How to Use the North Dakota Corn and Wheat Calculators. Dave Franzen, PhD Professor Soil Science Extension Soil Specialist, NDSU

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1 How to Use the North Dakota Corn and Wheat Calculators Dave Franzen, PhD Professor Soil Science Extension Soil Specialist, NDSU

2 Why abandon 2.5 X YG less credits for wheat And 1.2 X YG less credits for corn?

3 Both old recommendation formulas are led by the following assumption- - Higher yield can be pushed by N rate and the greater yield achieved at the highest N rate is the same as that from the lowest N rate with addition. 2.5 lb N equals one more bushel wheat 1.2 lb N equals one more bushel corn - 0 N equals 0 Yield

4 Yield N rate = 2.5 X YG less credits N rate = 1.2 X YG less credits N rate

5 Wheat yield, bu/a Wheat Yield with Available N, y = x x R² = Available N, lb/a

6 Protein, % Spring Wheat Protein vs N Rate, North Dakota y = -6E-05x x R² = N Rate, lb/a

7 Corn Yield, bushels per acre North Dakota, NW Minnesota and Southern Manitoba N Rate Trials, Total Known Available N vs Corn Yield, y = x x R² = Total Known Available N, pounds N per acre

8 Yield, bu/acre Yield with N Rate Only- Soil Test N and Previous Crop Not Considered 100 y = 4E-05x x R² = Yield N Rate, lb/acre

9 The Return to N model- Developed by John Sawyer, Iowa State and Emerson Nafziger, Illinois (2005, Proc. Ext-Ind Soil Fert. Conf.) This model is used in several corn-belt states, including Iowa, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Ohio, and Michigan

10 Return to N, $ per acre West River MERN $3 corn, 40 cent N = 167 lb N/acre $4 corn, 40 cent N = 200 lb N/acre $5 corn, 40 cent N = 219 lb N/acre N3C 30N3C 40N3C 50N3C 60N3C 70N3C 80N3C 90N3C 100N3C 20N4C 30N4C 40N4C 40N4C 50N4C 60N4C 70N4C 80N4C 90N4C 100N4C 20N5C 30N5C 40N5C 50N5C 60N5C 70N5C Total Known Available N, pounds per acre 80N5C 90N5C

11 Return to N, $/a $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $50.00 $0.00 Langdon Wheat Response to N, $6/bu Wheat, cent N Available N, lb/acre 6wheat30N 6wheat35N 6wheat40N

12 Return to N, $/acre $ Eastern ND Wheat Response to N, $6/bushel wheat, cent N $ $ $ $ wheat30N 6wheat35N 6wheat40N $50.00 $ Available N, lb/acre

13 Western ND, $6 Wheat with 30, 35 and 40 cent N Return to N Rate $/a Return to N 100 6Wheat30N 6Wheat35N 6Wheat40N Available N, lb/a

14

15

16 Conventional Till Most N lingers in the soil and is Susceptible to leaching/denitrification No-Till N is taken up by microorganisms. Microorganism life cycle is measured in days and weeks. Nutrient cycling is continuous and rapid. N credit likely comes from increased efficiency of N use compared to conventional till

17 2 1

18

19 The final number is not the final number The recommendations state that growers might consider adjustments up to 30 lb N/acre up or down due to- -Varietal protein characteristics -Less than optimal N application methods - Soils with denitrification tendencies - Excessive straw the previous year - Other grower experiences

20 N recommendation 2014 to Eastern ND - Conventional Till - High productivity - After soybean - Organic matter 4% - Soil test 30 lb N/acre - $8 wheat - 50 cent N Recommendation 155 lb N

21 N recommendation 2014 to Eastern ND - Conventional Till - High productivity - After soybean - Organic matter 4% - Soil test 30 lb N/acre - $5 wheat - 50 cent N Recommendation 120 lb N

22 Most profitable N recommendation lb N lb N Should you plant Faller this year??? Will the increase in yield offset discount?

23 Variety Likely Bushels Likely Protein Faller $350 Glenn $400 Return $5 wheat- Discount 75cents per pt

24 Apply N in an efficient manner- Put urea in the soil Ammonia at least 4 inches deep In soils with high N loss risk, consider split application with stream-bars to avoid wet May/early June period. Get supplemental N on by early jointing

25

26 Region/Soil Category Preplant N rate $3 corn/50 cent N Less soil test and previous crop credit West-River 94 Eastern ND Long-term no-till 158 High clay >160 bu/a 205 High clay <160 bu/a 150* Medium texture > 160 bu/a 194 Medium texture < 160 bu/a 150* Irrigated anywhere 237

27 Corn Yield, bushels per acre 180 High Clay Sites Yielding Under 160 bushels per acre, North Dakota, NW Minnesota, and Southern Manitoba, y = x x R² = Total Known Available N, pounds per acre

28 Corn Yield, bushels per acre 180 Medium Textured Sites, North Dakota, NW Minnesota and Southern Manitoba with High Yields Less than 160 Bushels Per Acre y = x x R² = Total Known Available N, pounds N per acre

29 Corn N timeline Application Period of greatest uptake Day 1 Day 45 Day 80 Day 120

30 With lower productivity high clay soils and medium to coarse soils with leaching issues- Use the N calculator corn rate for high productivity soil category, and apply half of the N preplant or at planting. Plan on a side-dress application at V-5 to V-8.

31 Active optical sensor algorithms are been published Greenseeker (Trimble) Holland Crop Circle Sensor (Holland Scientific)

32 Distance sensor to application point = block of variable rate fertilizer applied

33 Example field- 160 acres Use zone sampling to direct the initial N-rate to field Apply about 200 lb N to a small reference area

34 Example field- 160 acres When applicator enters the field to apply side-dress application, the reference area serves as the INSEY that is the maximum supported by an application, less an INSEY of 5%. Reference area previously highly fertilized with N

35 Yield Reference Yield Reference INSEY INSEY

36 Yield Reference Yield Field Yield estimate INSEY in field Reference INSEY INSEY

37 Yield Corn yield difference in pounds per acre. X 1.25 % N in corn grain divided by efficiency factor 0.6 = N rate Reference Yield Field Yield estimate INSEY in field Reference INSEY INSEY

38 Example- Reference yield predicted- 220 bushels In-field yield estimated- 160 bushels difference = 60 bushels X 56 lb grain/bushel = 3360 pounds X = 42 lb N 42 /0.6 efficiency factor = 70 lb N at that location.

39 Additional, but not as good, side-dress rate strategies- - Use of the other half of high productivity corn rate for the soil/tillage category - Add additional N to other half using an educated guess of loss if field experienced higher than normal rainfall from preplant to side-dress time.

40 Side-dress effectiveness of techniques- Ammonia/coulter UAN- preferred Dribbled UAN between every row Y-drop if it doesn t hurt the corn (in our area no improvement from dribbled) Urea with urease inhibitor (NBPT or Limus) over the top of the corn- no more than 50 pounds N/acre.

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