve student creativity [2]. In other words, Creative Teacher Competences is a concept which includes teacher creativity, teaching expertise, and creative teaching behaviors. The meaning of teacher creativity encompasses creative thinking ability as well as divergent thinking ability, such as originality and imagination [3-5]. Teaching expertise refers to professional capacity, such as knowledge, skills, attitudes, and traits teachers must be equipped with for student learning [6]. Creative teaching behaviors are about the teacher s behaviors in class. It refers to when a teacher, based on their own personal creativity and expertise, cultivates an atmosphere where students can exercise and improve their creativity [7-8]. Such creative teaching behaviors are available when teachers have teacher creativity and teaching expertise, so it can be presumed that teacher creativity and teaching expertise affect creative teaching behaviors [2]. Therefore, the results of this study confirm the hypothesis of a previous study and expand upon the concept of Creative Teacher Competences by verifying the relationship between teacher creativity, teaching expertise, and creative teaching behaviors. Having achieved this, more detailed information specifically tailored to this aspect of the university curriculum for improving Creative Teacher Competences of pre-service teachers can now be examined and discussed. 2 Methods 2.1 Subject This study targeted 304 students among three departments of S. University of Education. Of the 304 students, 68 were male while 236 were females. When differentiated by grade, 69 subjects were freshmen, 82 subjects were sophomores, 83 subjects were juniors, and 70 subjects were seniors. 2.2 Measurement The variables of this study were teacher creativity, teaching expertise, and creative teaching behaviors, as seen in Table 1. The questionnaires have a total of 129 items composed of three categories and 22 subcategories. The items measured using the 5- point Likert scale. 60 Copyright 2016 SERSC

3 Table 1. Items of Creative Teacher Competences of pre-service teachers Teacher Creativity Category Thinking Ability Imagination & Originality Teaching Expertise Creative Teaching Behaviors Subcategory(Number of items) Inference(8), Questioning(8), Critical thinking(7), Integration(8) Openness(5), Fluency(5), Elaboration (5), Divergent thinking(5) Subject Knowledge Comprehension(4), Instructional Design(5), Instructional Technical Adaptability(11), Student Assessment(3), Instructional Attitude(10) Independence(5), Integration(5), Motivation(5), Judgement(5), Flexibility(5), Evaluation(5), Question(5), Opportunities(5), Frustration(5) 2.3 Data collection and analysis Data regarding Creative Teacher Competences were collected using structured questionnaires from November 30, 2015 to December 04, Missing data were replaced through the regression imputation method. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, reliability analysis, and regression analysis were conducted using SPSS Statistics The correlation between variables was analyzed by Pearson s correlation coefficient and reliability was shown with Cronbach s α. 3 Results 3.1 Descriptive statistics In order to check for the presence of outliers in the sample, descriptive statistics were analyzed. In the results, as seen in Table 2, outliers were not detected in mean or standard deviation. Also, the absolute value was less than 2 in both skewness and kurtosis. The data had a normal distribution, and therefore, could be used for Structural Equation Modeling. Table 2. Descriptive statistics Teacher Creativity Category Subcategory Min Max Mean S.D Skewness Kurtosis Thinking Ability Inference Questioning Critical Thinking Integration Copyright 2016 SERSC 61

4 Imagination & Originality Teaching Expertise Openness Fluency Elaboration Divergent Thinking Subject Knowledge Comprehension Instructional Design Instructional Technical Adaptability Student Assessment Instructional Attitude Creative Teaching Behaviors Independence Integration Motivation Judgment Flexibility Evaluation Question Opportunities Frustration Reliability analysis The result of the reliability analysis of the original items indicated that Item no. 24 impeded the reliability. Therefore, a reliability analysis was conducted again after the item was removed. As a result, the final reliability values (Cronbach's α) were quite high as the value of all the items (Creative Teacher Competences) was.988, Cronbach's α of Teacher Creativity was.972, Teaching Expertise was.973, and Creative Teaching Behaviors was Correlation analysis As a result of an analysis through Pearson s correlations, correlations of teacher creativity and teaching expertise (r=.741, p 0.01), creative teaching behaviors and creativity (r=720, p 0.01), and creative teaching behaviors and teaching expertise (r=865, p 0.01) show a significant positive correlation. In other words, when one factor increases the other two factors also increase. In addition, the correlations between all of the measured variables were analyzed. The Pearson s correlations coefficient of all subcategories showed.381 to.719 based on a significance level of This means that there was a considerable positive 62 Copyright 2016 SERSC

