Goals of Therapy. Treatment Options for Hepatitis C. Patterns of Response. Progress in Hepatitis C Therapy

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1 Treatment Options for Hepatitis C Helen S. Te, M.D. Center for Liver Diseases University of Chicago Hospitals Chicago, Illinois Primary: To eliminate the virus Goals of Therapy Secondary: To decrease inflammation and cell death in the liver To slow the progression of the disease to cirrhosis To decrease risk of liver cancer To defer or avoid liver transplantation Patterns of Baseline Treatment Follow-up Relapser Progress in Hepatitis C Therapy Nonresponder 54% HCV RNA % 3 HCV RNA Negative Breakthrough (Nonresponder) Sustained Responder Wk 0 Treatment Wk 48 Follow-up Wk % 1 IFN 24 wk IFN 48 wk IFN/RBV Peg-IFN/RBV Time 1

2 Standard Therapy The Science of Pegylation Pegylated Interferon modifies immune system activity antiviral activity Ribavirin mimics a building block for viral genes interferes with viral replication Addition of a heavy, inert molecule - polyethylene glycol Advantages: Longer lasting Better availability to liver Decreased elimination Increased effectiveness More convenient, once a week dosing schedule Pegylated Interferons Peg-IFN/RBV Overall IFN/RBV P-IFN alpha-2b 1.5/RBV IFN/RBV P-IFN alpha-2a/rbv Peg-IFN α-2b 12 kd molecule Linear chain 3 kidney clearance weight-based dose Peg-IFN α-2a 40 kd molecule Branched chain ~10 liver clearance single fixed dose % 54% Sustained % 56% Sustained Manns MP et al. Lancet, 358:958, Fried et al. NEJM,

3 Predicting to IFN Therapy Peg-IFN/RBV SVR by Genotype Virology Genotype 2 or 3 Low viral load (<2 million copies/ml) P-IFN α2b/rbv 42% 82% % P-IFN α2a/rbv 76% Genotype 1 Genotype 2 or 3 Genotype 1 Genotype 2 or 3 Adapted from Davis GL et al. Hepatology. 1997;26(suppl 1):123S. Manns MP et al. Lancet, 358:958, Fried et al. NEJM, Peg-IFN α-2a/rbv SVR Genotype 1 by Viral Load Predicting to IFN Therapy SVR % % 47% Low Viral Load High Viral Load Peg-IFN α-2a + RBV 1000/1200 n=186 Virology Low viral load (<2 million copies/ml) Genotype 2 or 3 Liver biopsy Mild inflammation Absence of scarring Low iron stores in liver Hadziyannis SJ et al, Annals Int Med, Adapted from Davis GL et al. Hepatology. 1997;26(suppl 1):123S. 3

4 SVR (%) 70 63% Hadziyannis SJ et al, Annals Int Med, Peg-IFN α-2a/rbv SVR Cirrhosis 67% 5 n=424 n=313 n=111 All patients Non-cirrhotics Cirrhotics Peg-IFN α-2a + RBV 1000/1200 Predicting to IFN Therapy Host factors younger age shorter duration of disease non-african American race Initial response to therapy 100 times decline in viral load or negative virus by 12 weeks of therapy Adherence to therapy 8 IFN/8 RBV/8 duration Adapted from Davis GL et al. Hepatology. 1997;26(suppl 1):123S. Reddy KR et al. H epatology. 1999;30: McHutchison J et al. Hepatology 2000; 223A to Therapy: 80/80/80 Adherence Side-Effects of Pegylated IFN SVR (%) % 41% 15% ITT <80/<80/<80 >8 IFN dose >8 RBV dose >8 duration of therapy Flu-like symptoms Fatigue Emotional lability Depression Sleep difficulties Poor appetite/wt loss Diarrhea Rash Injection-site reactions Hair loss Low white blood count Low platelet count Thyroid dysfunction Visual problems Hearing loss Nerve damage McHutchison J et al. Hepatology 2000; 223A 4

5 Side-Effects of Ribavirin Anti-HCV Therapy Nausea Rash, dry skin, itching Chest pain unrelated to heart disease Dry cough Shortness of breath (out of proportion to anemia) Destruction of red blood cells Fetal deformities in pregnant women Indications: scarring on liver biopsy moderate to severe inflammation or cell death symptomatic patients extrahepatic manifestations Duration 48 weeks for genotype 1 24 weeks for genotype 2 or 3 Anti-HCV Therapy Anti-HCV Therapy Contraindications: pregnancy liver failure unstable heart disease blood diseases involving red blood cell abnormalities severe bone marrow suppression severe depression Cautious use: anemia or low red blood cell count preexisting psychiatric disorders active substance abuse severe lung disease serious kidney disease autoimmune diseases 5

6 Dietary Advice Other Management Issues Alcohol abstinence Well-balanced diet Exercise Counseling Issues Counseling Issues Sexual partner/s should be tested for HCV. Practice safe sex if there are multiple sexual partners and during menses. Avoid sexual practices that have a high risk for trauma or tear of the genital lining. No sharing of toothbrushes or razors with other individuals. Avoid exposing other people to infected blood during injuries. Inform health care personnel (doctors or dentists) about existing hepatitis C infection. Support groups are available. 6

7 Other Medications Be cautious about taking medications that may be harmful to the liver, including natural remedies and herbal medications. Conclusions Vaccination for hepatitis A and B if not yet immune to these viruses. Conclusions Conclusions Therapy for hepatitis C has come a long way, with sustained viral eradication achievable in about of cases. Treatment comes with side-effects, and management of these side-effects is crucial in promoting adherence to therapy. Progress is continually being made in the realm of anti-hcv therapy, partly due to advances made in science and medicine but most importantly, due to patients participation in clinical trials. 7

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