Electrical nerve stimulation: re-designing, producing and testing a portable stimulator.

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Electrical nerve stimulation: re-designing, producing and testing a portable stimulator."

Transcription

1 Electrical nerve stimulation: re-designing, producing and testing a portable stimulator. Nimesh Shah Supervisors: Dr. Anne Vanhoest Professor Nick Donaldson The Implanted Devices Group at UCL has necessity for an electrical stimulator, and there is one that exists. This report covers how the old circuit which produced a square pulse, and an exponential pulse was adapted. The circuit was changed so that the square pulse had the capability of being a stepped square pulse too. This was done by introducing a new monostable, and extra logic components. The parameters that were preliminarily defined were not completely adhered to. Therefore, further work still needs to be conducted to refine the stimulator and there are suggestions concerning that.

2 Contents Acknowledgement Introduction What nerve stim specification of the box Old circuit New circuit Additional Circuit Finished Stimulator Typical Setup Parameters Waveforms Periods max. min. Amplitudes Charge Balance. Future Work Bibliography 1

3 1. Introduction 1.1 What is Electrical Stimulation? Electrical stimulation of a nerve is the generation of an action potential by the application of a current waveform (in the instance of this project). Electrical stimulation is used to restore function in neurologically impaired individuals. Electrical stimulation can help with loss of hearing by stimulation of the auditory nerve (Grill and Mortimer 1995), or foot drop in hemiplegic patients. (McNeal and Bowman 1985). It has been shown that the use of different pulse shapes have different physiological effects (Vuckovic, Rijkhoff and Struijk 2004). It is important for the Implanted Devices Group at University College London to have an electrical nerve stimulator, which is able to produce different pulse shapes, and thus differing effects. The use of such a stimulator varies, from as a control when comparing against another stimulator, or the ability to set one waveform and be able to see the impact of changing the electrodes. There is an electrical nerve stimulator which is currently in use, however, the stimulator does not have the capabilities of producing a stepped square pulse. This will be the scope of my project. 2

4 1.2 Specification of a Stimulator In the 19 th Century it was discovered that the relationship between the amount of current needed to activate a nerve depended on the pulse width in a hyperbolic relationship as shown in fig (Donaldson 2009) Figure Further investigation by Geddes and Bourland (1985) saw that the least amount of current is needed when pulse widths are less than chronaxie. In humans chronaxie occurs at about 100µs. The parameters shown in table 1.2.1, that I set out to achieve given agree with these findings. Table Parameter Minimum Maximum Frequency 5Hz 500Hz Pulse Width 50µs 5ms Delay 1µs 100µs 3

5 Figure

6 2. Protoboard Circuit 2.1 Old Circuit This is the original circuit, as seen in fig , that was first designed by Prof. Donaldson and Eleanor Comi (2002). This was continued by Dr. Anne Vanhoest. This circuit can switch between two types of pulses; a square pulse, and one that decays exponentially as shown in figs and Figure Figure The desired waveform can be selected at Switch 2 on the circuit. It is important to note that this is the logic circuit, which produces two voltage waveforms. There is an additional circuit which is responsible for converting the voltage waveform, into a current waveform this will be further discussed in section Clock Loop We can clearly see the clock loop indicated in the circuit diagram in fig The monostables involved, MONO1 and MONO2, produce the time intervals. MONO1 produces the interval 1-2, and MONO2 produces the interval 2-5. These intervals are determined by the RC circuits R1C1 and R2C2, the two resistors are variable and R2 is present on the front panel allowing user control of frequency. We can see though 1-5 is the period, the user only has control over the interval 2-5. The 5

7 feedback into the NOR gate will be discussed in section Square Pulse The formation is more easily described if each stage is considered individually. The pulse is bound by the time intervals 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6. Figure The first stage of the pulse occurs in the interval 1-2. This is generated by MONO1 and is indicated as the clock loop in fig The returning pulse around the loop, instant 6 triggers the monostable on the rising edge. Figure The interval 2-5 is determined by the second monostable which is triggered by the falling edge of instant 2 and contributes to the determination of instant 6. Instant 6 is equivalent to instant 4, (the end of the charge balancing phase of either the square pulse or the exponentially decaying pulse) when instant 4 is greater than 6

8 instant 5. Or, instant 6 is equal to instant 5 when instant 4 is less than instant 5. In this case the frequency is as set by the user. This is a condition governed by the feedback from the circuit, which in itself is dependent on charge balance into the flip-flop and the NOR gate. This is shown in fig Figure The pulse exiting from MONO1 not only triggers MONO2, but also MONO3 as well. This creates the interval between 2 and 3. With the interval 2-3, and interval 2-4 being output from the flip flop, all the time intervals needed for the square pulse can be created. The highlighted pulse on fig is created by the connection of switch 5 to a V+ source through a resistor, during the interval 2-3. Figure Interval 3-4 is not a pulse that is output by a monostable, we can however make it by processing pulses with interval 2-4 and interval 2-3. The resulting pulse of interval 3-4 causes a connection to a V- source at switch 7 via a resistor. This in turn causes the highlighted part of the pulse, shown in fig

9 Figure The time interval 4-2 is grounded, this is maintained by switch 6. The combination of these pulses, and the resulting switch connections contribute to the production of the square waveform. The front panel houses the variable resistors controlling the durations of the pulse width (interval 2-3), and the period (interval 2-5). Both of these durations are user controlled Exponentially Decaying Pulse This pulse is selected by switching at switch 2 from the square pulse circuit to the exponentially decaying pulse circuit. This circuit as designed by Prof. Donaldson and E. Comi, previously mentioned, remains unchanged. It is important to have the option of an exponentially decaying pulse, as it may be preferential to avoid a break excitation. (Frankhaueser and Widen 1956) This circuit works mainly in the same way as the square pulse, that is, using a combination of switches to connect to V+, ground and V- at different given intervals. The obvious difference is in the form of the pulse. The exponential decay is achieved with the introduction of a capacitor (C6), and a variable resistor in parallel with switch 2, which allows user control of the decay. 8

10 Figure Once again, the interval 4-2 is kept at ground by S3. This is shown in the highlighted part of the pulse in fig Figure The interval 2-4 is governed by S1 and S2. During the interval 2-4 S4 is connected allowing these switches to have an impact during this time period. This is shown in the highlighted part of the pulse in fig Figure The inverted form of interval 1-3 connects S1 to a high voltage via R5. Although S1 9

