TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER TITLE PAGE DECLARATION. ii DEDICATION. iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. iv ABSTRACT. v ABSTRAK. vi TABLE OF CONTENTS

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1 vii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER TITLE PAGE DECLARATION ii DEDICATION iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iv ABSTRACT v ABSTRAK vi TABLE OF CONTENTS vii LIST OF TABLES x LIST OF FIGURES xi LIST OF SYMBOLS xiv LIST OF APPENDICES xvii 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1. Introduction Research Background Problem Statements Objectives Scope of Works Contribution of Study 8 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. Introduction Instant (Soluble) Coffee 10

2 viii Production of Instant Coffee Wastewater Dan Kaffe (M) Sdn Bhd Coffee Processing Coagulation and Flocculation Colloidal Particles Colloidal Stability Colloidal Interactions Mechanisms of Coagulation Double Layer Compression Charge Neutralization Sweep Coagulation Interparticle Bridging Coagulants Inorganic Metal Salts Aluminum Sulfate Ferric Chloride Polyelectrolytes Chitosan 39 3 METHODOLOGY 3.1. Introduction Materials Wastewater Sample Aluminum Sulfate Ferric Chloride Chitosan Jar Test Experiment Analytical Methods Turbidity Measurement Total Suspended Solid (TSS) Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) Color 53

3 ix ph 53 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 4.1. Wastewater Characteristics Effect of Dosage Aluminum Sulfate Ferric Chloride Chitosan Effect of ph Aluminum Sulfate Ferric Chloride Chitosan Comparison of Coagulants 71 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1. Conclusions Recommendations 79 REFERENCES 80 APPENDICES 87

4 x LIST OF TABLES TABLE NO. TITLE PAGE 2.1 Wastewater analysis from instant coffee industry 16 (Lim, 1999) 4.1 Typical characteristics of the raw wastewater Optimum conditions for coagulants Comparison of each coagulant at optimum conditions Cost comparison of each coagulant 75

5 xi LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE NO. TITLE PAGE 2.1 Coffee manufacturing process Structure of electrical double layer Colloidal interparticulate forces versus distance Design and operation diagram for alum coagulation 31 (Amirtharajah and Mills, 1982) 2.5 Design and operation diagram for Fe(III) coagulation 32 (Johnson and Amirtharajah, 1983) 2.6 Schematic organic polyelectrolyte bridging model 38 for colloid destabilization (Faust and Aly, 1983) 2.7 Chemical structure of chitosan Research procedures Jar test apparatus Jar tests to determine optimum dosage 49

6 xii 3.4 Jar tests to determine optimum ph Effect of aluminum sulfate dosage on residual parameters Effect of aluminum sulfate dosage on parameter removals Effect of ferric chloride dosage on residual parameters Effect of ferric chloride dosage on parameter removals Effect of chitosan dosage on residual parameters Effect of chitosan dosage on parameter removals Effect of different ph on the residual parameters by 64 aluminum sulfate 4.8 Effect of different ph on the parameter removals by 64 aluminum sulfate 4.9 Effect of different ph on the residual parameters by 66 ferric chloride 4.10 Effect of different ph on the parameter removals by 67 ferric chloride 4.11 Effect of different ph on the residual parameters by 68 chitosan 4.12 Effect of different ph on the parameter removals by 69 chitosan 4.13 Jar test using (a) aluminum sulfate, (b) ferric chloride 71 and (c) chitosan

7 xiii 4.14 Comparison for aluminum sulfate, ferric chloride and 72 chitosan

8 xiv LIST OF SYMBOLS Al 3+ - Aluminum ion 3+ Al(H 2 O) 6 - Aluminum aquometal complexes Al(OH) 2+ - Cationic mononuclear aluminum species + Al(OH) 2 - Cationic mononuclear aluminum species Al(OH) 3 - Aluminum hydroxide - Al(OH) 4 - Aluminate ion Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 - Aluminum sulfate Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3.14H 2 O - Aluminum sulfate 14 hydrate Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3.16H 2 O - Aluminum sulfate 16 hydrate Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3.18H 2 O - Aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate 4+ Al 2 (OH) 2 - Cationic polynuclear aluminum species +3 Al 6 (OH) 15 - Cationic polynuclear aluminum species +4 Al 7 (OH) 17 - Cationic polynuclear aluminum species +4 Al 8 (OH) 20 - Cationic polynuclear aluminum species 5+ Al 13 (OH) 34 - Cationic polynuclear aluminum species BOD - Biochemical oxygen demand o C - Degree celsius Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 - Calcium bicarbonate CaOH - Calcium hydroxide CaSO 4 - Calcium sulfate C i - Initial concentration C f - Final concentration cm - Centimeter CO 2 - Carbon dioxide COD - Chemical oxygen demand

9 xv -COO - - Anionically charged carboxyl group -COOH - Carboxyl groups d - Thickness of the layer surrounding the shear surface D - Dielectric constant of the liquid DA - Degree of acetylation DLVO - Derjagin-Landau-Vervey-Overbeck theory DD - Degree of deacetylation DO - Dissolved Oxygen DOE - Department of Environment EQA - Environmental Quality Act 1974 Fe 3+ - Ferric ion Fe(OH) 3 - Ferric hydroxide Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 - Ferric sulfate + Fe(OH) 2 - Cationic polynuclear ferric species +4 Fe 2 (OH) 2 - Cationic polynuclear ferric species +5 Fe 3 (OH) 4 - Cationic polynuclear ferric species FeCl 3 - Ferric chloride FeCl 3. 6H 2 O - Ferric chloride 6 hydrate g - Gram g/mol - Gram per mole g/cm 3 - Gram per centimeter cubic HAc - Acetic acid HCl - Hydrochloric acid H 2 O - Water H 2 SO 4 - Sulfuric acid H 3 O + - Ion hydrogen ICO - International Coffee Organization kg - Kilogram kg/m 3 - Kilogram per meter cubic L - Liter m 3 /day - Meter cubic per day mg - Miligram mg/l - Miligram per liter mg/ml - Miligram per mililiter

10 xvi ml - Mililiter M - Molar NaOH - Sodium hydroxide -NH 2 - Amino group + -NH 3 - Positively charged amino group NTU - Nephelometric Turbidity Units -OH - Hydroxyl ion PtCo - Platinum-cobalt Q - Flowrate q - Charge per unit area RM - Ringgit Malaysia rpm - Rotation per minute Si 4+ - Silicon ion TSS - Total suspended solid UASB - Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket µm - Micron W i - Initial weight W f - Final weight ζ - Zeta potential

11 xvii LIST OF APPENDICES APPENDIX TITLE PAGE A Apparatus used for analytical methods 87 B Results of jar test using aluminum sulfate to determine optimum dosage (wide range) 88 B.1 Results of jar test using aluminum sulfate to determine optimum dosage 89 C Results of jar test using aluminum sulfate to determine optimum ph 90 D Results of jar test using ferric chloride to determine optimum dosage (wide range) 91 D.1 Results of jar test using ferric chloride to determine optimum dosage 92 E Results of jar test using ferric chloride to determine optimum ph 93 F Results of jar test using chitosan to determine optimum dosage (wide range) 94

12 xviii F.1 Results of jar test using chitosan to determine optimum dosage 95 G Results of jar test using chitosan to determine optimum ph 96 H Results of jar test using aluminum sulfate, ferric chloride and chitosan 97 I Cost comparison for aluminum sulfate, ferric chloride and chitosan 99 J T-test statistical analysis 100

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