# CHINHOYI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

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1 CHINHOYI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY SCHOOL OF NATURAL SCIENCES AND MATHEMATICS DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY AND DISPERSION INTRODUCTION From the previous unit, the Graphical displays of statistical data are useful as a means of communicating broad overviews of the behaviour of a random variable. However, there is a need for numeral measures (called statistics) which will convey more precise information about the behaviour pattern of a random variable. The behaviour pattern of any random variable can be described by a measure of Central tendency and Spread (dispersion) of observations about this central value. Definition: Measures of Central tendency these are statistical measures which quantify where the majority of observations are concentrated. A central tendency statistic represents a typical value or middle data point of a set of observations and are useful for comparing data sets. There are three main measures of central tendency namely Arithmetic mean (average) Mode, and Median (also called the second quartile Q 2 or 50 th percentile). Each measure will be computed for Ungrouped data (raw data) and Grouped data (data summarised into a frequency distribution). THE ARITHEMATIC MEAN Ungrouped Data The arithmetic mean defined as:- Where n is the number of observations in the sample, is the value of the i th observation of random variable x and is the symbol for a sample arithmetic mean. s the shorthand notation for the sum of n individual observation i.e. = Page 1 of 16

2 Grouped Data Grouped data is represented by a frequency distribution. All that is known is the frequency with which observations appear in each of the m classes. Thus the sum of all the observation cannot be determined exactly. Consequently, it is not possible to compute an exact arithmetic mean for the data set. The computed mean is an approximation of the actual arithmetic mean. Where m is the number of classes in the frequency distribution, n is the number of observations in the sample, is the value of the i th observation of random variable x, f i is frequency of the i th class and is the symbol for a sample arithmetic mean. For your practice attempt examples in the Tutorial Work Sheet. Properties of the Mean: The arithmetic mean uses all values of the data set in its computation. The sum of the deviation of each observation from the mean value is equal zero. i.e. ) = 0. This makes the mean an unbiased statistical measure of central location Drawbacks of the mean It is affected or distorted by extreme values (Outliers) in the data It is not valid to compute the mean for nominal- or ordinal-scaled data. It is only meaningful to compute the arithmetic mean for ratio-scaled data (discrete or continuous) THE MODE The mode of a given set of data is the observation with the highest frequency. In other words it is the most frequently occurring value in a data set. Ugrouped Data In Ungrouped data sets it is obtained by observing the data carefully then find the most frequently occurring observation. However, if the number of observations is too large, the mode can be found by arranging the data in ascending order and by inspection identify that value that occurs frequently. Page 2 of 16

3 Example 1: B=Blue, G=Green, R=Red and Y=Yellow Consider a sample: YGBRBBRGYB, picked from a mixed bag. What is the modal colour? Solution: The modal colour is Blue, because it appears most, with a frequency of 4. Grouped Data For grouped data, we first identify the modal class i.e. the class interval with the highest frequency. The mode lies in this class and then calculate the mode using the formula Mode c( f1 2 f f 1 0 f 0 ) f 2 Where is the lower limit of modal class, f1 is the frequency of the modal class, f 0 is the frequency of the class preceding the modal class, f 2 is the frequency of interval succeeding the modal class and c is the width of the modal class. Example 2: Find the modal test mark for the following data. Test Mark, x Frequency Solution: We seek to invoke the formula Mode c( f1 f 0 ) 2 f1 f 0 f 2 Where is the modal class, = 15, f 1 = 7, f 0 = 5, f 2 = 2, and c = 5 Substituting yields Mode 5(7 5) Page 3 of 16

4 THE MEDIAN The median is the value of a random variable which divides an ordered (in ascending or descending order) data set into two equal parts. Half of the observation will fall below this median value and the other half above it. If the number of observations, n, is odd, then the median is n 2 n mean of 2 data. th 1 th and observation. If the number of observations is even, then median is the n 1 2 th observation. First, we consider a modified scenario of ungrouped Median for ungrouped data Example 3 Given the following data in a frequency table, find the median. Income/\$ Number of Workers Solution The number of observations is 100, which is even thus the median is mean of th th n n and 1 observations i.e. the mean of the 50 th and 51 st observations. To 2 2 find these observations we first find the cumulative frequencies in bold. The 50 th observation is 4400 and 51 st observation is Thus Interpretation: Median This means 50% of the workers get incomes that are less than \$4650 and another 50% get an income that is more than \$4650. Page 4 of 16

