Biomass to Gas Bram van der Drift

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1 Biomass to Gas Bram van der Drift Presented at the Future World of Biogas: Europe 2011, 24 November 2011, London, United Kingdom ECN-L November 2011

2 BIOMASS to GAS Bram van der Drift

3 CONTENTS Digestion and gasification Processes, difference, synergy Status of gasification Costs Future/ambitions 2

4 TERMINOLOGY Biogas Gas from digestion (CH 4, CO 2 ) Syngas Gas from gasification (CH 4, CO 2, H 2, CO,.. ) Bio-methane Upgraded gas to essentially 100% CH 4 SNG Substitute/Synthetic Natural Gas, biogas or syngas upgraded to Natural Gas quality can be made from coal or biomass (biosng) 3

5 DIGESTION and GASIFICATION of biomass characteristics BIOGAS SYNGAS technology: digestion gasification status: commercially available in development (biomass) scale: small (<1 MW) large (>100 MW) fuel: wet biomass (local) dry biomass (local or import) potential: limited (< 60 PJ in NL) unlimited 4

6 DIGESTION and GASIFICATION of biomass process BIOGAS SYNGAS temperature: < 100 C > 500 C process biological chemical gas: CH 4 CH 4 CO 2 CO 2 H 2 CO. 5

7 DIGESTION and GASIFICATION of biomass final products BIOGAS SYNGAS CHP bio-methane CHP bio-methane Netherlands (2010): Netherlands (2010) 2.0 PJ heat PJ power 1.5 PJ power 0.9 PJ bio-methane 0 6

8 DIGESTION a biological process BIOGAS 7

9 GASIFICATION a thermal process SYNGAS 8

10 PRODUCING BIO-METHANE digestion gas cleaning upgrading to NG specification solid/liquid fuel gaseous fuel contaminated clean gaseous fuel NG quality gas 9

11 PRODUCING BIO-METHANE gasification gas cleaning upgrading to NG specification digestion gas cleaning upgrading to NG specification solid/liquid fuel gaseous fuel contaminated clean gaseous fuel NG quality gas 10

12 tar removal C2H4 H2 + CO 3H2 + CO CH4 + H2O gasification gas cleaning upgrading to NG specification digestion S removal dust removal gas cleaning CO2 removal water removal upgrading to NG specification 11

13 tar removal C2H4 H2 + CO 3H2 + CO CH4 + H2O gasification gas cleaning upgrading to NG specification digestion S removal dust removal gas cleaning CO2 removal water removal upgrading to NG specification 12

14 PRODUCTION of BIO-METHANE digestion and gasification compared Many differences (size, residence time, process, technology status, type of biomass, conversion, ) Similarities in gas cleaning/upgrading: - S-removal - CO 2 -removal Synergy: - NG-specs development (e.g. H 2 content) - Certification - Digestate gasification 13

15 GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES Fixed bed Circulating fluidized bed Entrained flow Fuel Gas Fuel Oxygen & Steam Drying Pyrolysis Fuel Air Reduction Oxidation Air Gas Air Ash Slag Gas simple cheap tar in gas limited scale limited fuel choice fuel flexible up-scalable tar in gas conversion not 100% commercial large scale no tar in gas O 2 -plant required fuel milling <0.1 mm too high T for biomass 14

16 TECHNOLOGIES Fixed bed Indirect fluidized bed Entrained flow Fuel raw producer gas Fuel Oxygen & Steam Drying flue gas Pyrolysis pyrolysis Air Oxidation Air combustion Gas Reduction Gas biomass air Slag simple tar in gas limited scale limited fuel choice steam or CO 2 or fuel flexible up-scalable conversion is not 100% tar in gas no N 2 in gas commercial large scale no tar in gas O 2 -plant required fuel milling <0.1 mm too high T for biomass 15

17 STATUS OF GASIFICATION gasifier without gas cleaning CFB Metso, Varo (Swe), co-firing lime kiln, 35 MW th_biomass CFB FW, Lahti (Fin), co-firing PF boiler, 45 MW th_biomass Updraft Nexterra, Tolko (Can), boiler, 12 MW th_biomass 16

18 STATUS OF GASIFICATION gasifier without gas cleaning PRME, # plants with boiler, 1-30 MW th_biomass Indirect fluidized bed FERCO, Burlington (US), boiler, 40 MW th_biomass Updraft Bioneer, 8 plants with boiler, 4-5 MW th_biomass 17