11 connects to a high voltage the waveform is limited by S2, which is connected from intervals 2-4. Therefore the high voltage is shown in fig by the square pulse at interval 2. Figure At time interval 3 S1 becomes disconnected, and S2 connects allowing the discharge of the capacitor (C6) across variable resistor R4. We then get the abrupt return to ground from the disconnection of S4 at interval 4. The adjustment of R4 is done by the user, and the controls are situated on the front panel. This controls the decay of the exponential pulse. This is shown in the highlighted part of the pulse in fig The combination of these pulses, and the resulting switch connections contribute to the production of the exponential waveform Integrator, Comparator and Feedback Figure These two components are responsible for charge balancing. The integrator measures the areas of the curves in both the square pulse and the exponential pulse (In both cases it is shown in fig , with the positive being the lighter shade, and the negative being the darker shade). The comparator sums the 2 areas involved in the positive and negative phase of the waveforms and produces instant 4 when the sum of the integrals equal 0. 10

12 Interval 4 is created by the comparator; the flip flop assembles this with interval 2, which is outputted from MONO2. This produces a pulse interval 2-4 from the non Q output. This is then fed back into the NOR gate of the clock loop. The NOR gate within the clock look sets the time interval 6. This NOR gate sets T6 as either T4 or T5, working on the condition: T6 = T4 if T4 > T5 T6 = T5 if T5 > T4 Therefore, the instant 6 is either set by the user by way of adjusting the period (T6=T5) or, is extended until the condition of charge balance is achieved (T6=T4). 2.2 New Circuit The existing circuit, as previously described, produces a square pulse, and an exponentially decaying pulse. Changing the square pulse to a stepped pulse has been shown to allow the use of up to 30% lower charge (Vuckovic, Rijkhoff and Struijk 2004). It is then obvious that this would be a nice option to have. The change in waveform that is necessary is shown below in figs and Figure Figure

13 Legend for Figure Resistors Table Resistor Number Value (Ω) R1 2 k R2 120 k R3 200 k R4 50 k R5 200 k R6 47 R7 47 R8 47 R9 200 k R R11 - R12 8 k R13 10 k R14 1 k Capacitors Table Capacitor Number Value (nf) C1 10 C2 100 C3 47 C4 22 C5 50 C6 47 C7 1 12

14 13 Figure 2.2.3

15 There has been an introduction of a time interval, the interphase delay. The new circuit is shown on the previous page in fig The greyed area labelled Square Pulse, and the fourth monostable are the changes which I have completed, they are shown in fig We previously saw in section 2.1 how the original wave was generated. Bibliography 1. Different Pulse Shapes to Obtain Small Fiber Selective Activation by Anodal Blocking - A Simulation Study. Vuckovic, A, Rijkhoff, N and Struijk, J. 5, 2004, IEEE, Vol. 51, pp Figure

16 The pulse with time interval 2-3 is generated from MONO3, this triggers the pulse, with time interval 3-4 from the new MONO4. The period in which Sw5 is connected to a high voltage is not affected by the new circuit, as the controlling pulse is coming from MONO3. The durations in which Sw6 and Sw7 are connected are altered. Sw6 was previously connected from intervals 5-2, providing the ground state outside the positive and negative phases. Sw6 is now connected to ground between the newly formed interval 3-4 as well as seen in the pulse entering Sw6 in figure. The variable resistor on MONO4 allows an adjustment of the duration of the delay. As I introduced the new delay, we also had to change how S7 was connected, as interval 3-4 is being used in the delay, we needed to create a consecutive interval 4-5. This is done by using the pulses from MONO3, MONO4 and the feedback (due to charge balance) As a late addition (not shown on the circuit diagram) the RC circuits on monostables 3, and 4 were connected via a fixed resistor (R3F = 2kΩ, R4F = 430Ω) to high voltage. This ensures the resistance never falls to 0. The combination of these pulses, and the resulting switch connections contribute to the production of the stepped square waveform as shown in fig Figure

17 As we have introduced a new time interval the conditions of when interval 7 change to: T7 = T5 if T5 > T6 T7 = T6 if T6 > T5 2.3 Additional Circuits 16

18 The circuit I have been working on is the logic circuit which is produces a voltage waveform. The circuit shown in fig 2.3.1is responsible for converting this voltage waveform into a current waveform. The voltage waveform is initially split into two proportional waveforms, there is then a voltage to current conversion stage, which results in the current waveforms for the anodes. Figure shows the circuit responsible for this conversion, also in the circuit are stages that deal with voltage conversion, discharge of the blocking capacitor, isolation of the signal and saturation. However this is something that I have not worked on, and I will not focus on it. It is however, important to acknowledge it as it is an important part of the stimulator. Figure Finished Stimulator 17

19 3.1 Typical Setup Power Generator Oscilloscope Circuit Figure Figure3.1.1illustrates the typical setup of the protoboard, and the instruments. 18

20 3.2 Parameters As mentioned in the previous sections the parameters that we set out to achieve are shown in table Table Parameter Minimum Maximum Frequency 5Hz 500Hz Pulse Width 50µs 5ms Delay (square pulse) 1µs 100µs The parameters that the stimulator actually produces are shown in tables and Stepped Square Pulse Table Parameter Minimum Maximum Period 215µs 10ms Frequency 4600Hz 100Hz Pulse width 50µs 9ms Delay 16µs 1.1ms Exponentially Decaying Pulse Table Parameter Minimum Maximum Period 200µs 41.5ms Frequency 5000Hz 24Hz Pulse Width 100µs 9.5ms Decay 0s 41ms The implications of these results are discussed in section 4. 19

21 3.3 Waveforms To demonstrate the capabilities of the stimulator I have set various values and explained them below Stepped Square Pulse Frequency Figure The adjustment of the variable resistor in the RC circuit of monostable 2 allows the control of the time interval 2-6 i.e. a control of frequency. We have previously seen the condition of: T7 = T5 if T5 > T6 T7 = T6 if T6 > T5 20

22 Altering the time interval 2-6 clearly will then alter the frequency of the waveform. Fig shows a high frequency, in this particular case the period of the waveform is 650µs, which corresponds to a frequency of approximately 1.5 khz. Figure Alternatively, we are also able to adjust the resistor so that the time interval 2-5 is very large, reducing the frequency markedly. In this instance, the period of the waveform shown in fig is 4ms, corresponding to a frequency of 250Hz 21

23 Pulse Width This is specifically the duration of interval 2-3. As explained previously the integrator and comparator produce instant 5 when the condition of charge balance has been met. Figure Fig shows how the pulse width can be adjusted. This is done by changing the value of the variable resistor in the RC circuit of monostable 3. In this instance we can see the pulse width is at 100µs, the delay is 150µs and the duration until the next waveform is 200µs. The period of the waveform is 550µs. 22

24 Figure The pulse width approaching instant 7 can be seen in fig , which in this case is instant 6. In this instance the pulse width is 200µs, and the delay is 150µs. the period of this wave is also 550µs. 23

25 Figure Fig demonstrates the conditional control over instant 7. Increasing the pulse width, increases the duration of the negative pulse and forces the integrator and comparator to delay instant 5. This increase in pulse width, results then, in a decrease in frequency. In this specific example the pulse width shown is 500µs, and the delay is still 150µs. The period of this waveform is 1150µs, perfectly showing us how the frequency decreases on increase of pulse width. 24

