Fertility Management Corn on Corn

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1 Fertility Management Corn on Corn Ray Ward Ward Laboratories, Inc Kearney Nebraska Guiding Producers Today to Feed the World Tomorrow

2 Topics Nutrient loss from crop mining Evaluation of soil nutrient supply and best soil level Fertilizer recommendations based on soil tests and yield goal

3 Nutrient Crop Mining CORN Nutrient lb/bu 200 bu/a Nitrogen, N Phosphorus, P2O Potassium, K2O Sulfur, S Zinc, Zn

4 Nutrient Crop Mining CORN Nutrient lb/bu 200 bu/a Chloride Manganese Iron Copper Boron Molybdenum

5 Nitrate Nitrate is soluble. Mobile Nutrients We only want to apply the amount of N that is needed for the current crop. The goal is to have 2 to 5 ppm NO3-N after harvest. More than 5 ppm NO3-N indicates more N was applied than the crop could use. If residual nitrate is left the N application for the next crop should be reduced.

6

7 Phosphorus (My Goals) Ideal Phosphorus Soil Test (Mehlich P-3 or Bray P-1): Dryland areas = ppm P Irrigated/high rainfall areas = ppm P How to Get There Soil texture: loam or heavier 18 lbs of P2O5 to raise soil P test 1 ppm P Soil texture: sand to sandy loam 12 lbs of P2O5 to raise soil P test 1 ppm P

8 Phosphorus Example for a silt loam My soil test is 15 ppm P and I want to get to 35 ppm P = 20 ppm P increase 20 X 18 = 360 lbs of P2O5 to raise soil P test to /0.52 = 692 lbs of How many years do you want to take to get there? Divide by the number of years. This application is in addition to amount you normally apply.

9 Potassium (My Goal) Ideal Potassium Soil Test: Dryland K soil test = ppm K Irrigated/high rainfall = ppm K How to Get There Soil texture loam or heavier 9 lbs of K2O to raise soil K test 1 ppm K Soil texture sandy loam to sand 5 lbs of K2O to raise soil K test 1 ppm K

10 Potassium How to Get There Example for a silt loam Soil test is 150 ppm K and I want to get to 200 ppm K = 50 ppm increase 50 X 9 = 450 lbs of K2O 450 /0.60 = 750 lbs of How many years do you want to take to get there? Divide by the number of years. This application is in addition to amount you normally apply.

11 Zinc I have found that the best way to correct a low zinc soil test is to broadcast enough zinc sulfate (33 to 36 % Zn) to raise the zinc soil test above 1 ppm. Then apply zinc each year with the starter fertilizer or once every 6 years or so. One pound of actual zinc will raise the zinc soil test 0.1 ppm Zn. Zn recommendation = (1.0 Zn soil test) times 10 Zn soil test = 0.60: ( ppm Zn) X 10 = 4 lbs of Zn/A

12 Manganese and Iron Manganese and iron react very quickly with oxygen in the soil air forming oxides that decrease their availability. Therefore, if soil tests are low you will have to apply annually. Manganese sulfate and ferrous (reduced iron) sulfate can be soil applied or chelates can be applied as foliar treatments.

13 Copper Copper soil tests are low in a few areas of the Plains. For most crops I like to see a copper (Cu) value of 0.20 ppm Cu. For a few crops like potatoes we raise the Cu soil test to 0.60 ppm Cu. Three pounds of Cu will raise the soil test 0.10 ppm Cu Cu rec. = ( ppm Cu) X 3 = 2.4 lbs of Cu

14 Boron Boron has a narrow safe range. Do not try to build B soil test. Boron should be applied for corn when the B hot water soluble test is less than 0.25 ppm B. B recommendation = One pound of B will raise the B soil test 0.10 ppm B. Example: for wheat, corn, milo, etc. 1.5 (5 x 0.20 ppm B) = ( ) = 0.5 lbs B

15 Liming Reaction

16 Lime Calcium and Magnesium 480 lbs of Ca per ton of 60 % ECC Corn Stover 9.7 lbs of Ca per ton of dry forage 3.4 lbs of Mg per ton of dry forage Soybean Stubble 27.0 lbs of Ca per ton of dry forage 7.8 lbs of Mg per ton of dry forage

17 Calcium:Magnesium Ratio In summary, the Ca:Mg ratio concept is unproven and should not be used as a basis for fertilization or liming practices. Having sufficient levels of Ca and Mg is the proper method of evaluation, rather than trying to manipulate ratios.

