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1 EGR 78 Digital Logic Lab File: N78L9A Lab # 9 Multivibrators A. Objective The objective of this laboratory is to introduce the student to the use of bistable multivibrators (flip-flops), monostable multivibrators (one-shots), and astable multivibrators (clock generators). Switch debouncing is also investigated. B. Materials Breadboard 5V Power Supply Oscilloscope 555 Timer I 7476 Dual Flip-flop Assorted AND, OR, NAND, NOR, XOR, and INVERTER I s Assorted resistors and capacitors available in lab. Introduction Multivibrators A multivibrator is a circuit whose oscillates between logic HIGH and LOW states, either automatically or due to some input. There are three types of multivibrators: ) Bistable multivibrators (flip-flops) - These devices have two stable states ( = and = ). They can easily be switch from one stable state to the other. ) Monostable multivibrators (one-shots) - These devices have one stable state, but they may enter another unstable state for a certain period of. ) Astable multivibrator (clock generator) - These devices oscillate between two unstable states, forming a clock (square wave generator). Flip-Flops A flip-flop is the simplest type of memory cell. Its,, does not depend solely upon its inputs, but also depends on the order in which they are applied. Thus, the flip-flop is not a combinational circuit, but is a sequential circuit. The flip-flop is the key building block of most synchronous sequential circuits. There are four common types of flip-flops. The symbol and truth table for each is shown below. SR flip-flop: flip-flop: D flip-flop: T flip-flop: S D T R S R (t+) (t) (no change) (reset) (set) - - (illegal) (t+) (t) (no change) (reset) (set) (t) (toggle) D (t+) [or (t+) = D] T (t+) (t) (t) (no toggle) (toggle) Figure : Four common types of flip-flops

2 Page Flip-flops are synchronous devices meaning that the responds to the synchronous inputs (S, R,,, D, or T) only on certain clock edges. There are three main types of triggering: ) positive-edge triggering - the can only change on the positive (rising) edge of the clock (due to the values of the synchronous inputs). ) negative-edge triggering - the can only change on the negative (falling) edge of the clock (due to the values of the synchronous inputs). ) master-slave triggering - the synchronous inputs are read on the positive edge of the clock, but the does not respond until the negative edge of the clock. The type of triggering is somes indicated by the symbol. Shown below in Figure are flip-flops with all three types of triggering. Positive-edge triggered: Negative-edge triggered: Master-slave triggered: Figure : Flip-flops with different types of triggering Flip-flops often have asynchronous inputs available also. These inputs are not synchronized with the clock, therefore, the may respond immediately to changes in these inputs. There are two types of asynchronous inputs commonly used: ) PRESET (also called SET) - used to preset the to ) LEAR (also called RESET) - used to clear the (set to ) Asynchronous inputs are often active-low. Therefore, they are typically tied HIGH for normal flip-flop operation. The PRESET or LEAR may be momentarily set LOW to initialize the flipflop to some desired initial value. The symbol for a flip-flop often show the asynchronous inputs as indicated below in Figure. PR L Figure : Flip-flops with asynchronous PRESET and LEAR inpu

3 Page Debounced Switches If the input to a flip-flop or sequential circuit is applied with a switch, it is important that the switch is debounced so that only a single transition occurs when the switch is thrown such as is shown in Figure 4A. The contacts in a simple switch will bounce for several milliseconds before settling down allowing several transitions to occur such as is shown in Figure 4B. Since a negative-edge triggered flip-flop reacts to each falling edge of the input clock, the input in Figure 4A would clock the flip-flop only once, whereas the input in Figure 4B would clock the flipflop three s. switch thrown switch thrown HIGH HIGH HIGH HIGH LOW t LOW LOW LOW t Figure 4A - Debounced switch Figure 4B - Switch with contact bounce Figure 5 shows three circuits that can be used to debounce switches. PR 74 L 74 Figure 5A: Debounced switch using a flip-flop Figure 5B: Debounced switch using NAND gates Figure 5: Debounced switch using inverters

4 Page Timer The 555 r circuit is a popular I that can be used to implement astable and monostable multivibrator circuits as well as other circuits. The 555 is a linear I (like an operational amplifier or a voltage regulator) rather than a digital I, thus it does not necessarily use TTL voltage levels. In fact, the supply voltage for the 555 can range from 4.5V to 8V. If a 5V supply if used, it can easily interface with TTL circuits. A simplified equivalent circuit for the 555 r is shown below in Figure 6. Vcc 8 Reset 4 ontrol Trigger 5 Upper omparator _ + _ + Lower omparator flipflop Driver 6 Threshold 7 Discharge Ground Figure 6: 555 Timer Simplified Block Diagram 555 Timer configured as an astable multivibrator The 555 r configured as an astable multivibrator (clock generator) is shown below in Figure 7. The device operates essentially as follows: ) The capacitor charges until it reaches (/) causing the upper comparator to LEAR the flip-flop (which sets the LOW). ) The capacitor discharges until it reaches (/) causing the lower comparator to PRESET the flip-flop (which sets the HIGH). Vcc R A 8 Vcc 7 Discharge 4 Reset R B 6 Threshold ontrol 5 Trigger Ground. uf Figure 7: 555 Timer connected as an astable multivibrator (clock generator)