26 Delay Figure Fig and fig show us the limits of the delay. The duration of the delay can be altered by changing the value of the variable resistor in the RC circuit of monostable 4. Fig is showing us how long the duration of the delay can be. This picture shows us that the maximum delay is 1.1ms. 25

27 Figure The scale on the oscilloscope has been adjusted in fig so we can clearly see the duration of the delay. On setting the delay to as low as possible the waveform appears to be a square wave with no step, however, further investigation shows us that a delay is still present, with a duration of 16µs. 26

28 Amplitude Figure As a late addition (which is not shown on the circuit diagram) I added a variable resistor between the low voltage and the switch. This allows the negative phase to be shallower. This feature is also demonstrated on the front panel design shown in section 4.2 as both the positive and negative voltage can be set by the user. Fig shows how the charge balance is maintained when the low voltage is changed. 27

29 Figure The response of the circuit to a variation of the positive voltage amplitude is shown in fig , the maximum amplitude previously was 5V relative to ground. Here the amplitude is 10V, there is charge balance though the low voltage is still -5V, which explains the lack of symmetry. 28

30 Figure Fig shows the breakdown of the waveform at 3.50V when the positive voltage was reduced. However, this is due to the fact that some components were not receiving enough power at 3.50V to produce the pulses. The voltage supply was the same to both the components and the V+ that determines the amplitude of the waveform. 29

31 3.3.2 Exponential Pulse Figure Though nothing has been altered in the exponential pulse, I made the circuit just to check the durations of the time intervals. A typical exponentially decaying waveform can be seen in fig

32 Pulse Width Figure As with the square pulse we are also able to reduce the duration of the pulse width in the exponential pulse. The pulse width was reduced to 150µs as shown in fig

33 Figure Fig shows the effect of increasing the duration of the pulse width to 1ms. 32

34 Exponential Decay Figure By altering the variable resistor across which C5 discharges, we can alter the time taken for the decay. In this situation the capacitor discharges so fast it almost takes on the appearance of a square pulse, this is shown in fig

35 Figure Conversely, we can change the value of the resistor so the time taken for the capacitor to discharge is longer. Here it takes 2.6ms for the charge to be balanced and a return to ground it is shown in fig

36 4. Future Work 4.1 Parameters We can see from the protoboard circuit that the circuit is functional, and is producing charge balanced waveforms. As seen before in section 3.2 there is not perfect agreement in the parameters that I set to achieve, and the ones that were then consequently attained. As we have seen the time intervals are set by the RC circuits attributed to the various monostables. Future work will consist of altering the values of the resistors and capacitors, to achieve the parameters defined. Monostables 1 and 2 follow equation(see Appendix B): Two = K.Rt.Ct (1) Where: Two = Output pulse width (s) Rt = External timing resistor (Ω) Ct = External timing capacitor (F) K = 0.42 for VDD = 5v Monostable 2 is responsible for the interval 2-5, the main interval responsible for period, and therefore frequency. The periods necessary for the frequencies are 2ms 0.2s. The R2C2 circuit can be adapted to fit these values better. Working from equation (1) I could recommend a variable resistor value of 100kΩ, and a capacitor value of 47µF. This gives you a variable period of 0.198ms to 0.198s. The pulse width conforms quite well, however the upper range may need to be tapered. The delay, doesn t fit perfectly either, the R4C4 circuit could also be better optimised. This monostable has equation: 35

37 tw = K.REXT.CEXT (2) Where: tw = output pulse width in ns; REXT = external resistor in kω; CEXT = external capacitor in pf; K = constant = 0.55 for VCC = 5.0 V The duration of the delay that we would like is 1µs to 100µs. the values of R4, R4F, and C4, according the formula allow the delay to go as low as 5µs. This however, is not reflected in the measurement, this could be due to the tolerance in manufacturing of the resistors. The delay can be lowered to 1µs, with a decrease in R4F. Currently, all the parameters are adjusted using variable resistors. In the future, it might be worth considering the use of variable capacitors, in cases where a variable resistor is impractical. 4.2 Box Design The next step of this project is to make the box. the design of the old box was not intuitive, and I have therefore redesigned the front panel with approximate dimensions as shown in figure I wanted the new front panel to be intuitive, that someone would be able to work the stimulator who had a knowledge of electrical stimulation, and not necessarily experience in working with this specific stimulator. This new front panel is designed in vertical panels. The top left box, indicates the initial control of the box where the power, triggering, and trigger coupling is set. Below that is where the leads for the power are inserted; they are sufficiently far away to not interfere with the operation of the box. To the control panels right is where the user is able to set the amplitude of the 36

38 wave. This is show in fig To the right of the amplitude control are the waveform parameters, where the user is able to set pulse width, period, delay, and decay durations. Furthest right is the adjustment for the BNC sockets. The BNC sockets go to an oscilloscope, they are separated from the circuit by isolation amplifiers that are powered by batteries. The top control knob selects which of the BNC sockets, outputs a signal. The LEDs associated let the user know when there is a current pulse, and when there is saturation. The bottom control knob allows user control of the ratio of I1/I2 from the 4mm sockets going to the electrodes. 250mm 150mm Figure

39 The designing of the box runs in parallel with the making of the PCB, which also has yet to be done. Once the PCB is made, populated and tested. The box can be finally assembled. 38

40 Appendix A Logic Gates Some of the time intervals are created by the processing of other time intervals through logic gates. The truth tables for the logic gates that I have included in the circuit are drawn below. NOR p q p q NAND p q p q EXNOR p q Inverter p p

41 Appendix B Monostables There are 4 monostables that have been used in this circuit, they are triggered on either a rising, or falling edge depending on how the chip has been wired. On this edge the monostable produces a pulse of standard time, which is determined by the RC circuit. Monostables 1 and 2 are on chip HEF4528B. They follow equation: Two = K.Rt.Ct (1) Where: Two = Output pulse width (s) Rt = External timing resistor (Ω) Ct = External timing capacitor (F) K = 0.42 for VDD = 5v The datasheet for chip HEF4528B can be found on: Monostables 3 and 4 are on chip 74HC/HTC123. They follow equation (when values for CEXT exceed 1nF): tw = K.REXT.CEXT (2) Where: tw = output pulse width in ns; REXT = external resistor in kω; CEXT = external capacitor in pf; K = constant = 0.55 for VCC = 5.0 V The datasheet for 74HC/HTC123 can be found on: 40

42 Bibliography Donaldson, Nick. "Stimulation Basics." Lecture 18 MPHY3013, Medical Electronics Frankhaueser, Bernhard, and Lennart Widen. "ANODE BREAK EXCITATION IN DESHEATHED FROG NERVE." Journal of Physiology, 1956: Geddes, and Bourland. "The Strength Duration Curve." IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering, 1985: 485. Grill, Warren M, and J.Thomas Mortimer. "Stimulus Waveforms of Selective Neural Stimulation." IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology, 1995: McNeal, D R, and B. R. Bowman. "Selective activation of muscles using peripheral nerve electrodes." Medicinal & Biological Engineering & Computing, 1985: Vuckovic, Aleksandra, Nico Rijkhoff, and Johannes Struijk. "Different Pulse Shapes to Obtain Small Fiber Selective Activation by Anodal Blocking - A Simulation Study." IEEE, 2004:

CHAPTER 11: Flip Flops

CHAPTER 11: Flip Flops CHAPTER 11: Flip Flops In this chapter, you will be building the part of the circuit that controls the command sequencing. The required circuit must operate the counter and the memory chip. When the teach

More information

Operational Amplifier as mono stable multi vibrator

Operational Amplifier as mono stable multi vibrator Page 1 of 5 Operational Amplifier as mono stable multi vibrator Aim :- To construct a monostable multivibrator using operational amplifier 741 and to determine the duration of the output pulse generated

More information

RC Circuits and The Oscilloscope Physics Lab X

RC Circuits and The Oscilloscope Physics Lab X Objective RC Circuits and The Oscilloscope Physics Lab X In this series of experiments, the time constant of an RC circuit will be measured experimentally and compared with the theoretical expression for

More information

ARRL Morse Code Oscillator, How It Works By: Mark Spencer, WA8SME

ARRL Morse Code Oscillator, How It Works By: Mark Spencer, WA8SME The national association for AMATEUR RADIO ARRL Morse Code Oscillator, How It Works By: Mark Spencer, WA8SME This supplement is intended for use with the ARRL Morse Code Oscillator kit, sold separately.

More information

Having read this workbook you should be able to: recognise the arrangement of NAND gates used to form an S-R flip-flop.

Having read this workbook you should be able to: recognise the arrangement of NAND gates used to form an S-R flip-flop. Objectives Having read this workbook you should be able to: recognise the arrangement of NAND gates used to form an S-R flip-flop. describe how such a flip-flop can be SET and RESET. describe the disadvantage

More information

Step Response of RC Circuits

Step Response of RC Circuits Step Response of RC Circuits 1. OBJECTIVES...2 2. REFERENCE...2 3. CIRCUITS...2 4. COMPONENTS AND SPECIFICATIONS...3 QUANTITY...3 DESCRIPTION...3 COMMENTS...3 5. DISCUSSION...3 5.1 SOURCE RESISTANCE...3

More information

1. Learn about the 555 timer integrated circuit and applications 2. Apply the 555 timer to build an infrared (IR) transmitter and receiver

1. Learn about the 555 timer integrated circuit and applications 2. Apply the 555 timer to build an infrared (IR) transmitter and receiver Electronics Exercise 2: The 555 Timer and its Applications Mechatronics Instructional Laboratory Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Lab Director: I. Charles Ume,

More information

Experiment # 9. Clock generator circuits & Counters. Eng. Waleed Y. Mousa

Experiment # 9. Clock generator circuits & Counters. Eng. Waleed Y. Mousa Experiment # 9 Clock generator circuits & Counters Eng. Waleed Y. Mousa 1. Objectives: 1. Understanding the principles and construction of Clock generator. 2. To be familiar with clock pulse generation

More information

Operational Amplifier - IC 741

Operational Amplifier - IC 741 Operational Amplifier - IC 741 Tabish December 2005 Aim: To study the working of an 741 operational amplifier by conducting the following experiments: (a) Input bias current measurement (b) Input offset

More information

DIODE CIRCUITS LABORATORY. Fig. 8.1a Fig 8.1b

DIODE CIRCUITS LABORATORY. Fig. 8.1a Fig 8.1b DIODE CIRCUITS LABORATORY A solid state diode consists of a junction of either dissimilar semiconductors (pn junction diode) or a metal and a semiconductor (Schottky barrier diode). Regardless of the type,

More information

Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) LED Dimmer Circuit. Using a 555 Timer Chip

Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) LED Dimmer Circuit. Using a 555 Timer Chip Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) LED Dimmer Circuit Using a 555 Timer Chip Goals of Experiment Demonstrate the operation of a simple PWM circuit that can be used to adjust the intensity of a green LED by varying

More information

So far we have investigated combinational logic for which the output of the logic devices/circuits depends only on the present state of the inputs.

So far we have investigated combinational logic for which the output of the logic devices/circuits depends only on the present state of the inputs. equential Logic o far we have investigated combinational logic for which the output of the logic devices/circuits depends only on the present state of the inputs. In sequential logic the output of the

More information

Low Cost Pure Sine Wave Solar Inverter Circuit

Low Cost Pure Sine Wave Solar Inverter Circuit Low Cost Pure Sine Wave Solar Inverter Circuit Final Report Members: Cameron DeAngelis and Luv Rasania Professor: Yicheng Lu Advisor: Rui Li Background Information: Recent rises in electrical energy costs

More information

TS555. Low-power single CMOS timer. Description. Features. The TS555 is a single CMOS timer with very low consumption:

TS555. Low-power single CMOS timer. Description. Features. The TS555 is a single CMOS timer with very low consumption: Low-power single CMOS timer Description Datasheet - production data The TS555 is a single CMOS timer with very low consumption: Features SO8 (plastic micropackage) Pin connections (top view) (I cc(typ)

More information

LAB 7 MOSFET CHARACTERISTICS AND APPLICATIONS

LAB 7 MOSFET CHARACTERISTICS AND APPLICATIONS LAB 7 MOSFET CHARACTERISTICS AND APPLICATIONS Objective In this experiment you will study the i-v characteristics of an MOS transistor. You will use the MOSFET as a variable resistor and as a switch. BACKGROUND

More information

Experiment 8 : Pulse Width Modulation

Experiment 8 : Pulse Width Modulation Name/NetID: Teammate/NetID: Experiment 8 : Pulse Width Modulation Laboratory Outline In experiment 5 we learned how to control the speed of a DC motor using a variable resistor. This week, we will learn

More information

Output Ripple and Noise Measurement Methods for Ericsson Power Modules

Output Ripple and Noise Measurement Methods for Ericsson Power Modules Output Ripple and Noise Measurement Methods for Ericsson Power Modules Design Note 022 Ericsson Power Modules Ripple and Noise Abstract There is no industry-wide standard for measuring output ripple and

More information

Transistor Amplifiers

Transistor Amplifiers Physics 3330 Experiment #7 Fall 1999 Transistor Amplifiers Purpose The aim of this experiment is to develop a bipolar transistor amplifier with a voltage gain of minus 25. The amplifier must accept input

More information

Features. Applications

Features. Applications LM555 Timer General Description The LM555 is a highly stable device for generating accurate time delays or oscillation. Additional terminals are provided for triggering or resetting if desired. In the

More information

A Digital Timer Implementation using 7 Segment Displays

A Digital Timer Implementation using 7 Segment Displays A Digital Timer Implementation using 7 Segment Displays Group Members: Tiffany Sham u2548168 Michael Couchman u4111670 Simon Oseineks u2566139 Caitlyn Young u4233209 Subject: ENGN3227 - Analogue Electronics

More information

LABORATORY 10 TIME AVERAGES, RMS VALUES AND THE BRIDGE RECTIFIER. Bridge Rectifier

LABORATORY 10 TIME AVERAGES, RMS VALUES AND THE BRIDGE RECTIFIER. Bridge Rectifier LABORATORY 10 TIME AVERAGES, RMS VALUES AND THE BRIDGE RECTIFIER Full-wave Rectification: Bridge Rectifier For many electronic circuits, DC supply voltages are required but only AC voltages are available.

