Chapter 8 Cell division. Review

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1 Chapter 8 Cell division Mitosis/Meiosis Review

2 This spot that holds the 2 chromatid copies together is called a centromere The phase of the cell cycle in which cells stop dividing all together. G 0

3 Cell division in bacteria cells is called Binary fission Phase of the cell cycle in which DNA is copied S (synthesis)

4 This organized picture of an individual s chromosomes is called karyotype a This person is a. male female female (has XX)

5 The proteins that help wrap up the DNA into chromosomes are histones Phase of the cell cycle In which the nuclear membrane is present and DNA is spread out into chromatin. interphase

6 This red area is a protein on the centromere where the spindle fibers attach. It is called the kinetochore List the phases of mitosis in order starting with prophase. Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis

7 Phase of mitosis that follows anaphase telophase Phase of the cell cycle that follows G 2 Mitosis (prophase)

8 This network of fibers that attach and pull the chromosomes apart is called the mitotic spindle This cell is in prophase

9 Humans have 46 chromosomes. (23 pairs) Type of cell division in eukaryotic cells that results in 2 identical daughter cells. mitosis

10 Reproduction in which offspring come from the DNA of just one parent is called asexual reproduction The dark colored spot near the nucleus that contains the centrioles when the cell is not dividing is the centrosome

11 The 2 chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual are called Sex chromosomes G 1, S, and G 2 make up this phase of the cell cycle. interphase

12 Sperm and eggs are cells. haploid haploid diploid This person is a Male (has XY) male female

13 Proteins that control the turning on and off of specific regions of DNA Non-histones One of 2 identical arms that make up a chromosome chromatid

14 A cell that contains two copies of each chromosome is said to be diploid Humans have 2 sex chromosomes and 44. autosomes

15 The place in the cell membrane of an animal cell that pinches in during cytokinesis is called a cleavage furrow Plant cells can t pinch to divide, instead they form a cell plate to divide.

16 This phase of the cell cycle is anaphase Cell which contains only 1 copy of each of the chromosomes haploid

17 This phase of the cell cycle is metaphase Phase of the cell cycle cell s spend most of their time in. interphase

18 Part of interphase in which the cell grows to mature size and carries out its job. G 1 Type of eukaryotic cell division which produces cells with ½ the number of chromosomes as the original cell. meiosis

19 Phase of mitosis that follows prophase metaphase Phase of the cell cycle that follows S G2

20 DNA that is all spread out in an interphase nucleus is called chromatin Phase of mitosis in which the nuclear membrane and nucleolus disappear and the DNA scrunches into chromosomes. prophase

21 In this part of interphase cells make the molecules and organelles needed for cell division G 2 The 2 copies of each chromosome are called homologous chromosomes because are the same size, same shape, and carry genes for the same traits.

22 These structures at the poles which attach to the spindle fibers and pull the chromosomes. centrioles A karyotype can tell us The sex of the organism AND if they have missing/extra chromosomes

23 Give an example of a gamete Sperm OR egg

24 The random separation of homologous chromosomes so that different combinations of mother and father chromosomes end up together in the daughter cells Independent assortment

25 When chromatin scrunches together it is called a chromosome If the body cells of an organism have 24 chromosomes, how many would be in a sperm or egg cell? 12; Sperm and eggs have ½ the number of chromosomes as body cells

26 True OR False This organism is a human. False; only 40 chromosomes Humans have 46 Phase of mitosis in which chromsomes line up in the middle of the cell. metaphase

27 Mitosis or Meiosis? Used by organisms to grow in size Mitosis Makes 4 haploid cells Crossing over happens Used to make gametes Makes identical 2n cells Meiosis Meiosis Meiosis Mitosis Used to repair injuries or replace worn out cells Mitosis

28 This phase is called interphase Dark spots next to the nucleus that contain the centrioles. centrosomes

29 Phase of mitosis that follows metaphase anaphase Phase of the cell cycle that follows G 1 S

30 This cell is in anaphase Phase of cell division in which the nuclear membrane returns and chromosomes spread out into chromatin. telophase

31 This cell is in telophase The cell above is a cell. animal plant Plant You can see the cell plate forming in center instead of a cleavage furrow.

32 The person in this karyotype has an extra number #21 chromosome. She has Down s syndrome.

33 Reproduction in which offspring come from the DNA of 2 parents is called sexual reproduction. Phase of the cell cycle after S phase in which cells make the molecules and organelles needed for cell division G 2

34 Phase of mitosis in which chromatids separate and move to opposite ends of the cell. anaphase The very first dividing phase is prophase

35 Type of cell division shown at the left mitosis meiosis meiosis How can you tell? Homologous pairs line up, crossing over happens; end up with 4 cells that have ½ the chromosome number you started with

36 The chromosomes that DO NOT determine the organism s sex are called autosomes Type of cell division in which genetic recombination can happen. meiosis

37 Name one of the phases of meiosis that is different from mitosis. PROPHASE I- synapsis & crossing over happen ANAPHASE I- independent assortment happens INTERPHASE II- No copying of DNA before 2 nd division

38 Mitosis or Meiosis? Makes cells different from parent Meiosis Makes 2 diploid cells Mitosis Independent assortment happens Used to make somatic (body) cells Meiosis Mitosis Makes 4 daughter cells Meiosis Divides twice but copies DNA only once Meiosis

39 This is called a Cleavage furrow This cell is an animal cell. Plants don t have cleavage furrows. an animal a plant

40 Phase of meiosis where crossing over happens PROPHASE I Type of cell division used to make gametes meiosis

41 During oogenesis 4 cells are produced but only 1 becomes a mature egg. The others degenerate and become POLAR BODIES The production of mature sperm cells is called SPERMATOGENESIS

42 Phase of the cell cycle where cells spend most of their time. They grow bigger and they do their job as body cells. G 1 List the phases of mitosis in order starting with interphase Interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis

43 Name the two ways genetic recombination happens during meiosis Crossing over & independent assortment How is INTERPHASE II different from INTERPHASE I? DNA is NOT copied during interphase II and it is in interphase I

44 The exchange of genetic material between chromatid arms of homologous chromosomes is called Crossing over The group of 4 chromatid arms above is called a tetrad

45 Tell 5 ways mitosis and meiosis MITOSIS are different Makes 2 diploid (2n) cells Divides once Makes body cells Makes cells identical to parent No genetic recombination MEIOSIS Makes 4 haploid (1n) cells Divides twice/copies DNA once Makes gametes (sperm/eggs) Makes cells with ½ the number of chromosomes of parent Crossing over/independent assortment allow for genetic recombination Used to grow in size, Used to make reproductive repair injuries, cells replace worn out cells No synapsis of homologous pairs Homologous pairs line up together

46 Phase of meiosis where SYNAPSIS happens PROPHASE I Type of cell division that produces 1n cells. meiosis

47 Phase of mitosis where the cytoplasm splits into 2 CYTOKINESIS Name the phases of the cell cycle in order starting with G 1 G 1 S G 2 M

48 If a cell has 16 chromosomes in its sperm & egg cells, how many would you see in one of its body cells? 32; body cells have twice the number of sperm/egg cells Type of cell division that produces 1n cells. meiosis

49 The pairing up of homologous chromosomes during meiosis is called SYNAPSIS The production of mature egg cells is called OOGENESIS

50 THE END

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54 fdsf dfsd sdfsad dsfsd

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