Renaissance Theatre: England

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1 Renaissance Theatre: England Queen Elizabeth King James

2 Roots of English Drama 1. Through the study, adaption and performance of classical Greek and Roman drama at the English colleges and universities 2. Through the plays written and performed by the professional acting troupes

3 First True" English Tragedy Gorboduc Written by 2 university students: Thomas Sacksville and Thomas Norton Plot and characters drawn from English legend Written in blank verse -- unrhymed iambic pentameter Modeled after Roman tragedy

4 Major Pre-Shakespearean Playwright Christopher Marlowe ( ) Wrote historical tragedies In blank verse Have 7 plays Most often revived work: Doctor Faustus

5 The Major Elizabethan Playwright William Shakespeare

6 William Shakespeare Playwright, actor, shareholder in the King s Men, householder in the Globe Theatre Born 1564 in Stratford-on-the-Avon Received a grammar school education At the age of 18 he marries Ann Hathaway They have 3 children: Ann, Hamnet, Judith 1584: At the age of 20 he is caught poaching game on the land of Sir Thomas Lucy

7 Flees to London : The Dark Years 1590: Begins to write. Henry VI and Titus Andronicus are performed 1594: Becomes a shareholder in the Lord Chamberlain s Men 1599: Becomes a householder in the Globe 1613: At the age of 49 he retires to Stratford Dies in 1616

8 The Official Canon Contains 38 plays. 36 were published in the First Folio There are 11 Tragedies 16 Comedies 9 History plays

9 The Tragedies Hamlet Romeo and Juliet Othello King Lear Macbeth Julius Caesar Titus Andronicus

10 The Comedies Taming of the Shrew The Merchant of Venice As You Like It The Comedy of Errors Measure for Measure A Midsummer Night s Dream

11 The Merry Wives of Windsor The only Shakespearean play set in Elizabethan England. Was written for Queen Elizabeth who wanted to see Falstaff in love

12 Three Types of Comedies 1. Farcical Comedies place their emphasis on physical comedy (Shrew) 2. Serious Comedies are serious plays with a happy ending (Merchant of Venice) 3. Romantic Comedies take place in a fairy tale world (As You Like It)

13 The History Plays Richard II Richard III Henry IV: parts 1 and 2 Henry V Henry VI: parts 1, 2 and 3 Henry VIII

14 Four Production Problems 1. They are long 2. They require a large, mostly male cast, 3. Many of the major roles are difficult, beyond the scope of a college student 4. The language is difficult to understand, and speak

15 Publication of Shakespeare s Plays Quartos: A small book (5 x6 ) containing a single play. 19 scripts were published between 1594 and 1622 Folio: A large book (8 ½ x 13 ) containing a collection of 36 plays. The first folio was published 7 years after his death.

16 Good and Bad Quartos Good Quartos were based on the official prompt book held by the acting company Bad Quartos were compiled from the faulty memory of an un-happy actor

17 The First Folio Was published in 1623 Contained 36 plays Was compiled by two fellow actors from the King s Men Probably edited by Ben Jonson

18 Private and Public Theatres Private theatres were the small (Capacity: 700), expensive (6d) indoor playhouses Public theatres were the large (Capacity: 3000), less expensive (1d) open air playhouses In 1600 five public theatres -- Globe, Curtain, Fortune, Rose. and Swan -- operated just outside the city of London

19 First Professional English The Theatre Built in 1576 Playhouse By James Burbage, joiner turned actor, member of the Earl of Leicester's Men and father of Richard Burbage Built on leased land north of the city in Shoreditch The lease expired in 1597 Timber from the Theatre was used to build the Globe

20 An Inn Yard

21 The Globe Opened in 1599 Was the home of the Lord Chamberlain s Men Burned on June 28, 1613 during a performance of Shakespeare's Henry VIII Was rebuilt in 1614 Was closed in 1642 Dismantled in 1644 Excavated in the fall of 1989 Rebuilt in 1997

22 The Globe 1642 print by Václav Hollar

23 Bankside today

24 Location of Globe

25 Artist s Concept of The Original Globe

26 New Globe (1997)

27 New Globe (1997)

28 Primary Source Material The Original Globe 1. Stage directions in the texts of Elizabethan plays. 2. Henslowe's contract for the construction of the Fortune 3. A Dutch visitor's sketch of the Swan 4. The 1989 archaeological excavation of the Globe site

29 Sketch of the Swan

30 Parts of the Globe Pit: The courtyard where the audience stood to watch a performance Forestage: The platform which jutted into the center of the pit Inner below: The curtained discovery area at the rear of the forestage Inner Above: The curtained discovery area above the inner below Heavens: The roof over the forestage.

31 Blackfriars

32 Blackfrairs Was a private theatre Built into what had been a Dominican Monastery Under the control of the Crown With in the walled city of London Between 1610 and 1642 was the winter home of the King s Men

33 Elizabethan Acting Company Was required to have a patron The patron gave the company legitimacy and a name: The Lord Chamberlain s Men Was a stock company in both the theatrical and economic sense Was all male Women characters were played by apprentices (young men)

34 Shareholder: Held an economic interest in the acting company they shared in the company s profits Householder: Held an economic interest in the playhouse they shared in the theatre s profits Hireling: An actor (musician, stage manager, wardrobe keeper, prompter or stage hand) employed by the acting company

35 Gatherer: Was the most trusted member of the company. He collected the penny general admission from the groundlings as they entered the theatre For an extra penny, the groundling could leave the pit and watch the show from the gallery. The extra penny went to the householder One Penny = 1 ½ pounds of bread, a pound of beef or 2/3 gallon of beer

36 The King s Men Richard Burbage Leading Acting Company: Patron: King James Leading Actor: Richard Burbage Resident Playwright: William Shakespeare

37 King Charles I - Oliver Cromwell

38 - Parliament Vs The Crown : Parliament closes all theatres to "appease and avert the wrath of God." 1649: King Charles arrested, tried for treason and executed Charles II flees to Scotland then France : The English Commonwealth under Oliver Cromwell (Lord Protector) 1658: Cromwell dies. His son Richard comes to power. 1660: Crown is restored to Charles II

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