More information

Designing With the SN54/74LS123. SDLA006A March 1997

Designing With the SN54/74LS123. SDLA006A March 1997 Designing With the SN54/74LS23 SDLA6A March 997 IMPORTANT NOTICE Texas Instruments (TI) reserves the right to make changes to its products or to discontinue any semiconductor product or service without

More information

Frequency Response of Filters

Frequency Response of Filters School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:224 Principles of Electrical Engineering II Laboratory Experiment 2 Frequency Response of Filters 1 Introduction Objectives To

More information

Counters and Decoders

Counters and Decoders Physics 3330 Experiment #10 Fall 1999 Purpose Counters and Decoders In this experiment, you will design and construct a 4-bit ripple-through decade counter with a decimal read-out display. Such a counter

More information

NTE2053 Integrated Circuit 8 Bit MPU Compatible A/D Converter

NTE2053 Integrated Circuit 8 Bit MPU Compatible A/D Converter NTE2053 Integrated Circuit 8 Bit MPU Compatible A/D Converter Description: The NTE2053 is a CMOS 8 bit successive approximation Analog to Digital converter in a 20 Lead DIP type package which uses a differential

More information

IEC 1000-4-2 ESD Immunity and Transient Current Capability for the SP72X Series Protection Arrays

IEC 1000-4-2 ESD Immunity and Transient Current Capability for the SP72X Series Protection Arrays IEC 00-4-2 ESD Immunity and Transient Current Capability for the SP72X Series Protection Arrays Application Note July 1999 AN9612.2 Author: Wayne Austin The SP720, SP721, SP723, and SP724 are protection

More information

DIGITAL-TO-ANALOGUE AND ANALOGUE-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION

DIGITAL-TO-ANALOGUE AND ANALOGUE-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION DIGITAL-TO-ANALOGUE AND ANALOGUE-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION Introduction The outputs from sensors and communications receivers are analogue signals that have continuously varying amplitudes. In many systems

More information

SWITCH-MODE POWER SUPPLY CONTROLLER PULSE OUTPUT DC OUTPUT GROUND EXTERNAL FUNCTION SIMULATION ZERO CROSSING INPUT CONTROL EXTERNAL FUNCTION

SWITCH-MODE POWER SUPPLY CONTROLLER PULSE OUTPUT DC OUTPUT GROUND EXTERNAL FUNCTION SIMULATION ZERO CROSSING INPUT CONTROL EXTERNAL FUNCTION SWITCH-MODE POWER SUPPLY CONTROLLER. LOW START-UP CURRENT. DIRECT CONTROL OF SWITCHING TRAN- SISTOR. COLLECTOR CURRENT PROPORTIONAL TO BASE-CURRENT INPUT REERSE-GOING LINEAR OERLOAD CHARACTERISTIC CURE

More information

Lesson 12 Sequential Circuits: Flip-Flops

Lesson 12 Sequential Circuits: Flip-Flops Lesson 12 Sequential Circuits: Flip-Flops 1. Overview of a Synchronous Sequential Circuit We saw from last lesson that the level sensitive latches could cause instability in a sequential system. This instability

More information

css Custom Silicon Solutions, Inc.

css Custom Silicon Solutions, Inc. css Custom Silicon Solutions, Inc. CSS555(C) CSS555/ PART DESCRIPTION The CSS555 is a micro-power version of the popular 555 Timer IC. It is pin-for-pin compatible with the standard 555 timer and features

More information

3-Digit Counter and Display

3-Digit Counter and Display ECE 2B Winter 2007 Lab #7 7 3-Digit Counter and Display This final lab brings together much of what we have done in our lab experiments this quarter to construct a simple tachometer circuit for measuring

More information

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. 6.002 Electronic Circuits Spring 2007

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. 6.002 Electronic Circuits Spring 2007 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science 6.002 Electronic Circuits Spring 2007 Lab 4: Audio Playback System Introduction In this lab, you will construct,

More information

Digital Fundamentals

Digital Fundamentals Digital Fundamentals Tenth Edition Floyd Chapter 1 2009 Pearson Education, Upper 2008 Pearson Saddle River, Education NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved Analog Quantities Most natural quantities that we see

More information

Chapter 9 Latches, Flip-Flops, and Timers

Chapter 9 Latches, Flip-Flops, and Timers ETEC 23 Programmable Logic Devices Chapter 9 Latches, Flip-Flops, and Timers Shawnee State University Department of Industrial and Engineering Technologies Copyright 27 by Janna B. Gallaher Latches A temporary

More information

Development of a Single Phase Automatic Change-Over Switch

Development of a Single Phase Automatic Change-Over Switch Development of a Single Phase Automatic Change-Over Switch M.S. Ahmed, A.S. Mohammed and O.. Agusiobo Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria

More information

= V peak 2 = 0.707V peak

= V peak 2 = 0.707V peak BASIC ELECTRONICS - RECTIFICATION AND FILTERING PURPOSE Suppose that you wanted to build a simple DC electronic power supply, which operated off of an AC input (e.g., something you might plug into a standard

More information

A Lesson on Digital Clocks, One Shots and Counters

A Lesson on Digital Clocks, One Shots and Counters A Lesson on Digital Clocks, One Shots and Counters Topics Clocks & Oscillators LM 555 Timer IC Crystal Oscillators Selection of Variable Resistors Schmitt Gates Power-On Reset Circuits One Shots Counters

More information

A Lesson on Digital Clocks, One Shots and Counters

A Lesson on Digital Clocks, One Shots and Counters A Lesson on Digital Clocks, One Shots and Counters Topics Clocks & Oscillators LM 555 Timer IC Crystal Oscillators Selection of Variable Resistors Schmitt Gates Power-On Reset Circuits One Shots Counters

More information

EXPERIMENT NUMBER 5 BASIC OSCILLOSCOPE OPERATIONS

EXPERIMENT NUMBER 5 BASIC OSCILLOSCOPE OPERATIONS 1 EXPERIMENT NUMBER 5 BASIC OSCILLOSCOPE OPERATIONS The oscilloscope is the most versatile and most important tool in this lab and is probably the best tool an electrical engineer uses. This outline guides

More information

Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 8, 1997

Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 8, 1997 Physics 623 Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 8, 1997 1 Purpose To measure and understand the common emitter transistor characteristic curves. To use the base current gain

More information

Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation

Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation To be performed during Week 9 (Oct. 20-24) and Week 10 (Oct. 27-31) Due Week 11 (Nov. 3-7) 1 Pre-Lab This Pre-Lab should be completed before attending your regular

More information

ANADOLU UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

ANADOLU UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING ANADOLU UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING EEM 102 INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT 9: DIODES AND DC POWER SUPPLY OBJECTIVE: To observe how a diode functions

More information

LM 358 Op Amp. If you have small signals and need a more useful reading we could amplify it using the op amp, this is commonly used in sensors.