19 STATUS OF GASIFICATION combined heat and power (engine) Volund updraft gasifier, Harboore (Denmark), 1 MW e Repotec indirect gasifier, Gussing (Austria), 2 MW e Ortner indirect gasifier, Villach (Austria), 3.7 MW e Ortner indirect gasifier, Oberwart (Austria), 2.8 MW e 18

20 STATUS OF GASIFICATION combined heat and power (engine) Pyroforce downdraft gasifier, Stans (Switzerland), 1.2 MW e Carbona fluidized bed gasifier, Skive (Denmark), 6 MW e Weiss 3-stage gasifier, Hadsund (Denmark), 0.15 MW e 19

21 STATUS OF GASIFICATION (ambitious) plans 20 MW production of SNG (Goteborg Energi, Sweden) 300 MW production of SNG (E.On, Sweden) 12 MW production of SNG (Dahlman, Netherlands) 200 MW FT diesel (Carbona, UPM, Finland or France) 200 MW FT diesel (Foster Wheeler, Neste Oil, Finland) 75 MW methanol (Uhde, Sweden) 25 MW ethanol (Enerkem, US) 55 MWe power IGCC (Rentech, US) 20

22 efficiency Basis: wood (20% moisture) to SNG, gross efficiency LHV C. M. van der Meijden et.al., Biomass and Bioenergy 34, pp , GASIFICATION for SNG SNG: Substitute Natural Gas (bio-methane) - Entrained Flow (oxygen-blown) - CFB: Circulating Fluidized Bed (oxygen-blown) - Indirect Fluidized bed 70% 70% 64% 60% 53% 50% Entrained Flow CFB MILENA 21

23 INDIRECT FLUIDIZED BED MILENA technology raw producer gas Complete conversion High methane yield Fuel flexible pyrolysis flue gas combustion biomass air steam or CO 2 or 22

24 collector absorber stripper TAR REMOVAL OLGA technology tar free gas Complete tar removal No methane removal Tar recycle raw gas tar tar 23

25 MILENA gasification OLGA tar removal 25 kw 200 m 3 /h m 3 /h 800 kw 2 m 3 /h m 3 /h 24

26 SNG DEMONSTRATION PLANT - First phase 12 MW: ~900 Nm3/h bio-methane from waste wood - Second phase MW - HVC main partner 25

27 SNG PLANTS in SWEDEN Goteborg Energi: recently started construction of 20 MW SNG from clean wood E.On Sweden aims at 10 TWh/a in 2020 (1200 MW SNG ) 26

28 SNG PLANTS on COAL 3 GW plant in US since 1984, ~ Nm3/h SNG Several large-scale coal plants planned or under construction in China, Korea, 27

29 WHAT DOES biosng COST? total capital investment Total Capital Investment (TCI) of the 10 th biosng plant with 1 GW th_biomass capacity (1 GW th_biomass = 20 PJ SNG /y = 0.6 bcm/y) Investment is estimated by: - Assuming existing/planned GtL, IGCC, CtL, and CtSNG as references - Expressing investment per kw input capacity - Quantifying differences in scale, technology, time, 28

30 $/kw-input GtL BtL IGCC CtL CtSNG BtSNG arrows indicate actual plants or plants under construction 29

31 WHAT DOES biosng COST? total capital investment large commercial plant Average from references: 1400 $/kw (thermal input) After learning: 1000 $/kw (thermal input) Translating to 15 $/GJ (biosng) production costs 30

32 Green Gas in NL [bcm/y] GREEN DEAL GREEN GAS a deal between NL government and industry

33 EU AMBITIONS on BIOGAS/BIOMETHANE National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP- EU27): projected 535 PJ/y in 2020 NL: 25 PJ/y in 2020 (1200 MW SNG ), 700 PJ/y in 2050 S: 36 PJ/y in 2020 D: 200 PJ/y in 2020, 360 PJ/y in 2030 Only NL mentions biomethane as a product 32

34 SUMMARY Digestion and gasification are non-competing processes Very different in feedstock, scale, Both however can be used for CHP and SNG/biomethane Happening now: digestion for SNG/biomethane Gasification will follow for the larger quantities Gasification still needs technological development and upscaling, but benefits from coal-based technologies Do not forget BECCS: bioenergy with CCS 33

35 MORE INFORMATION Bram van der Drift e: PO Box 1 t: NL 1755 ZG Petten w: the Netherlands publications: fuel composition database: tar dew point calculator: IEA bioenergy/gasification: Milena indirect gasifier: OLGA: / SNG: and 34

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