5 Income/\$ Number of Workers Cumulative Frequency Median for grouped data Using the above table as an example, the formula for calculating the median of grouped data is given by = + Where is the lower limit of median class, n is the sample size (total number of observations, F(<) is the cumulative frequency of class prior (before) to median class, is the frequency of median class and c is the width of the median class. To use this formula, we calculate the cumulative frequencies and then identify the median class which is the class containing the n 2 1 th observation. Example 4 Calculate the median of following data. Marks, x Frequency Solution First and for most don t forget to order the data set (in this case data is already ordered). Calculating the cumulative frequencies we get the following table. Marks, x Frequency Cumulative Frequency We use the formula Page 5 of 16

6 = + Where is the median class, c =10, n =50, F (<) =14, f = 22, and = 20. Substituting these values we have Median = 20 + = 25 Interpretation This implies that 50% of the students got less than 25 marks and the other 50% got more than 25 marks. The advantage of the median is that it is unaffected by outliers and is a useful measure of central tendency when the distribution of a random variable is severely skewed. A disadvantage of the median, however, is that it is inappropriate for categorical data. It is best suited as a central location measure for interval-scaled data such as rating scales. QUARTILES (PERCENTILES) Quartiles are those observations that divide and order data set into quarters (four equal parts). a. Lower Quartile, Q 1 is first quartile (or 25 th percentile). It is that observation which separates the lower 25 percent of the observations from the top 75 percent of ordered observations. b. Middle Quartile, Q 2 is the second quartile (50 th percentile) is the median. It divides an ordered data set into two equal halves. c. Upper Quartile, Q 3 is the third quartile (75th percentile). It is that observation that which observations. To compute Quartiles, a similar procedure is used as for the median. The only difference lies in (i) the identification of the quartile position, and (ii) the choice of the appropriate quartile interval. Each quartile position is determined as follows: For Q 1 use, for Q 2 use, and for Q 3 use. The appropriate quartile interval is that interval into which the quartile position falls. Like the median calculations, this is identified using the less than ogive. Page 6 of 16

7 Quartiles for ungrouped data Consider Data from Example 3: Exercise 1: Find Q 1, Q 2 and Q 3. Solution: Q 1 = 4100, Q 2 = 4650 and Q 3 = 5200 Quartiles for grouped data Consider data from Example 4: The Lower Quartile, Q 1 : Q 1 position = = 12.5 th position. Hence Q 1 interval = [10-20] because the 12.5 th observation falls within this class interval. The formula for Q 1 is = + Where is the Lower Quartile, is the lower limit of Q 1 Interval (class), n is the sample size (total number of observations), F(<) is the cumulative frequency of the interval before the Q 1 interval, is the frequency of the Q 1 interval and c is the width of the Q 1 interval. Thus: = + = 10 + = Interpretation: 25 % of the students got below 18.75marks The Second Quartile, Q 2 (Median) Q 2, use position = = 25 th position. Q 2 class interval = [20-30] because the 25 th observation falls within these limits. The formula for Q 2 is Page 7 of 16

8 = + = 25marks The Upper Quartile, Q 3 : Q 3 position = = 37.5 th position. Q 3 interval = [30-40] because the 37.5 th observation falls within these limits. The formula for Q 3 is = + Where is the Upper Quartile, is the Lower limit of Q 3 Interval (class), n is the sample size (total number of observations), F(<) is the cumulative frequency of the interval before the Q 3 interval, is the frequency of the Q 3 interval and c is the width of the Q 3 interval. Thus: = + = 30 + = Interpretation: 75 % of the students got below marks. Alternatively, 25% of the students got above marks. Percentiles In general, any percentile value can be found by adjusting the median formula to: Find the required percentile s position and from this, Establish the percentile interval. Examples: 90 th percentile position = 0.9 n 35 th percentile position = 0.35 n 25 th percentile position(q 1 ) = 0.25 n Uses of percentiles: to identify various non-central values. For example, if it is desired to work with a truncated dataset which excludes extreme values at either end of the ordered dataset. Page 8 of 16

