Science is taught from preschool till upper secondary school as. We have a large number of qualified science and mathematics teachers.

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1 Malaysian School Science Education : Challenges and the Way Forward Ng Soo Boon, PhD Curriculum Development Division Ministry of Education Malaysia 1

2 Malaysia is moving towards a scientifically driven economy, to become a developed nation by

3 The country place great importance to School Science and Mathematics Education Science is taught from preschool till upper secondary school as compulsory subject. We have a large number of qualified science and mathematics teachers. Every school is equipped with 3 science laboratories and apparatus.

4 We face a decline or a stagnated enrolment in pure science stream in upper secondary school 4

5 Current Status S & T Pure Science 5

6 We have been under pressure to increase the number of pure science students at Schools level S&T Stream 45% Current Scenario at Upper Secondary School Pure Sciene Stream 29% Arts Stream 55% Vocational Stream 3.9% 6

7 Pyramid of Human Resource Development 2020 Practitioners Researchers 280, ,000 10,000 20,000 Scientists Engineers/Technolo gists Scientists/Technologists/Applided Scientists 30,000 PhDs Engineers/Doctors/Architect/Computer Science + 65,000 MSc & BSc 405,000 MSc / BSc/ Diploma Support/Service 800,000 Technicians/ TVET / S & T Officers/ Nurses / ICT Officers BSc/Diploma/ Certificate 1.3 Million (Source: Science and Technology Human Capital Roadmap: Towards 2020) 7

8 60:40 Policy 60:40 (Science: Arts) Ratio Policy was formulated by Planning Committee of Higher Education in 1967 This policy proposed that the ratio of Science and Technology: Arts students at the upper secondary school and university level as 60% S & T students : 40% Arts students. 8

9 The 60:40 policy has been used as an anchor in planning for students enrolment, infrastructure prepared, teaching staff trained in the secondary school and tertiary education in the last 4 decades. 9

10 Why is there a decline in enrolment of pure science stream? S & T graduate are not marketable? S & T job are not lucrative? There is a lack of awareness of the S & T related career? Students perceive pure science as difficult? Science is boring? 10

11 We face a decline in international science and mathematics achievement assessments results 11

12 Purata Skor TIMSS 1999, 2003, 2007 dan 2011 Matematik Sains Skor Malaysia Skor Purata Negara Peserta TIMSS Scale Centerpoint

13 Peratus Murid Mencapai Penandaarasan Dalam TIMSS Matematik x 625 Tahap Tertinggi x 625 Tahap Tinggi x 550 Tahap Sederhana x 475 Tahap Rendah x < 400 Tidak mencapai Tahap Rendah

14 Peratus Murid Mencapai Penandaarasan Dalam TIMSS Sains x 625 Tahap Tertinggi x 625 Tahap Tinggi x 550 Tahap Sederhana x 475 Tahap Rendah x < 400 Tidak mencapai Tahap Rendah

15 Kedudukan Dalam PISA 2012 Matematik Malaysia di tempat ke Shanghai-China Singapore Hong Kong-China Chinese Taipei Korea Macao-China Japan Liechtenstein Switzerland Netherlands Estonia Finland Canada Poland Belgium Germany Viet Nam Austria Australia Ireland Slovenia Denmark New Zealand Czech Republic France U Kingdom Iceland Latvia Luxembourg Norway Portugal Italy Spain Russian Fed. 482 OECD Ave Slovak Republic United States Lithuania Sweden Hungary Croatia Israel Greece Serbia Turkey International Ave Romania Cyprus Bulgaria UAE Kazakhstan Thailand Chile MALAYSIA Mexico Montenegro Uruguay Costa Rica Albania Brazil Argentina Tunisia Jordan Colombia Qatar Indonesia Peru 368

16 Kedudukan Dalam PISA 2012 Sains Malaysia di tempat ke Shanghai-China Hong Kong-China Singapore Japan Finland Estonia Korea Viet Nam Poland Canada Liechtenstein Germany Chinese Taipei Netherlands Ireland Australia Macao-China New Zealand Switzerland Slovenia United Kingdom Czech Republic Austria Belgium Latvia France Denmark United States Spain Lithuania Norway Hungary Italy Croatia Luxembourg Portugal Russian Fed Sweden Iceland OECD Average UAE 448 International Average 465 OECD Ave Slovak Republic Israel Greece Turkey International Ave Bulgaria Chile Serbia Thailand Romania Cyprus Costa Rica Kazakhstan MALAYSIA Uruguay Mexico Montenegro Jordan Argentina Brazil Colombia Tunisia Albania Qatar Indonesia Peru 373