5 Page 5 Shown in Figure 8 are the capacitor and waveforms for the astable multivibrator (clock generator). apacitor [ - e -t/[(r A + R B )] ] + e -t/( R B ) T T H T L Figure 8: apacitor and waveforms for an astable multivibrator (clock generator) The charge is given by: T =.69(R + R ) H A B The discharge is given by: T =.69(R ) L B The total period is given by: T = T + T =.69(R + R ) H L A B The frequency of oscillation is given by: f =.44 ( R + R ) A B And the duty cycle is given by: D = T H T = R A + RB R + R x % Note that a 5% duty cycle can be almost achieved by picking R B >> R A. Example: If =. µf, R A = 5 kω, and R B = 4.4 kω, then T H = 65.4 µs, T L = 4.9 µs, T = 956. µs, f = 46 Hz, and D = 68. % 555 Timer configured as a monostable multivibrator A monostable multivibrator (one-shot) is a device that will a HIGH pulse for a specified duration of each that the input is triggered. The 555 r configured as a one-shot is shown below in Figure 9. The device operates essentially as follows: ) An input trigger causes the lower comparator to SET the flip-flop which makes the HIGH and turns OFF the transistor which allows the capacitor to begin charging. ) The capacitor charges until it reaches (/) causing the upper comparator to LEAR the flip-flop which shorts out the capacitor and forces the LOW. A B

6 Vcc Page 6 R 8 Vcc 7 Discharge 4 Reset 6 Threshold ontrol 5 input trigger pulse Trigger Ground. uf Figure 9: 555 Timer connected as a monostable multivibrator (one-shot) Shown in Figure are the input trigger, capacitor, and waveforms for the monostable multivibrator (one-shot). Input Trigger falling edge triggers the one-shot apacitor [ - e -t/(r) ] T Figure : Input trigger, capacitor, and waveforms for a monostable multivibrator (one-shot) The width of the pulse is given by : T =.R (solve for t when [ - e -t/r ] = (/) ) Example: If =. µf and R = 47 kω, then T =.(47 kω)(. µf) = 5.7 ms. So, each the one-shot is triggered, an pulse with a duration of 5.7 ms is produced.

7 Page 7 D. Preliminary Work. Design a one-shot using a 555 r that will generate an pulse that is HIGH for A.B seconds, where A, B, and are the last non-zero unique digits of your SSN in Hz. For example, if your SSN is , then the pulse should last for 8.4 seconds. Pick a capacitor value that is available in lab (see the list of available capacitor values in the Pinouts handout) or use a capacitor value that you have and use resistance values between kω and MΩ. Generate full circuit documentation for the circuit. Include a debounced switch at the input and an LED at the.. Design a clock generator using a 555 r that will generate a clock with a frequency equal to the last non-zero digits of your SSN in Hz. For example, if your SSN is , then the frequency is 84 Hz.. Use a duty cycle that is somewhat close to 5% (calculate its exact value). Pick a capacitor value that is available in lab (or one that you have) and use resistance values between kω and MΩ. Generate full circuit documentation for the circuit. E. Laboratory Work. onstruct a debounced switch using NAND gates as shown in Figure 5B. Test its operation (simply to see if it produces HIGH and LOW s as the switch is moved).. onnect a flip-flop using a 7476 and test it to complete the truth table shown below. Use a debounced switch to clock the flip-flop. Were the results as expected? (t) (t+). onnect the one-shot designed in step of the Preliminary Work according to the wire table generated. Measure the exact value of all resistors and capacitors used. Record the designed values and the measured values in a table. Test the one-shot and record the duration of the pulse and compare it to the designed value. Demonstrate proper operation of the circuit to the instructor. In your report, recalculate the expected for the using the measured component values and compare the to measured using a stop watch in lab. 4. onnect the clock generator designed in step of the Preliminary Work according to the wire table generated. Measure the exact value of all resistors and capacitors used. Record the designed values and the measured values in a table. View and accurately sketch the clock pulse and the capacitor voltage. Measure values for T H, T L, T, D, and f from the oscilloscope. ompare these to calculated values using measured component values. Demonstrate proper operation of the circuit to the instructor.

8 Page 8 5. onnect the of the clock generator in the previous step to the clock input of a flip-flop in the toggle mode as shown in Figure. View the of the clock generator and the of the flip-flop simultaneously (the clock near the top of the screen and the flip-flop near the bottom) and accurately sketch the results. From the sketch can you tell if the flip-flop is positive or negative edge triggered? Discuss how the frequency of the flip-flop compares with the frequency of the clock. A flip-flop in the toggle mode is somes called a divide-by- circuit. Why? 555 r clock generator Figure : 555 clock generator and flip-flop in the toggle mode ( = = )

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