LM 358 Op Amp. If you have small signals and need a more useful reading we could amplify it using the op amp, this is commonly used in sensors. LM 358 Op Amp S k i l l L e v e l : I n t e r m e d i a t e OVERVIEW The LM 358 is a duel single supply operational amplifier. As it is a single supply it eliminates the need for a duel power supply, thus

More information

Electronics. Discrete assembly of an operational amplifier as a transistor circuit. LD Physics Leaflets P4.2.1.1

Electronics. Discrete assembly of an operational amplifier as a transistor circuit. LD Physics Leaflets P4.2.1.1 Electronics Operational Amplifier Internal design of an operational amplifier LD Physics Leaflets Discrete assembly of an operational amplifier as a transistor circuit P4.2.1.1 Objects of the experiment

More information

Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers

Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers Physics 3330 Experiment #7 Fall 2005 Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers Purpose The aim of this experiment is to construct a bipolar transistor amplifier with a voltage gain of minus 25. The amplifier must

More information

Programmable Single-/Dual-/Triple- Tone Gong SAE 800

Programmable Single-/Dual-/Triple- Tone Gong SAE 800 Programmable Single-/Dual-/Triple- Tone Gong Preliminary Data SAE 800 Bipolar IC Features Supply voltage range 2.8 V to 18 V Few external components (no electrolytic capacitor) 1 tone, 2 tones, 3 tones

More information

2 : BISTABLES. In this Chapter, you will find out about bistables which are the fundamental building blocks of electronic counting circuits.

2 : BISTABLES. In this Chapter, you will find out about bistables which are the fundamental building blocks of electronic counting circuits. 2 : BITABLE In this Chapter, you will find out about bistables which are the fundamental building blos of electronic counting circuits. et-reset bistable A bistable circuit, also called a latch, or flip-flop,

More information

Electrical Resonance

Electrical Resonance Electrical Resonance (R-L-C series circuit) APPARATUS 1. R-L-C Circuit board 2. Signal generator 3. Oscilloscope Tektronix TDS1002 with two sets of leads (see Introduction to the Oscilloscope ) INTRODUCTION

More information

Physics 623 Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 13, 2006

Physics 623 Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 13, 2006 Physics 623 Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 13, 2006 1 Purpose To measure and understand the common emitter transistor characteristic curves. To use the base current gain

More information

Module 3: Floyd, Digital Fundamental

Module 3: Floyd, Digital Fundamental Module 3: Lecturer : Yongsheng Gao Room : Tech - 3.25 Email : yongsheng.gao@griffith.edu.au Structure : 6 lectures 1 Tutorial Assessment: 1 Laboratory (5%) 1 Test (20%) Textbook : Floyd, Digital Fundamental

More information

Supply voltage Supervisor TL77xx Series. Author: Eilhard Haseloff

Supply voltage Supervisor TL77xx Series. Author: Eilhard Haseloff Supply voltage Supervisor TL77xx Series Author: Eilhard Haseloff Literature Number: SLVAE04 March 1997 i IMPORTANT NOTICE Texas Instruments (TI) reserves the right to make changes to its products or to

More information

Features, Benefits, and Operation

Features, Benefits, and Operation Features, Benefits, and Operation 2014 Decibel Eleven Contents Introduction... 2 Features... 2 Rear Panel... 3 Connections... 3 Power... 3 MIDI... 3 Pedal Loops... 4 Example Connection Diagrams... 5,6

More information

Q1. The graph below shows how a sinusoidal alternating voltage varies with time when connected across a resistor, R.

Q1. The graph below shows how a sinusoidal alternating voltage varies with time when connected across a resistor, R. Q1. The graph below shows how a sinusoidal alternating voltage varies with time when connected across a resistor, R. (a) (i) State the peak-to-peak voltage. peak-to-peak voltage...v (1) (ii) State the

More information

1. Oscilloscope is basically a graph-displaying device-it draws a graph of an electrical signal.

1. Oscilloscope is basically a graph-displaying device-it draws a graph of an electrical signal. CHAPTER 3: OSCILLOSCOPE AND SIGNAL GENERATOR 3.1 Introduction to oscilloscope 1. Oscilloscope is basically a graph-displaying device-it draws a graph of an electrical signal. 2. The graph show signal change

More information

The components. E3: Digital electronics. Goals:

The components. E3: Digital electronics. Goals: E3: Digital electronics Goals: Basic understanding of logic circuits. Become familiar with the most common digital components and their use. Equipment: 1 st. LED bridge 1 st. 7-segment display. 2 st. IC

More information

AMZ-FX Guitar effects. (2007) Mosfet Body Diodes. http://www.muzique.com/news/mosfet-body-diodes/. Accessed 22/12/09.

AMZ-FX Guitar effects. (2007) Mosfet Body Diodes. http://www.muzique.com/news/mosfet-body-diodes/. Accessed 22/12/09. Pulse width modulation Pulse width modulation is a pulsed DC square wave, commonly used to control the on-off switching of a silicon controlled rectifier via the gate. There are many types of SCR s, most

More information

Digital Logic Elements, Clock, and Memory Elements

Digital Logic Elements, Clock, and Memory Elements Physics 333 Experiment #9 Fall 999 Digital Logic Elements, Clock, and Memory Elements Purpose This experiment introduces the fundamental circuit elements of digital electronics. These include a basic set

More information

FM Radio Transmitter & Receiver Modules

FM Radio Transmitter & Receiver Modules FM Radio Transmitter & Receiver Modules T5 / R5 Features MINIATURE SIL PACKAGE FULLY SHIELDED DATA RATES UP TO 128KBITS/S RANGE UPTO 300 METRES SINGLE SUPPLY VOLTAGE INDUSTRY PIN COMPATIBLE QFMT5-434 TEMP

More information

Constructing a precision SWR meter and antenna analyzer. Mike Brink HNF, Design Technologist.