17 PISA:Tahap Profisiensi Dalam Matematik di Malaysia OECD Bawah Minimum Pertengahan Lanjutan

18 PISA: Tahap Profisiensi Dalam Sains 18 Sains di Malaysia OECD Bawah Minimum Pertengahan Lanjutan

19 Why? Why does it seem like students do not understand and are not able to apply what they have learned? 19

20 Our Science Lessons are no more focusing on hands-on scientific investigations REDUCED SCIENCE PRACTICALS Teachers generally reduced frequencies of engaging students in science practical works ever since the Science Practical Examination was scraped in the early 2000 s. 20

21 2 1

22 Where are our science experiments? School laboratories are in a deplorable condition? There is not enough of PCG? Conducting science experiments are time consuming and troublesome? Students only want to know the right answer? SPM results has not relation at all with science experiments? 22

23 There is a gap between the aspired curriculum, implemented curriculum and examined curriculum Although the written curriculum developed by the Ministry of Education (MOE) specifically states that science education includes three main components which are knowledge, scientific skills and scientific attitudes, the taught curriculum does not reflect this focus very well and the examined curriculum did not reflect this balance either. 23

24 Focus in Malaysian Science Curriculum Knowledge Scientific Skills Thinking Science Inquiry Scientific Attitude and Values 24

25 Acquisition of Knowledge of Science and Technology Thoughtf ul Learning Mastery of Cognitive and Manipulative Skills INQUIRY DISCOVERY Inculcation of Scientific Attitude and Moral Value Model of Thoughtful Learning in Revised Science Curriculum,

26 Approaches and strategies of teaching and learning contributing towards inquiry learning Student Centered Approach Science Technology Society Experiment Future study (STS) approach Mastery Learning Problem solving Inquiry learning Simulation Discussion Using out of school resources Constructivism Contextual Learning 26

27 Malaysia has long history with inquiry in our education system. Inquiry is not foreign to Malaysian science educators and students and it has been promoted since the early 1960s where conducting experiments was a fixed feature in science lessons. 27

28

29 TIMSS REPORT Students did not regularly engaged in conducting experiments Science lessons were mostly teachercentered, 78 percent which is higher than international average, of the Malaysian students reported watching teachers demonstrate experiment and investigation; rather than doing it themselves(timss 2007) 47% of the Malaysian students were involved in science investigation less than half of the lessons (TIMSS 2011) 29

30 Why aren t we observing what the nature offering us?

31 There is a Need for Change We need our future generation to be critical and creative thinkers, and be able to find solution and create innovations and services. The key criteria in nurturing these individuals are curiosity, inquisitiveness and inquiry. 31

32 We need to get back to the basics Classroom

33 Instruction and Curriculum Teachers belief system Teaching Curriculum Students personality system Learning Instruction Figure 1: Action Space of Four Systems: Curriculum, Instruction, Teaching, Learning (Macdonald, 1965, p. 4 )

34 As all the systems converge in the shaded areas as in Figure 1, the curriculum goals become operative in the instructional setting through the agency of effective teaching activity as evidenced by the changed behaviour or learning of the students (Macdonald, 1965, p.5). This theory of curriculum and instruction explains classroom interaction which will bring about good practice in teaching and effective learning. It provides a mean to understand classroom teaching in its proper perspective. No system working without the other systems would be able to achieve success.

