Contents. Before you begin. How to work through this learner guide Assessment Resources

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1 Contents Contents Before you begin How to work through this learner guide Assessment Resources Overview: The National Quality Framework (NQF) and the Framework for School Age Care (FSAC) v v vi vii ix Introduction: Supporting emotional and psychological development in middle childhood 1 Chapter 1: Encouraging children s independence and autonomy Providing opportunities for children to develop self-help skills and independence 1.2 Providing opportunities for children to make choices and take responsibility Empowering children to make their own decisions and participate in broader and increasingly more significant decision-making Discussion topics 34 Chapter summary 34 Checklist for Chapter 1 34 Assessment activity 1: Encouraging children s independence and autonomy 35 Record your employability skills Chapter 2: Fostering children s self-esteem and self-concept Planning opportunities for children to experience success and their individual strengths 2.2 Selecting experiences that present challenges within children s emerging skills and capabilities 2.3 Monitoring children s confidence as they attempt more challenging activities Providing acknowledgment and support when a child experiences frustration Acknowledging and appreciating children s individual and group achievements 2.6 Designing experiences for children to explore their self-image and identity Choosing learning and play resources to provide positive, non stereotypical images of children iii

2 CHCFC514A Support emotional and psychological development in middle childhood 2.8 Providing opportunities for children to build on and extend their achievements 2.9 Providing children with opportunities to initiate and assume leadership roles 67 Discussion topics 69 Chapter summary 69 Checklist for Chapter 2 70 Assessment activity 2: Fostering children s self-esteem and developing self-concept 71 Record your employability skills Chapter 3: Providing experiences that encourage children to express their feelings, needs and ideas 3.1 Monitoring children s emotional development and expression of their feelings Listening and responding to children s expressions of their feelings and ideas Keeping your expectations about a child s expressions of feelings relevant to the child s stage of development 3.4 Encouraging and demonstrating socially appropriate ways for children to express their feelings and needs 3.5 Providing opportunities for children to release feelings and express emotions Encouraging children to appreciate each other s achievements 95 Discussion topics 97 Chapter summary 97 Checklist for Chapter 3 98 Assessment activity 3: Providing experiences that encourage children to express their feelings, needs and ideas Record your employability skills Final assessment: CHCFC514A Support emotional and psychological development in middle childhood 101 Employability skills 105 Appendices 107 Appendix 1: How the learner guide addresses the unit of competency 107 Appendix 2: Employability skills 112 iv

3 Introduction: Supporting emotional and psychological development in middle childhood Introduction Supporting emotional and psychological development in middle childhood How a child develops emotionally and psychologically lays the foundation for their ability to cope with the demands of life and interact with others to form strong and supportive relationships. Emotional and psychological development includes developing the abilities to understand and regulate emotions; express feelings, needs and ideas; and interact appropriately with others. Your job role is to support children s emotional and psychological development and promote their ethical understanding. To do this effectively, you need to understand key definitions, concepts and theories of cognitive development. You also need to understand the skills, knowledge and core competencies required to do your job well. Key definitions and concepts To do your job well, you need to understand key definitions and concepts used in this industry. Some definitions and concepts are included here. Middle childhood The stage of a child s development between 6 and 12 years of age is usually referred to as middle childhood. Most children in this age range have started school and may also attend outside school hours care (OSHC) services. During middle childhood, children consolidate and refine the skills they learned during infancy and early childhood. They also take on new challenges associated with going to school and becoming more independent. Important developmental tasks in this stage include: developing a sense of responsibility and competence based on achievement at school, interacting with peers, learning to express themselves and managing their emotions developing a sense of morality and ethics based on values and beliefs, which they can use to guide their behaviour. 1

4 Chapter 1: Encouraging children s independence and autonomy Chapter 1 Encouraging children s independence and autonomy As children develop, particularly between 6 and 12 years old, they become increasingly independent and autonomous as they make friends at school and forge their own identities apart from their families. Outside school hours care (OSHC) services have an important role to play in promoting children s independence and helping them to develop self-help skills. To encourage children s independence and autonomy you need to apply your knowledge of emotional and psychological development theories to evaluate each child and plan and provide appropriate experiences. These experiences should develop their ability to make choices and decisions and accept responsibility for their actions. In this chapter you will learn about: 1.1 Providing opportunities for children to develop self-help skills and independence 1.2 Providing opportunities for children to make choices and take responsibility 1.3 Empowering children to make their own decisions and participate in broader and increasingly more significant decision-making 13