Constructing a precision SWR meter and antenna analyzer. Mike Brink HNF, Design Technologist. Constructing a precision SWR meter and antenna analyzer. Mike Brink HNF, Design Technologist. Abstract. I have been asked to put together a detailed article on a SWR meter. In this article I will deal

More information

Panasonic Microwave Oven Inverter HV Power Supply

Panasonic Microwave Oven Inverter HV Power Supply Panasonic Microwave Oven Inverter HV Power Supply David Smith VK3HZ (vk3hz (*at*) wia.org.au) This particular power supply comes from a circa-2000 Panasonic Microwave model NN-S550WF. Nearly all Panasonic

More information

Adding Heart to Your Technology

Adding Heart to Your Technology RMCM-01 Heart Rate Receiver Component Product code #: 39025074 KEY FEATURES High Filtering Unit Designed to work well on constant noise fields SMD component: To be installed as a standard component to

More information

How to Read a Datasheet

How to Read a Datasheet How to Read a Datasheet Prepared for the WIMS outreach program 5/6/02, D. Grover In order to use a PIC microcontroller, a flip-flop, a photodetector, or practically any electronic device, you need to consult

More information

Lab 5 Operational Amplifiers

Lab 5 Operational Amplifiers Lab 5 Operational Amplifiers By: Gary A. Ybarra Christopher E. Cramer Duke University Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Durham, NC. Purpose The purpose of this lab is to examine the properties

More information

ECEN 1400, Introduction to Analog and Digital Electronics

ECEN 1400, Introduction to Analog and Digital Electronics ECEN 1400, Introduction to Analog and Digital Electronics Lab 4: Power supply 1 INTRODUCTION This lab will span two lab periods. In this lab, you will create the power supply that transforms the AC wall

More information

Reading assignment: All students should read the Appendix about using oscilloscopes.

Reading assignment: All students should read the Appendix about using oscilloscopes. 10. A ircuits* Objective: To learn how to analyze current and voltage relationships in alternating current (a.c.) circuits. You will use the method of phasors, or the vector addition of rotating vectors

More information

Wiki Lab Book. This week is practice for wiki usage during the project.

Wiki Lab Book. This week is practice for wiki usage during the project. Wiki Lab Book Use a wiki as a lab book. Wikis are excellent tools for collaborative work (i.e. where you need to efficiently share lots of information and files with multiple people). This week is practice

More information

Rectifier circuits & DC power supplies

Rectifier circuits & DC power supplies Rectifier circuits & DC power supplies Goal: Generate the DC voltages needed for most electronics starting with the AC power that comes through the power line? 120 V RMS f = 60 Hz T = 1667 ms) = )sin How

More information

0.9V Boost Driver PR4403 for White LEDs in Solar Lamps

0.9V Boost Driver PR4403 for White LEDs in Solar Lamps 0.9 Boost Driver for White LEDs in Solar Lamps The is a single cell step-up converter for white LEDs operating from a single rechargeable cell of 1.2 supply voltage down to less than 0.9. An adjustable

More information

DM74121 One-Shot with Clear and Complementary Outputs

DM74121 One-Shot with Clear and Complementary Outputs June 1989 Revised July 2001 DM74121 One-Shot with Clear and Complementary Outputs General Description The DM74121 is a monostable multivibrator featuring both positive and negative edge triggering with

More information

Op-Amp Simulation EE/CS 5720/6720. Read Chapter 5 in Johns & Martin before you begin this assignment.

Op-Amp Simulation EE/CS 5720/6720. Read Chapter 5 in Johns & Martin before you begin this assignment. Op-Amp Simulation EE/CS 5720/6720 Read Chapter 5 in Johns & Martin before you begin this assignment. This assignment will take you through the simulation and basic characterization of a simple operational

More information

EE 42/100 Lecture 24: Latches and Flip Flops. Rev B 4/21/2010 (2:04 PM) Prof. Ali M. Niknejad

EE 42/100 Lecture 24: Latches and Flip Flops. Rev B 4/21/2010 (2:04 PM) Prof. Ali M. Niknejad A. M. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley EE 100 / 42 Lecture 24 p. 1/20 EE 42/100 Lecture 24: Latches and Flip Flops ELECTRONICS Rev B 4/21/2010 (2:04 PM) Prof. Ali M. Niknejad University of California,

More information

SEQUENTIAL CIRCUITS. Block diagram. Flip Flop. S-R Flip Flop. Block Diagram. Circuit Diagram

SEQUENTIAL CIRCUITS. Block diagram. Flip Flop. S-R Flip Flop. Block Diagram. Circuit Diagram SEQUENTIAL CIRCUITS http://www.tutorialspoint.com/computer_logical_organization/sequential_circuits.htm Copyright tutorialspoint.com The combinational circuit does not use any memory. Hence the previous

More information

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS. o/p

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS. o/p OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS 1. If the input to the circuit of figure is a sine wave the output will be i/p o/p a. A half wave rectified sine wave b. A fullwave rectified sine wave c. A triangular wave d. A

More information

The D.C Power Supply

The D.C Power Supply The D.C Power Supply Voltage Step Down Electrical Isolation Converts Bipolar signal to Unipolar Half or Full wave Smoothes the voltage variation Still has some ripples Reduce ripples Stabilize the output

More information

Load Dump Pulses According to Various Test Requirements: One Phenomenon Two Methods of Generation A Comparison

Load Dump Pulses According to Various Test Requirements: One Phenomenon Two Methods of Generation A Comparison Load Dump Pulses According to Various Test Requirements: One Phenomenon Two Methods of Generation A Comparison Roland Spriessler 1, Markus Fuhrer 2, 1,2 EM Test, Sternenhofstrasse 15, CH-4153 Reinach (BL),

More information

LAB4: Audio Synthesizer

LAB4: Audio Synthesizer UC Berkeley, EECS 100 Lab LAB4: Audio Synthesizer B. Boser NAME 1: NAME 2: The 555 Timer IC SID: SID: Inductors and capacitors add a host of new circuit possibilities that exploit the memory realized by

More information

A Practical Guide to Free Energy Devices

A Practical Guide to Free Energy Devices A Practical Guide to Free Energy Devices Device Patent No 29: Last updated: 7th October 2008 Author: Patrick J. Kelly This is a slightly reworded copy of this patent application which shows a method of

More information

LABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER

LABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER LABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER OBJECTIVES 1. To understand how to amplify weak (small) signals in the presence of noise. 1. To understand how a differential amplifier rejects noise and common

More information

DM74LS112A Dual Negative-Edge-Triggered Master-Slave J-K Flip-Flop with Preset, Clear, and Complementary Outputs

DM74LS112A Dual Negative-Edge-Triggered Master-Slave J-K Flip-Flop with Preset, Clear, and Complementary Outputs August 1986 Revised March 2000 DM74LS112A Dual Negative-Edge-Triggered Master-Slave J-K Flip-Flop with Preset, Clear, and Complementary General Description This device contains two independent negative-edge-triggered

More information

Lecture - 4 Diode Rectifier Circuits

Lecture - 4 Diode Rectifier Circuits Basic Electronics (Module 1 Semiconductor Diodes) Dr. Chitralekha Mahanta Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati Lecture - 4 Diode Rectifier Circuits