35 % of Students whose Teachers are Very Collaborative + Collaborative with other Teachers % of Students whose Teachers are Somewhat Collaborative with Other Teachers % of Students whose Teachers Relate Lessons to Students Daily Lives Every Lesson or Almost Every Lesson % of Students whose Teachers Relate Lessons to Students Daily Lives About Half the Lessons or Less Science Teachers Instructional Practices % of Students whose Teachers used Instruction that Engage Students in Learning about ½ lesson and above % of Students whose Teachers used Instruction that Engage Students in Learning only in Some Lessons % of Students whose Teachers Bring Interesting Materials for Every Lesson or Almost Every Lesson % of Students whose Teachers Bring Interesting Materials for About Half the Lessons or Less

36 % of Students whose Teachers Emphasize on Science Investigation About Half of the Lessons % of Students whose Teachers Emphasize on Science Investigation Only in Some Lessons Chinese Taipei Singapore England United States Int nl Average Malaysia Thailand Indonesia

37 Teachers perspective Engaging in Learning Students perspect Want is engaging to teachers might not be engaging to students

38 England 10 Malaysia 0 Int nl Average Singapore Chinese Taipei

39 The Way Forwa 39

40 Malaysia Education Blueprint

41 Five system aspiration : Access, Quality, Equity, Unity and Efficiency 41

42 11 shifts 4 2

43 Wave 3 Wave 2 Wave 1 43

44 Situational Analysis points towards: Challenges and Key success factors Challenges and Key success factors Lessons learned The need to engage public, teachers and students in enhancing quality of science education. The need to embark on scientific inquiry in science lessons to raise interest and quality of science learning. Systemic change is necessary 44 11

45 Inquiry is How we come to know Vs What we know Discover how more than what Produce students who are problem solvers rather than passive direction followers Need a change of mindset 45

46 Higher Order Thinking Skills (HO 46

47 STEM Education International Baccalaureate Concept based Curriculum

48 Status of IBSE in Malaysia Inquiry is generally defined as the process of finding out which involves asking questions, examining or investigating a particular phenomenon using our senses and cognition. In the specific context of science, inquiry is the use of the processes of science, scientific knowledge and scientific attitude to reason and to think critically. 48

49 A simple solution Looking into the Of teaching

50 Systemic change must be carried. It requires focus and precision. Ask ourselves, Where is the? 50

51 Where is our heart? What is our priority Classroom 51

52 Diagnose the needs of the students Look from the perspective of the students 52

53 What do the students need? 53

54 Strengthening delivery of Science Education across the education system Review existing primary and secondary school Science curricula, benchmark with international standards, emphasize on higher-order thinking skills Increasing instructional time allocated to Science Review the national and school-based Science assessments at primary and secondary schools to increase the proportion of questions that focus on creative and problem-solving e-learning video library for students learning Science on EduWebTV. Encourage projectbased and inquirybased learning, increase of laboratory work, the use of ICT software. Practical testing elements in national examinations 54

55 Nurturing competencies & pedagogies of teachers Diagnostic exercise to benchmark teachers of Science in terms of their content knowledge and pedagogical skills e-learning video library for teachers School Improvement Specialist Coaches (SISC+). SISC+ will act as mentor and coach to teachers in schools besides delivering Professional Development sessions ICT can provide teachers and students with additional information and resources Professional Development development for teachers all school timetables to be changed to accommodate teachers to plan lessons collaboratively and create professional learning communities (PLC) 55

56 Engaging public and student awareness Working with other governmental agencies (like MASTIC and MOSTI), the private sector and NGOs, campaign via television, newspapers and social media are being initiated. Campaign to educate the public about the diversity of career opportunities in Science related fields Further expand this collaboration by injecting more critical thinking elements into existing and new educational TV. Expanding Mobile Science Center program to further reach rural and remote schools. Continue to collaborate with institutions such as museums and science centres to develop or scale up learning programs for students and teachers. Working with local terrestrial and satellite television stations to develop options for televising events like science fairs and robotics 56

57 Improving participation in Science Provide incentives for students Tax relief for parents with children in the Science stream Incentivizing teachers such as awards for outstanding Science teachers Provide hands-on Promote Science as Introducing learning opportunities for students. through events such as Mobile Science fairs and Science camps fun, relevant and enriching Science-related KPIs like the number of Science students and quality of lab facilities. 57

58 No matter how policies are crafted, its implementation at school level still requires interpretation and the ingenuity of the teachers. Teachers need to look at the need of the students and the students context There is no one Best Practice! 58

59 Key to success! Look deep into the heart of the matter. Understand why we teach. Create our own way of teaching to develop the kind of thinking future generation. 59

60 Conclusion Knowing the purpose of teaching Adapt teaching strategies to the needs of our students Remember the of teaching!

61 6 1

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