# Illumination Models and Shading. Foley & Van Dam, Chapter 16

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1 Illumination Models and Shading Foley & Van Dam, Chapter 16

2 Illumination Models and Shading Light Source Models Ambient Illumination Diffuse Reflection Specular Reflection Polygon Rendering Methods Flat Shading Gouraud Shading Phong Shading

3 Illumination Models Motivation: In order to produce realistic images, we must simulate the appearance of surfaces under various lighting conditions Illumination Model: Given the illumination incident at a point on a surface, quantifies the reflected light

4 Illumination Model Parameters Lighting effects are described with models that consider the interaction of light sources with object surfaces The factors determining the lighting effects are: The light source parameters: Positions Electromagnetic Spectrum Shape The surface parameters Position Reflectance properties Position of nearby surfaces The eye (camera) parameters Position Sensor spectrum sensitivities

5 Illumination Models and Rendering An illumination model is used to calculate the intensity of the light that is reflected at a given point on a surface A rendering method uses intensity calculations from the illumination model to determine the light intensity at all pixels in the image

6 Light Source Models Point Source (a): All light rays originate at a point and radially diverge. A reasonable approximation for sources whose dimensions are small compared to the object size Parallel source (b): Light rays are all parallel. May be modeled as a point source at infinite distance (the sun) Distributed source (c): All light rays originate at a finite area in space. It models a nearby source, such as a fluorescent light c b a

7 Illumination Models Simplified and fast methods for calculating surfaces intensities, mostly empirical Calculations are based on optical properties of surfaces and the lighting conditions (no reflected sources nor shadows) Light sources are considered to be point sources Reasonably good approximation for most scenes

8 Ambient Illumination Assume there is some non-directional light in the environment (background light) The amount of ambient light incident on each object is constant for all surfaces and over all directions Very simple model, not very realistic OpenGL default

9 Ambient Illumination The reflected intensity I amb of any point on the surface is: I amb = K a I a I a - ambient light intensity K a [0,1] - surface ambient reflectivity In principle I a and K a are functions of color, so we have I R amb, IG amb and IB amb

10 Example: Ambient Illumination

11 Diffuse Reflection Diffuse (Lambertian) surfaces are rough or grainy, like clay, soil, fabric The surface appears equally bright from all viewing directions The brightness at each point is proportional to N θ L cos(θ)

12 Diffuse Reflection Brightness is proportional to cos(θ) because a surface (a) perpendicular to the light direction is more illuminated than a surface (b) at an oblique angle a b N θ L

13 Diffuse Reflection The reflected intensity I diff of a point on the surface is: I diff = K d I p cos(θ) = K d I p (N L) I p - the point light intensity. May appear as attenuated source f att (r)i P K d [0,1] - the surface diffuse reflectivity N - the surface normal L - the light direction NOTE: If N and L have unitary length: cos(θ) = N L

14 Example: Diffuse Reflection

15 Diffuse Reflection Example: diffuse reflection from different light directions

16 Diffuse Reflection Commonly, there are two types of light sources: A background ambient light A point light source The equation that combines the two models is: I = I diff + I amb = K d I p N L + K a I a Note this is the model for one color and it should be replicated for each channel: I R, I G and I B

17 Diffuse Reflection Example: K d K a

18 Specular Reflection Models shiny and glossy surfaces (like metal, plastic, etc..) with highlights Reflectance intensity changes with reflected angle An ideal specular surface (mirror) reflects light exclusively in one direction: R Glossy objects are not ideal mirrors and reflect in the immediate vicinity of R N N L θ θ R L θ θ R φ V Ideal specular surface Non-ideal specular surface

19 Specular Reflection The Phong Model: reflected specular intensity falls off as some power of cos (φ): I spec = K s I p cos n (φ) = K s I p (R V) n K s - the surface specular reflectivity n specular reflection parameter, determining the deviation from ideal specular surface (for a perfect mirror n= ) L N θ θ R φ V Specular surface

20 Specular Reflection The Phong Model: plots of cos n (φ) for three values of the specular parameter n 1 n= n=8 n=64 L θ N θ R φ V 0.2 Specular surface

21 Specular Reflection The illumination equation combined with diffuse reflection is: I = I amb +I diff +I spec = K a I a + I p (K d N L + K s (R V) n ) If k light sources are present in the scene: I= I amb +Σ k (I k diff +Ik spec )

22 Example: Specular Reflection K s K d 0.7

23 Specular Reflection Example: effects of the specular parameter n n=50 n=10 n=3

24 Specular Reflection Example: Ambient Illumination Ambient + Diffuse Ambient + Diffuse + Specular

25 Composing Light Sources Example:

26 Polygon Rendering Methods A freeform surface can be approximated by polyhedra Rendering: calculate the illumination at each surface point Applying the illumination model at each surface point is computationally expensive

27 Flat Shading A single intensity is calculated for each surface polygon Fast and simple method Gives reasonable result only if all of the following assumptions are valid: The object is a polyhedron Light source is far away from the surface so that N L is constant over each polygon Viewing position is far away from the surface so that V R is constant over each polygon

28 Gouraud Shading Renders the polygon surface by linearly interpolating intensity values across the surface Gouraud Shading Algorithm: 1. Determine the normal at each polygon vertex 2. Apply an illumination model to each vertex to calculate the vertex intensity 3. Linearly interpolate the vertex intensities over the surface polygon

29 Gouraud Shading The normal N v of a vertex is an average of all neighboring normals: N V = k k N N k k

30 Gouraud Shading Interpolation of the vertex intensities I y y y y I y y y y I + = I y y y y I y y y y I + = p p 5 p I x x x x I x x x x I + = I 1 I 2 I 3 I 4 I 5 scan line y x I P

31 Gouraud Shading Example: Gouraud shading of a sphere

32 Phong Shading A more accurate method for rendering a polygon surface is to interpolate normal vectors, and then apply the illumination model to each surface point Phong Shading Algorithm: 1. Determine the normal at each polygon vertex 2. Linearly interpolate the vertex normals over the surface polygon 3. Apply the illumination model along each scan line to calculate intensity of each surface point

33 Phong Shading Example: Phong shading of a sphere

34 Polygon Rendering Methods Example: Flat Gouraud Phong

35 Polygon Rendering Methods Example: Flat Gouraud Phong

36 Polygon Rendering Methods Example: Flat Gouraud Phong

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