More information

EXPERIMENT NUMBER 8 CAPACITOR CURRENT-VOLTAGE RELATIONSHIP

EXPERIMENT NUMBER 8 CAPACITOR CURRENT-VOLTAGE RELATIONSHIP 1 EXPERIMENT NUMBER 8 CAPACITOR CURRENT-VOLTAGE RELATIONSHIP Purpose: To demonstrate the relationship between the voltage and current of a capacitor. Theory: A capacitor is a linear circuit element whose

More information

FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF AN AUDIO AMPLIFIER

FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF AN AUDIO AMPLIFIER 2014 Amplifier - 1 FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF AN AUDIO AMPLIFIER The objectives of this experiment are: To understand the concept of HI-FI audio equipment To generate a frequency response curve for an audio

More information

Interfacing Analog to Digital Data Converters

Interfacing Analog to Digital Data Converters Converters In most of the cases, the PIO 8255 is used for interfacing the analog to digital converters with microprocessor. We have already studied 8255 interfacing with 8086 as an I/O port, in previous

More information

Fundamentals of Signature Analysis

Fundamentals of Signature Analysis Fundamentals of Signature Analysis An In-depth Overview of Power-off Testing Using Analog Signature Analysis www.huntron.com 1 www.huntron.com 2 Table of Contents SECTION 1. INTRODUCTION... 7 PURPOSE...

More information

Power Supplies. 1.0 Power Supply Basics. www.learnabout-electronics.org. Module

Power Supplies. 1.0 Power Supply Basics. www.learnabout-electronics.org. Module Module 1 www.learnabout-electronics.org Power Supplies 1.0 Power Supply Basics What you ll learn in Module 1 Section 1.0 Power Supply Basics. Basic functions of a power supply. Safety aspects of working

More information

Kirchhoff s Laws Physics Lab IX

Kirchhoff s Laws Physics Lab IX Kirchhoff s Laws Physics Lab IX Objective In the set of experiments, the theoretical relationships between the voltages and the currents in circuits containing several batteries and resistors in a network,

More information

VOLTAGE-TO-FREQUENCY CONVERTER

VOLTAGE-TO-FREQUENCY CONVERTER VOTAGE-TO-FEQUENY ONVETE Internal circuit of M I VOTAGE EFEENE M OP AMP UENT MIO Q,9V Q P B Vin T ONE SHOT TIME VOT OMP VOT OMP S Q Q Q Q Q Q In direct transmission of an analog signal (below), V AN will

More information

Transmission Line Terminations It s The End That Counts!

Transmission Line Terminations It s The End That Counts! In previous articles 1 I have pointed out that signals propagating down a trace reflect off the far end and travel back toward the source. These reflections can cause noise, and therefore signal integrity

More information

Positive Feedback and Oscillators

Positive Feedback and Oscillators Physics 3330 Experiment #6 Fall 1999 Positive Feedback and Oscillators Purpose In this experiment we will study how spontaneous oscillations may be caused by positive feedback. You will construct an active

More information

Oscillators. 2.0 RF Sine Wave Oscillators. www.learnabout-electronics.org. Module. RF Oscillators

Oscillators. 2.0 RF Sine Wave Oscillators. www.learnabout-electronics.org. Module. RF Oscillators Module 2 www.learnabout-electronics.org Oscillators 2.0 RF Sine Wave Oscillators What you ll Learn in Module 2 Section 2.0 High Frequency Sine Wave Oscillators. Frequency Control in RF Oscillators. LC

More information

DM74LS169A Synchronous 4-Bit Up/Down Binary Counter

DM74LS169A Synchronous 4-Bit Up/Down Binary Counter Synchronous 4-Bit Up/Down Binary Counter General Description This synchronous presettable counter features an internal carry look-ahead for cascading in high-speed counting applications. Synchronous operation

More information

Karaoke Circuit Building Instructions

Karaoke Circuit Building Instructions Karaoke Circuit Building Instructions Background Most popular and rock music recordings use multiple microphones and mixers to generate the left and right signals. Listening in stereo gives a broad presence

More information

AP331A XX G - 7. Lead Free G : Green. Packaging (Note 2)

AP331A XX G - 7. Lead Free G : Green. Packaging (Note 2) Features General Description Wide supply Voltage range: 2.0V to 36V Single or dual supplies: ±1.0V to ±18V Very low supply current drain (0.4mA) independent of supply voltage Low input biasing current:

More information

Reading: HH Sections 4.11 4.13, 4.19 4.20 (pgs. 189-212, 222 224)

Reading: HH Sections 4.11 4.13, 4.19 4.20 (pgs. 189-212, 222 224) 6 OP AMPS II 6 Op Amps II In the previous lab, you explored several applications of op amps. In this exercise, you will look at some of their limitations. You will also examine the op amp integrator and

More information

PCM Encoding and Decoding:

PCM Encoding and Decoding: PCM Encoding and Decoding: Aim: Introduction to PCM encoding and decoding. Introduction: PCM Encoding: The input to the PCM ENCODER module is an analog message. This must be constrained to a defined bandwidth

More information

6.101 Final Project Proposal Class G Audio Amplifier. Mark Spatz

6.101 Final Project Proposal Class G Audio Amplifier. Mark Spatz 6.101 Final Project Proposal Class G Audio Amplifier Mark Spatz 1 1 Introduction For my final project, I will be constructing a 30V audio amplifier capable of delivering about 150 watts into a network

More information

ε: Voltage output of Signal Generator (also called the Source voltage or Applied

ε: Voltage output of Signal Generator (also called the Source voltage or Applied Experiment #10: LR & RC Circuits Frequency Response EQUIPMENT NEEDED Science Workshop Interface Power Amplifier (2) Voltage Sensor graph paper (optional) (3) Patch Cords Decade resistor, capacitor, and

More information

How to design SMPS to Pass Common Mode Lightning Surge Test

How to design SMPS to Pass Common Mode Lightning Surge Test Application Note, V1.0, September 2006 How to design SMPS to Pass Common Mode Lightning Surge Test Power Management & Supply N e v e r s t o p t h i n k i n g. Edition 2006-09-06 Published by Infineon

More information

Lab 11 Digital Dice. Figure 11.0. Digital Dice Circuit on NI ELVIS II Workstation

Lab 11 Digital Dice. Figure 11.0. Digital Dice Circuit on NI ELVIS II Workstation Lab 11 Digital Dice Figure 11.0. Digital Dice Circuit on NI ELVIS II Workstation From the beginning of time, dice have been used for games of chance. Cubic dice similar to modern dice date back to before

More information

Chapter 22 Further Electronics

Chapter 22 Further Electronics hapter 22 Further Electronics washing machine has a delay on the door opening after a cycle of washing. Part of this circuit is shown below. s the cycle ends, switch S closes. t this stage the capacitor

More information