ANALYSIS of DRAIN CLEANERS WITH a ph METER

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1 ANALYSIS of DRAIN CLEANERS WITH a ph METER LAB PH 3 From Juniata College SIM INTRODUCTION Most common household cleaners contain acids or bases. Acidic cleaners, such as toilet bowl cleaners, often contain hydrochloric acid or sodium bisulfate to remove alkaline deposits or stains. Basic cleaners are designed to dissolve grease, hair, and food. In this experiment, you will use a ph meter to monitor the titration of a drain cleaner. This kind of reaction is referred to as a potentiometric titration and does not require the use of an acid-base indicator. When the data has been plotted, two endpoints will be determined. Since sodium hydroxide is a stronger base, it will expend the acid first. Therefore, the first endpoint will allow the determination of the amount of sodium hydroxide in the sample. The second endpoint indicates the amount of sodium hypochlorite in the sample. When the titrations are completed, results can be compared with the package or literature values. PURPOSE The purpose of this experiment is to determine the percentages of sodium hydroxide and sodium hypochlorite in a commercial drain cleaner. EQUIPMENT / MATERIALS drain cleaner 5 ml graduated pipet 10 ml graduated cylinder stirring rod 250 ml beaker 50 ml buret and clamp ph meter and electrode 0.10 M HCl balance ph buffer solutions (ph 7, 10) magnetic stirrer distilled water stirring bar Westminster College SIM 1 of 6

2 PROCEDURE 1. Rinse a buret with distilled water. Use 5 ml of the 0.10 M HCl solution to rinse the buret three times. Fill the buret with the acid solution. Record the initial reading. 2. Measure the mass of a clean, dry 250-mL beaker and record the value. Using the pipet, add 3.0 ml of drain cleaner to the beaker. Remass the beaker and record the value. 3. Standardize the ph meter as described below: a. Set the temperature control to the temperature of the laboratory. b. Insert the electrode into the ph 7 buffer and adjust the ph to 7.00 with the standardization knob. c. Turn the function knob to stand-by. d. Remove the electrode from the solution and place over a waste beaker. Rinse with deionized water and blot with a Kimwipe. e. Insert the electrode into the ph 10 buffer and adjust the ph to with the slope knob. f. Turn the function knob to stand-by. g. Remove the electrode from the solution and place over a waste beaker. Rinse with deionized water and blot with a Kimwipe. h. Repeat until the best range is achieved. 4. Add about 75 ml of distilled water to the beaker and stir gently with a stirring rod. Place the ph meter electrode in the beaker and record the initial ph on the data sheet. The volume of acid added is 0 ml. 5. Place the magnetic stirrer in the beaker and turn on the stirrer slowly, making sure that the bar does not hit the electrode. 6. Begin titrating, stopping to record the volume of acid and the ph on the data sheet at intervals of about 0.2 to 0.3 ph units or 1 ml, whichever comes first. Continue to add acid until a ph of less than 3.0 is obtained. 7. Plot the ph (y-axis) versus milliliters of acid (x-axis). There will probably be two inflection points on the graph. The midpoints of these regions represent two different endpoints, the first for NaOH, and the second for NaOCl. Westminster College SIM 2 of 6

3 Name Name Period Date Analysis of Drain Cleaners DATA TABLE: Brand name of drain cleaner Information from product label Mass of dry beaker Mass of beaker and drain cleaner Mass of drain cleaner Initial reading HCl HCl concentration ml acid ph ml acid ph ml acid ph Westminster College SIM 3 of 6

4 CALCULATIONS: Using: 1. the volume of acid used to reach each endpoint 2. the concentration of the hydrochloric acid 3. the formula weights of the components (NaOH and sodium NaOCl) calculate the percentage by weight of NaOH and NaOCl in the drain cleaner. Show your work in the space provided below. % NaOH % NaOCl QUESTIONS 1. Why is water added to the beaker containing the drain cleaner? 2. Why does the volume of the water added not have to be exact? 3. What volume of acid is needed to neutralize the drain cleaner solution? Westminster College SIM 4 of 6

5 Teacher Notes LAB TIME: about 45 minutes Turn on the ph meters about 15 minutes before class to warm up. Preparations Prepare one liter of 0.10 M HCl by diluting 8.3 ml of concentrated HCl to 1 L with distilled water. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. Why is water added to the beaker containing the drain cleaner? Water is added to increase the volume of the solution. 2. Why does the volume of the water added not have to be exact? The water added does not affect the number of hydroxide ions in solution. 3. What volume of acid is needed to neutralize the drain cleaner solution? Answers will vary depending upon data collected. CONSIDERATIONS This lab allows the students to analyze a consumer product, not just an "unknown concentration of base". It also shows the students the effects of titrating two different bases in solution at the same time. Different products should be assigned to the lab groups for a variety of analyses and results. SAMPLE CALCULATIONS Endpoints: # ml # ml 1 liter 0.1 mol 40.0 g NaOH 21 ml 100% % NaOH = 1000 ml 1 liter mol NaOH 3.14 g sample 24 ml % NaOCl = 1 liter 0.1 mol 74.5 g NaOCl 1000 ml 1 liter mol NaOCl 100% 3.14 g sample The values on the bottle were 2.4% NaOH and 6.0% NaOCl. = 2.55% NaOH = 5.7% NaOCl Reference: Journal of Chemical Education, February Potentiometric Titration of Acidic and Basic Compounds in Household Cleaners, p Westminster College SIM 5 of 6

6 Westminster College SIM 6 of 6

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