5 correlation between each of the factors. It was also confirmed that there was no multicollinearity among the factors because there were no coefficients with 0.90 or higher. 3.4 Regression analysis In order to confirm the casual relation between factors, regression analysis was conducted. After an analysis of the significance of the model, in which teacher creativity and teaching expertise could predict creative teaching behaviors, the result found that the model was suitable, as F value was (p=.000), R 2 of the regression equation was.762, and Durbin-Watson was [Table 3]. To be specific, teacher creativity and teaching expertise can explain 76.2 percent of creative teaching behaviors, as seen in Table 3 where R square of the regression fraction was.762. The β values of teacher creativity and teaching expertise were.736 and.174 respectively. It indicates that teacher creativity and teaching expertise have significant positive effect on creative teaching behaviors. Furthermore, a conclusion could be drawn that teaching expertise has a stronger impact on creative teaching behaviors than teacher creativity as a result that the β value of teaching expertise (.736) is higher than the β value of teacher creativity (.174). Table 3. Regression analysis with creative teaching behaviors as the dependent variable, teaching expertise and teacher creativity as independent variables Dependent variable Independent variable B(Std. Error) β t p Creative Teaching Behaviors Constant (5.021) Teaching Expertise.880(.050) Teacher Creativity.152(.037) R=.873 R 2 =.762 adjusted R 2 =.761 F= Ρ=.000 Durbin-Watson= Conclusion and Discussion This study aimed to confirm that teacher creativity and teaching expertise affect creative teaching behaviors. In order to achieve this goal, the data of 304 pre-service teachers were collected and analyzed. Through descriptive statistics, it was found that there are no outliers in mean, standard deviation, skewness, or kurtosis. Also, as a result of confirming normal distribution, a follow-up study on the Structural Equation Modeling will be conducted. After analyzing the reliability, the one item that impeded the reliability was removed and the final reliability coefficients of all variables were higher than.9, thereby verifying its high reliability of the questionnaires. The results of the correlation coefficients were higher than.7, which confirmed a high positive correlation among the three variables. Lastly, through regression analysis with creative teaching behaviors as the dependent variable and teaching expertise and teacher creativity as the independent variables, it was found that teacher creativity and teaching Copyright 2016 SERSC 63

6 expertise had a significant effect on creative teaching behaviors. Also, the results concluded that teaching expertise had more of an effect on creative teaching behaviors than teacher creativity. From these results, meaningful suggestions regarding education for pre-service teachers can be made. This study confirmed the hypothesis that teacher creativity and teaching expertise have a meaningful effect on creative teaching behaviors. In other words, to foster creative teaching behaviors, the curriculum for pre-service teachers should focus on the development of pre-service teachers own creativity and teaching expertise as well. In addition, Creative Teacher Competences is a concept that includes teacher creativity, teaching expertise, and creative teaching behaviors. Although the result indicates that teacher creativity and teaching expertise can predict 76.2 percent of creative teaching behaviors, that fact that 23.8 percent still remains unexplained leads to the conclusion that a different setting is required. In this setting teacher creativity, teaching expertise, and creative teaching behaviors are all separate sub factors of Creative Teacher Competences. In a follow-up study, whether teacher creativity and teaching expertise show a mediating or moderating effect on creative teaching behaviors will be explored. In addition, significant path coefficient differences by gender and grade will be investigated through multi-group analysis. From these results, important implications can be expected to specifically target and improve the curriculum of universities and programs for Creative Teacher Competences of pre-service teachers. References 1. Choi, M.J.: The task and meaning of teacher creativity. Journal of Learner Centered Curriculum and Instruction, Vol.7, No.1, pp (2007) 2. Lee, S.Y., Kyun, S.A., Hong, H.J., Lim, E.B.: Analyzing Creative Teacher Competences of Pre-service Elementary Teachers: Focused on Teacher Creativity and Teaching Expertises. Asia-pacific Journal of Multimedia Services Convergent with Art, Humanities, and Sociology, Vol.6, No.1, pp (2016) 3. Choi, B.Y., Kang, B.N.: Problem-Based Learning to Enhance Creativity. Korean Society for Creative Education. Vol.10, No.2, pp (2010) 4. Kim, Y.C.: The Theory and Development of Creativity. Kyoyookbook, Seoul (2007) 5. Shin, J.H.: An Analysis of the Structural Relations among Elementary Students' Home Environment, Emotional Intelligence, Creativity, and Academic Performance. Journal of Educational Studies. Vol.38, No.2, pp (2007) 6. Lee, D.Y., Kim, S.W.: The Development and Validation of the Evaluation Indicators for Teaching Competency of Elementary Teachers. Journal of Educational Evaluation, Vol.25, No.4, pp (2012) 7. Choi, J.E.: Development of the Scale for Elementary School Teacher's Creative Teaching Behaviors. The Journal of Elementary Education, Vol.23, No.2, pp (2010) 8. Lee, J.H., Lee, J.S.: Structural Relationship between Teacher's Creative Teaching Behaviors and Motivational Factors. Korean Journal of Teacher Education, Vol.31, No.1, pp (2015) 64 Copyright 2016 SERSC

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