5 CHCFC514A Support emotional and psychological development in middle childhood 1.2 Providing opportunities for children to make choices and take responsibility Children have the ability to make simple choices from an early age. It is important to build on these skills in the 6 12 years age group by providing opportunities for children to make developmentally appropriate choices and accept responsibility for their own actions. OSHC settings generally offer less structured programming than schools, so they are an ideal environment for children to learn to make their own decisions and take responsibility for the choices they make. Developmentally appropriate choices When planning and providing opportunities for children to make choices, make sure you encourage them to make choices suitable for their age and stage of development. For example, 6- and 7-year-olds may feel overwhelmed if they have to make a choice from a long list of options. It is better to limit the options available, for example, to a choice between two or three options, until children become more skilled at thinking through their choices. For example, an appropriate choice for younger children may be deciding whether they want to play a board game, do a craft activity or play outside. It is important to make sure a child understands the options they have; for example, if you are offering them a choice to make a model out of either clay or play dough, you may need to explain the properties of each material (such as their colours and whether they can be reused or mixed with other materials). Being able to make their own choices is an important part of daily life for older children. It gives them a sense of control over what they do and helps them to develop self-esteem, confidence and a sense of responsibility. They should have choices regarding: what they want to do and how who they spend time with whether they want to spend quiet time alone or engage in games or other social activities. Encouraging children to make choices You can provide opportunities for children to make choices in the following ways: Planning activities that involve choice this is possible in most activities; for example, if children are cooking they can be asked to choose between several recipe options Helping them understand the choices they have for example, when asking children to choose what movie to watch together, briefly explain what each movie is about to help them decide 24

6 CHCFC514A Support emotional and psychological development in middle childhood Discussion topics Learners in a classroom can form a discussion group or have a debate. Those in the workplace might like to brainstorm these ideas with their colleagues. If you are learning independently, you might like to set up a chatroom with other learners or ask a friend for their opinion. Some children require direction in everything that they do. Discuss how you could develop independence in children like this. It s the parent s role to reprimand a child who s made a bad choice. Discuss what you think your role is in relation to the choices children make. Do you think reprimanding is an appropriate strategy? Children will always make impulsive decisions, even if you teach them decisionmaking processes. Discuss how you can help children move from impulsive to more rational decision-making. Chapter summary Children in the 6 12 years age group become increasingly more independent and autonomous. You have an important role to play in fostering this independence and providing opportunities for them to develop self-help skills. Children can make simple choices from an early age. It is important to build on these skills in the 6 12 years age group by providing opportunities for children to make developmentally appropriate choices and accept responsibility for their own actions. Children learn to make good decisions when they have opportunities to practise decision-making. You can help them make good decisions by teaching them decisionmaking skills, discussing hypothetical decisions and providing opportunities for children to participate in broader decisions. As children develop decision-making skills, they can participate in more significant decisions. Significant decision-making may involve contributing to decisions about planning and programming at the OSHC service. Checklist for Chapter 1 Tick the box when you can do the following. Provide opportunities for children to develop self-help skills and independence Provide opportunities for children to make choices and take responsibility Empower children to make their own decisions and participate in broader and increasingly more significant decision-making 34

7 Chapter 2: Fostering children s self-esteem and self-concept Chapter 2 Fostering children s self-esteem and self-concept Having a high self-esteem and clear self-concept helps children to feel positive about themselves and manage the challenges they face at school and elsewhere. Children with high self-esteem tend to make friends easily and are willing to take on new challenges. OSHC services can help children build their self-esteem and self-concept by providing opportunities for them to develop their interests and abilities and have positive interactions with others. Between the ages of 6 and 12 years, it is important for children to develop a sense of competence as they develop emotionally and psychologically. You need to plan and provide opportunities that challenge them and allow them to explore their strengths, build on their achievements and experience success. The challenges they undertake must be developmentally appropriate and within the scope of their emerging skills and capabilities so they do not become discouraged. When children do experience difficulties and frustration, you can encourage them to cope by helping them to see mistakes as opportunities to learn. They can also benefit from having opportunities to explore their self-image and identity and interact with their peers in an environment that promotes acceptance of and respect for individual differences. In this chapter you will learn about: 2.1 Planning opportunities for children to experience success and their individual strengths 2.2 Selecting experiences that present challenges within children s emerging skills and capabilities 2.3 Monitoring children s confidence as they attempt more challenging activities 2.4 Providing acknowledgment and support when a child experiences frustration 2.5 Acknowledging and appreciating children s individual and group achievements 2.6 Designing experiences for children to explore their self-image and identity 39

8 CHCFC514A Support emotional and psychological development in middle childhood are not recognised and encouraged in their efforts are made to feel different or excluded because of their individual differences, such as disability or a culturally and liguistically diverse (CALD) background. School age children may experience a range of concerns and fears that they find difficult to address and that impact on their emotional and psychological wellbeing. For example, they may fear real-life issues, such as being bullied or having concerns related to their physical safety. They may also fear rejection, embarrassment and failure. The following case study illustrates how an educator plans opportunities for a child to experience success and her individual strengths. Case study Misbah is a quiet girl who is usually the last to speak up in a group situation. Other children are loud and blurt out all sorts of things, but when Misbah speaks it is usually to say something considered and meaningful. Danielle, an educator, notices that although Misbah is quiet, she has highly developed interpersonal skills. She is thoughtful and kind and is one of the first to offer support to someone who is upset. Danielle decides to plan an experience to enable Misbah to recognise her strengths and have them acknowledged. Danielle invites children to participate in a game that requires cooperation, networking and conflict-resolution skills rather than competition to achieve a specific outcome. While other children try to undermine and outdo one another, Misbah forms alliances and supports others in their efforts. Misbah is successful in the game and is voted best player by everyone who participates. Danielle then explains to the group that the game is based on cooperation rather than competition and that Misbah won because she used her social and interpersonal skills for the good of the group, not just to benefit herself. She congratulates Misbah and suggests to the group that they can learn from her example. Misbah is pleased, saying that she has never won a game before and didn t think she had any skills in this area. Practice task 4 Sasha, 8, is new at your service and tells you that she isn t very good at anything. You are concerned because she keeps to herself and does not seem to have much self-confidence. What could you do to discover her strengths so you can plan opportunities for her to experience success? 44

