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1 Shading with Shaders Computer Graphics, VT 2015 Lecture 6 Johan Nysjö Centre for Image analysis Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Uppsala University

3 Recap: The programmable graphics pipeline

4 Recap: The programmable graphics pipeline The host CPU application loads/creates vertex data, shaders, textures, etc, uploads them to GPU-accessible memory, and submits draw calls Shaders do all the visual magic! Vertices and fragments are processed in parallel on the GPU.

5 Shading in modern OpenGL All lighting computations are performed in GLSL shaders Transforms, material properties, and light sources are defined in the host CPU program and passed to the shaders as uniform variables

6 Lighting vs. shading Lighting models describe the interaction between materials and light sources Shading is the process of determining the color of a pixel

7 Vectors To compute the lighting contribution at a surface point p, we typically need N: the normal vector at the point E (or V): a vector pointing from p to the camera/viewer L: a vector pointing from p to the light source These vectors are usually defined in camera/view space p

8 Surface normals Describes the local surface orientation at some vertex or face Uploaded to the GPU memory along with vertex positions Direction Normal vectors Normal vectors color-coded as RGB colors

9 Material properties Common material properties: Diffuse color (vec3) Specular color (vec3) Specular power (float) Can be passed to the shader as uniform variables (or stored in textures) #version 150 uniform vec3 u_diffuse_color; uniform vec3 u_specular_color; uniform float u_specular_power; // More shader code goes here

10 Light sources Common types: Directional Positional Spotlight Area lights Also passed to the shaders as uniform variables #version 150 uniform vec3 u_light_position; uniform vec3 u_light_color; // More shader code goes here

11 Per-vertex shading Lighting is computed in the vertex shader and interpolated over the triangle The fragment shader only receives the interpolated result and set it as fragment color Advantage: cheap to compute Disadvantage: produces ugly specular highlights for objects with few polygons Image source:

12 Per-fragment shading Computes lighting in the fragment shader, using interpolated normal, view, and light vectors from the vertex shader as input Advantages: specular highlights will look good even for objects with few polygons can be combined with various texture mapping techniques to produce very detailed and realistic surfaces Disadvantages: more expensive to compute than per-vertex shading

13 Lambertian reflectance Simulates an ideal diffuse reflecting surface

14 Lambertian reflectance = * Diffuse color max(0.0, dot(n, L)) Diffuse shading

15 GLSL code for the Lambert diffuse term float diffuse(vec3 L, vec3 N) { return max(0.0, dot(l, N)); } max(0.0, dot(n, L))

17 Diffuse lighting

18 Ambient lighting

19 Specular lighting

20 All lighting terms combined + Ambient + Diffuse = Specular Final color

21 Specular power α = 40 α = 400

22 GLSL code for the diffuse and specular terms float diffuse(vec3 L, vec3 N) { return max(0.0, dot(l, N)); } float specular(vec3 N, vec3 H, float specular_power) { return pow(max(0.0, dot(n, H)), specular_power); }

23 The reflection vector vs. the halfway vector Phong: where Blinn-Phong: where

24 Specular highlight shape Reflection vector (Phong) Halfway vector (Blinn-Phong) Image source:

25 Normalized Blinn-Phong shading model Unnormalized Blinn-Phong Normalized Blinn-Phong

26 Gamma correction CRT and LCD monitors have a non-linear response curve If you display the color (0.5, 0.0, 0.0), it will appear to be only ~21% as bright as (1.0, 0.0, 0.0), i.e., darker than expected! Gamma correction compensates for this Image source: Wikipedia

27 Gamma correction

28 Anisotropic shading Some materials are anisotropic, i.e., do not scatter light evenly in all directions Examples: hair, brushed metal, cloth, wood Isotropic highlights Anisotropic highlights

29 Anisotropic shading The Ward anisotropic shading model uses two parameters, ax and ay, to control the anisotropy of specular reflections

30 Wrap shading Wraps the diffuse lighting towards the camera to simulate subsurface scattering in materials such as wax, skin, and marble Standard Blinn-Phong Wrap shading Extreme wrap

31 Wrap shading in GLSL Modification of the Lambert diffuse term The wrap parameter controls the amount of wrapping float diffuse_wrap(vec3 L, vec3 N, float wrap) { return max(0.0, (dot(l, N) + wrap) / ((1.0 + wrap) * (1.0 + wrap))); }

32 Image-based lighting: pre-filtered cube maps Glossy surface Rough surface

33 Using pre-filtered cube maps for more realistic ambient lighting Standard flat ambient lighting Ambient lighting from pre-filtered cube maps

34 Physically-based rendering (PBR) Image source:

35 PBR materials Image source:

37 Assignment 3: Blinn-Phong shading and Environment mapping

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