18 University of Minnesota, Corn Application Low-P Soil Three-year Average Corn Yield Method Lbs P2O5/acre Bushels per Acre None Pop-up Deep Band Broadcast Deep and Pop-up Pop-up Deep Band Broadcast Crops and Soils, ASA

19 University of Minnesota, Corn Application High-P Soil Three Year Average Corn Yield Method Lb P2O5/acre Bushels per Acre None Pop-up Deep Band Broadcast Deep and Pop-up Pop-up Deep Band Broadcast Crops and Soils, ASA

20 Importance of Phosphorus Tribune (KSU)2004 N+P2O5, lbs/a Corn Yield, Bu/A

21 Importance of Phosphorus Tribune (KSU)2004 N+P2O5, lbs/a Corn Yield, Bu/A

22 Conclusions Highest crop yield are associated with high soil tests for phosphate, potash, and zinc and properly managed rates of nitrogen and sulfur. Question: Can we continue to reach the higher yields if we use a fertility approach that minimizes fertilizer application, especially phosphorus and potassium?

23 Two Approaches for Interpreting Soil Test Values Nutrient Sufficiency Apply just enough to maximize profitability in the year of fertilizer application Build Maintenance Manage soil tests to desired soil test levels and then apply enough fertilizer to maintain the desired soil values

24 Nitrogen Requirement Corn 1.2 lbs N/Bu This is the amount of N in the plant and in the grain. The plant needs this much to grow the desired yield. It is not the amount of N fertilizer to apply.

25 Nitrogen Recommendation for Corn Recommendation, lbs N/A = (yield * N req.) Minus lbs of NO 3 -N in 24 or 36 Minus Legume credit Minus Manure credit And minus Irrigation water credit

26 Suggested N Credits for Legume Crops % Stand lb. N/A Alfalfa 100% % 50 less than 50% none Sweet Clover (green manure) 80 Red Clover 50 Soybeans Dry Beans 20-30

27 Sulfur Requirement for Corn Crop Yield Unit Lbs of S/Bu Corn Bushel 0.22 This is the amount of Sulfur needed to grow the crop NOT the amount of sulfur fertilizer to apply.

28 Sulfur Recommendation Example Corn 200 bu/a Yield Goal Sulfur Requirement is 0.22 lb S/bu Total S Required is 44 lbs/a Sulfate Soil Test is 8 ppm S Lbs of S in the soil is 8 X 2.4 = 19 lbs S/A Recommendation is 24 lbs S/A

29 Sulfur Sulfate is soluble and moves with soil water like nitrate. Do not try to build sulfate. Some soils have sulfate in the subsoil which reduces the need for sulfur. Some irrigation water is high in sulfate. Apply sulfur fertilizer when soil test for sulfate is low.

30 Sulfur Soil Test, Ca-P Extractable Soil Test ppm S Rating 0-4 Very Low 5-8 Low 9-12 Medium High 18 + Very High

31 Chloride Chloride is a soluble ion like nitrate, but does not move as fast as nitrate. Many soils are low in chloride where potash fertilizer is not used is potassium chloride, so it is 60 % K2O and 45 % Chloride Some irrigation water contains enough chloride for crop needs.

32 Soil test chloride interpretations and fertilizer recommendations for Kansas. Soil Chloride in a 0-24" sample Cl Recommended* Category lb/acre ppm lb/acre Low <30 <4 20 Medium High > 45 >6 0 *Recommendations for corn, sorghum and wheat only.

33 Phosphorus Recommendations for Corn

34 Potassium Recommendations for Corn Soil Test ppm K Rating lbs K2O 0-40 Very Low Low Medium High Very High None

35 Sulfur Recommendation Example Wheat 80 bu/a Yield Goal Sulfur Requirement is.28 to.35 lb S/bu Total S Required is 22 to 28 lbs/a Sulfate Soil Test is 8 ppm S 8 ppm X.3 X 8 inches = 19 lbs S/A Recommendation is 3 to 9 lbs S/A

36 Sulfur Recommendations lbs S per acre Soil Sulfur Test 5 ppm S 7 ppm S Corn, 200 bu/a Milo, 150 bu/a Canola, 50 bu/a Wheat, 100 bu/a Alfalfa, 8 ton/a 25 20

37 Zinc Soil (DTPA) Test and Recommendations Corrective Rate Soil Test ppm Zn lb Zn/A None *Annual rate: Divide Corrective Rate by 6.

38 Manganese Soil Test (DTPA) and Recommendations Mn Rate Mn Soil Test, ppm Rating Lbs Mn/A Very Low Low Medium High Very High 0

39 Copper Soil Test (DTPA) and Recommendations Cu Rate** Cu Soil Test, ppm Rating Lbs/A Very Low Low Medium High* Very High 0 * Specialty crops get Copper up to 0.60 ppm ** Corrective application rate

40 Boron Soil Test and Recommendations Boron Soil Test, ppm Rating Boron Rate Lbs B/A Low Medium High 0 Alfalfa, clover, peanuts, cotton and sugar beets require more boron than other crops.

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