9 Chapter 2: Fostering children s self-esteem and self-concept 2.4 Providing acknowledgment and support when a child experiences frustration Children sometimes experience frustration in their efforts to accomplish a task. It is important to acknowledge their feelings and offer encouragement and support. When you acknowledge children s feelings of frustration, you show you understand how they are feeling and give them an opportunity to talk about the difficulties they are having. Sometimes just listening to what they have to say is enough to help them deal with frustration and remind them that the effort they are making is worthwhile. Acknowledging feelings of frustration Children may show frustration in a range of ways, depending on their age and their ability to regulate their feelings. Younger children may be more inclined to cry, have a tantrum or take out their frustration on others, whereas older children may start making negative comments about themselves or the activity. Acknowledge their frustration by encouraging them to talk about their feelings and asking open questions, such as: How are you feeling right now? I can see you re having some problems. What can I do to help? Are you feeling stuck? Have you thought about trying? Use active listening skills and show empathy so the child is encouraged to talk about their frustration. Make sure that you are sensitive and respectful of children s feelings and do not ignore their frustration or dismiss their concerns, which could result in them feeling unsupported and even more frustrated. Once you acknowledge their feelings and offer support, children are usually prepared to make a renewed effort at a challenging activity. Providing support and encouragement Acknowledge and encourage children s efforts in ways that help them to feel valued and good about themselves. Usually this involves giving verbal encouragement and recognition of the efforts they make. Recognising a child s efforts helps them to realise that the way they approach an activity is just as important as the outcome. When children are anxious to achieve a particular outcome, they often lose sight of why they are doing the activity and fail to enjoy and learn from the process. You may also need to offer guidance to help them achieve the task by suggesting they consider different options, breaking the task down into smaller steps or demonstrating how to do it. Other strategies to offer support and overcome frustration include: reminding the child of their strengths and past achievements promoting a relaxed attitude to encourage children to have fun and enjoy the activity 51

10 Chapter 2: Fostering children s self-esteem and self-concept Assessment activity 2 Fostering children s self-esteem and developing self-concept Your trainer or assessor may require you to complete this assessment activity and will provide you with instructions as to how to present your responses. They may adjust the assessment activity depending on the circumstances of your training program. The following table maps the assessment activity for this chapter against the element and performance criteria of Element 2 in CHCFC514A Support emotional and psychological development in middle childhood. Part Element Performance criteria A 2 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.9 B 2 2.1, 2.4, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8 Part A 1. How do children benefit from undertaking experiences that present a challenge? 2. What can you do to monitor a child s confidence while they are attempting a more challenging activity? 3. Should you use praise or acknowledgment and encouragement to recognise children s achievements? Explain your answer. 4. Why is it important to encourage peer interaction and acceptance? 5. Give an example of an experience you could use or design to encourage children to explore issues of self-image and identity. Explain how this experience could be applied for children of different developmental stages. 6. What is the significance of choosing learning resources that provide positive, nonstereotypical representations of children and adults? 7. How can children benefit from taking on leadership roles? 8. Conduct research and use the material in this learner guide (such as the National Child Health and Wellbeing Core Competencies listed in the Introduction) to outline five factors that may impact on a child s health, wellbeing and development. 71

11 Chapter 3: Creating opportunities and providing experiences that encourage children... Listening to music Music has many positive influences on the emotions. It can soothe children who are feeling stressed and angry, and enhance the mood of those feeling sad or unhappy. It is also a great energiser. Children generally like to clap, dance and sing when they hear their favourite music. Dancing to music encourages children to express their feelings though movement and singing allows them to release feelings through the words of a song. Art experiences All kinds of art and craft activities allow children to express their feelings. Using clay and other modelling materials allows them to create objects and physically manipulate the material to represent something they want to express. Drawing and painting encourage them to express ideas and feelings pictorially. You can encourage children to explore ideas and feelings through their art work by asking them to talk about the pictures and objects they make. Art experiences may include: working with papier-mâché, plasticine or clay finger-painting making collages painting and drawing craft activities, such as making jewellery or building models. All kinds of art and craft activities allow children to express their feelings. It is important not to make any critical judgments about the merit of children s creative and expressive activities. Simply encourage them to enjoy the process of self-expression and to be as creative and exploratory as they want. The following case study illustrates how an educator provides opportunities for a child to release his feelings and express his emotions. 93

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