Skeletal System: Axial and Appendicular Skeleton (Chapter 7 & 8)

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1 Skeletal System: Axial and Appendicular Skeleton (Chapter 7 & 8) Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. Suffolk County Community College Eastern Campus Primary Sources for figures and content: Marieb, E. N. Human Anatomy & Physiology 6th ed. San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin Cummings, Martini, F. H. Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology 6th ed. San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin Cummings, Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 1 SCCC BIO130 Chapters 7 & 8 Lecture Slides

2 Human skeleton = 206 bones Axial skeleton: longitudinal axis 80 bones Appendicular skeleton: limbs, 126 bones Axial Skeleton Functions: 1. Support and protect organs in dorsal and ventral body cavities. 2. Provide surface area for muscle attachment: A. Adjust position of head, neck,&trunk B. Perform respiratory movements C. Stabilize appendicular skeleton Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 2 SCCC BIO130 Chapters 7 & 8 Lecture Slides

3 1. Skull: 22 bones (on handout) Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 3 SCCC BIO130 Chapters 7 & 8 Lecture Slides

4 Skull bones interconnect at immovable joints called sutures (dense fibrous CT) Four major sutures: 1. Lambdoid - separates occipital bone from parietal bones 2. Coronal - separates frontal bone from parietal bones 3. Sagittal - separates parietal bones 4. Squamous - (2) separates temporal bone from parietal bone Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 4 SCCC BIO130 Chapters 7 & 8 Lecture Slides

5 Sinuses = air filled chambers inside flat bones Function: 1. Reduce weight of bone 2. House mucus membranes that moisten and clean incoming air Found in: Sphenoid, Ethmoid, Frontal, Palatine and Maxillary bones Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 5 SCCC BIO130 Chapters 7 & 8 Lecture Slides

6 Skull Development: -Intramembranous ossification from many centers of ossification -during development, brain grows more rapidly than cranial bones -growing skull bones held together by bands of fibrous CT to provide flexibility (expansion of brain, compression for birth) -large intersections of CT between bones = fontanels ( soft spots ), persist until age 5 -around age 5, brain stops growing in size, solid sutures form between cranial bones Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 6 SCCC BIO130 Chapters 7 & 8 Lecture Slides

7 Craniostenosis = premature closure of fontanels, w/o surgery brain is crushed Microcephaly = brain fails to enlarge, cranium remains small Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 7 SCCC BIO130 Chapters 7 & 8 Lecture Slides

8 2. Vertebral column (26 bones) 7 cervical vertebrae (C 1 -C 7 ) 12 thoracic vertebrae (T 1 -T 12 ) 5 lumbar vertebrae (L 1 -L 5 ) 1 sacrum (5 fused) 1 coccyx (3-5 fused) -vertebral column not straight: 4 curves bring weight of body in line with central axis A. Primary Curves: -Thoracic & Sacral -present at birth -accommodate organs B. Secondary Curves: -Lumbar & Cervical -appear in first year -necessary for bipedalism Cervical = hold head up Lumbar = standing Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 8 SCCC BIO130 Chapters 7 & 8 Lecture Slides

9 Kyphosis = exaggerated thoracic curvature Lordosis = exaggerated lumbar curvature Scoliosis = abnormal lateral curvature Construction of column: -Vertebral body: stacking -Intervertebral disc: spacing between bodies (not C1&C2) annulus fibrosus: fibrocartilage, outside nucleus pulposus: gel, inside (cushion) (loss of water from discs = shrinking height) Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 9 SCCC BIO130 Chapters 7 & 8 Lecture Slides

10 -Elastic ligaments: link bodies for alignment -Intervertebral foramen: holes formed by spacing from discs, allow spinal nerves to exit column -Vertebral arch: bone attached to vertebral body, with body forms vertebral foramen -Vertebral foramen: hole for spinal cord -Vertebral canal: bony canal for spinal cord formed by stacking of vertebral foramen Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 10 SCCC BIO130 Chapters 7 & 8 Lecture Slides

11 Spina bifida -vertebral arch fails to develop correctly at 3 weeks (fetus) and spinal cord is unprotected or even exposed, 4/1000 births show some degree (due to lack of folic acid) Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 11 SCCC BIO130 Chapters 7 & 8 Lecture Slides

12 3. Thoracic cage (25 bones) 1 sternum 24 ribs: 7 pair true ribs: separate costal cartilage to attach to sternum 3 pair false ribs: common shared costal cartilage to attach to sternum 2 pair floating ribs: no cartilage, no attachment to sternum Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 12 SCCC BIO130 Chapters 7 & 8 Lecture Slides

13 Appendicular skeleton = 126 bones -consists of limbs and limb girdles to provide movement 1. Pectoral girdle (on handout): 4 bones 2. Upper limbs (on handout): 60 bones Carpal tunnel syndrome -carpals arranged in two rows of four bones -creates a U shape enclosed by the flexor retinaculum (ligament) -all tendons, vessels and nerves of hand must pass through channel between bones and ligament (no extra space) -any inflammation = pressure on nerves leading to pain Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 13 SCCC BIO130 Chapters 7 & 8 Lecture Slides

14 3. Pelvic girdle: (on handout) 2 bones 2 os coxae note: pelvis (not anatomical) = pelvic girdle (2 os coxae) + sacrum + coccyx 4. Lower limbs: (on handout) 60 bones *Individual bones and bone markings will be examined in detail in lab! Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 14 SCCC BIO130 Chapters 7 & 8 Lecture Slides

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