Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

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1 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Chapter 13 1 Ojectives Distinguish between the following terms: somatic cell and gamete; autosome and sex chromosomes; haploid and diploid. List the phases of meiosis I and meiosis II and describe the events characteristic of each phase. Describe three events that occur during meiosis I but not during mitosis. Explain how independent assortment, crossing over, and random fertilization contribute to genetic variation in sexually reproducing organisms. 2 Hereditary Similarity and Variation Living organisms are distinguished by their ability to reproduce their own kind. Heredity is the transmission of traits from one generation to the next Offspring resemble their parents more than they do less closely related individuals of the same species. Variation shows that offspring differ somewhat in appearance from parents and siblings 3 1

2 Genetics is the scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation 4 Inheritance of Genes: The Basis of Heredity Genes are segments of DNA and are the units of heredity Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes Each gene in an organism s DNA has a specific locus on a certain chromosome We inherit one set of chromosomes from our mother and one set from our father 5 Comparison of Asexual and Sexual Reproduction In asexual reproduction one parent produces genetically identical offspring by mitosis 6 2

3 In sexual reproduction two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the two parents A life cycle is the generation-to-generation sequence of stages in the reproductive history of an organism Fertilization and meiosis alternate in sexual life cycles 8 The Variety of Sexual Life Cycles There are three main types of sexual life cycles which differ in the timing of meiosis and fertilization In animals meiosis occurs during gamete formation Gametes are the only haploid cells 9 3

4 Plants and some algae exhibit an alternation of generations The life cycle includes both diploid and haploid multicellular stages 11 4

5 In most fungi and some protists meiosis produces haploid cells that give rise to a haploid multicellular adult organism The haploid adult carries out mitosis, producing cells that will become gametes 13 Sets of Chromosomes in Human Cells In humans each somatic cell has 46 chromosomes, made up of two sets One set of chromosomes comes from each parent A karyotype is an ordered, visual representation of the chromosomes in a cell Homologous chromosomes are the two chromosomes composing a pair Have the same characteristics May also be called autosomes 15 5

6 Sex chromosomes are distinct from each other in their characteristics and are represented as X and Y Determine the sex of the individual, XX being female, XY being male A diploid cell has two sets of each of its chromosomes A human somatic cell has 46 chromosomes (2n = 46) 17 Behavior of Chromosome Sets in the Human Life Cycle At sexual maturity the ovaries and testes produce haploid gametes by meiosis During fertilization these gametes, sperm and ovum, fuse, forming a diploid zygote The zygote develops into an adult organism 18 6

7 Reminder: The Steps of Cell Division Three steps occur in every cell division process, independent of the the type of cell involved The DNA of the cell is copied prior to the beginning of division During division, the two copies of the cellular DNA are separated The cell then divides into two daughter cells 20 In a cell in which DNA synthesis has occurred all the chromosomes are duplicated and thus each consists of two identical sister chromatids 21 7

8 Unlike somatic cells gametes (sperm and egg cells) are haploid cells, containing only one set of chromosomes 23 Meiosis Meiosis reduces the number of chromosome sets from diploid to haploid Meiosis takes place in two sets of divisions, meiosis I and meiosis II During meiosis I the homologous pairs separate The chromosome number is reduced from diploid to haploid During meiosis II the sister chromatids separate Resembles mitosis 24 8

9 The Stages of Meiosis Meiosis I reduces the number of chromosomes from diploid to haploid Meiosis II produces four haploid daughter cells 26 9

10 Crossing Over and Synapsis After interphase the sister chromatids are held together by proteins called cohesins the nonsister chromatids are broken at precisely corresponding positions a zipper-like structure called the synaptonemal complex holds the homologs together tightly DNA breaks are repaired, joining DNA from one nonsister chromatid to the corresponding segment of another 29 10

11 A Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis Meiosis can be distinguished from mitosis by three events in meiosis l Synapsis and crossing over Homologous chromosomes physically connect and exchange genetic information Tetrads on the metaphase plate At metaphase I of meiosis, paired homologous chromosomes (tetrads) are positioned on the metaphase plates 31 Separation of homologues At anaphase I of meiosis, homologous pairs move toward opposite poles of the cell In anaphase II of meiosis, the sister chromatids separate 32 11

12 Origins of Genetic Variation Among Offspring Genetic variation produced in sexual life cycles contributes to evolution Reshuffling of genetic material in meiosis produces genetic variation In species that reproduce sexually the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis and fertilization is responsible for most of the variation that arises in each generation 34 Independent Assortment of Chromosomes Homologous pairs of chromosomes orient randomly at metaphase I of meiosis In independent assortment each pair of chromosomes sorts its maternal and paternal homologues into daughter cells independently of the other pairs 35 12

13 Crossing Over Crossing over produces recombinant chromosomes that carry genes derived from two different parents 37 Random Fertilization The fusion of gametes will produce a zygote with any of about 64 trillion diploid combinations 39 13

14 Evolutionary Significance of Genetic Variation Genetic variation is the raw material for evolution by natural selection Mutations are the original source of genetic variation Sexual reproduction produces new combinations of variant genes, adding more genetic diversity 40 14

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