9 SKEWNESS Skewness is departure from symmetry. Departure from symmetry is observed by comparing the mean, median and mode. a. If mean = median = mode the frequency distribution is Symmetrical b. If mean < median < mode the frequency distribution is Negatively skewed (Skewed to the left) c. If mean > median > mode the frequency distribution is Positively skewed (Skewed to the right) Remark: 1. If a distribution is distorted by extreme values (i.e. skewed) then the median or the mode is more representative than the mean. 2. If the frequency distribution is skewed, the median may be the best measure of central location as it is not pulled by extreme values, nor is it as highly influenced by the frequency of occurrence. KURTOSIS Kurtosis is the measure of the degree of peakedness of a distribution. Frequency distributions can be described as: leptokurtic, mesokurtic and platykurtic. Leptokurtic- highly peaked distribution (i.e. a heavy concentration of observations of around the central location). Mesokurtic moderately peaked distribution Platykurtic flat distribution (i.e. the observations are widely spread about the central location). OTHER MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY For further reading; the Weighted Arithmetic Mean, Geometric Mean and Harmonic Mean. EXERCISES Exercise 2: The number of days in a year that employees in a certain company were away from work due to illness is given in the following table: Page 9 of 16

10 Sick days Number of employees Find the modal class and the modal days sick and interpret. Exercise 3: A company employs 12 persons in managerial positions. Their seniority (in years of service) and sex are listed below: Sex F M F M F M M F F F F M Seniority (years) a) Find the seniority mean, the seniority median and the seniority mode for the above data. b) Which of the mean, median and mode is the least useful measure of location for the seniority data? Give a reason for your answer. c) Find the mode for the sex data. Does this indicate anything about the employment practice of the company when compared to the medians for the seniority data for males and females? MEASURES OF DISPERSION Spread (or Dispersion) refers to the extent by which the observations of a random variable are scattered about the central value. Measures of dispersion provide useful information with which the reliability of the central value may be judged. Widely dispersed observations indicate low reliability and less representativeness of the central value. Conversely, a high concentration of observation about the central value increases confidence in the reliability and representativeness of the central value. Page 10 of 16

11 RANGE The range is the difference between the highest and the lowest observed values in a dataset. It is calculated as: Range = X max - X min for ungrouped data or = Upper Limit (highest Class) Lower Limit (lowest class) The range is a crude estimate of spread. It is calculated, but is distorted by extreme values (Outliers). An outlier would be x max or x min. It is therefore a volatile and unstable measure of dispersion. It also provides no information on the clustering of observations within the dataset about a central value as it uses only two observations in its computation. Using data in Example 3 Example 6: Given the following data in a frequency table, find the range. Income/\$ Number of Workers Solution: Range = X max X min = = INTERQUATILE RANGE Because the range can be distorted by extreme values, a modified range which excludes these outliers is often calculated. This modified range is the deference between the upper and lower quartiles. Interquartile range (IQR) = Q 3 Q 1 This modified range removes some of the instability inherent in the range if outliers are present, but it excludes 50 percent of all observations from further analysis. This measure of dispersion, like the range, also provides no information on the clustering of observations within the dataset as it uses only two observations. QUARTILE DEVIATION A measure of variation based on this modified range is called that quartile deviation (Q.D.) or the semi-interquartile range. It is found by dividing the interquartile range in half. Quartile Deviation (Q.D.) = Page 11 of 16

12 Remember when calculating this measure you order your dataset first to calculated Q 3 and Q 1. The quartile deviation is an appropriate measure of spread for the median. It identifies the range below and above the median within which 50 percent of observations are likely to fall. It is a useful measure of spread if the sample of observations contains excessive outliers as it ignores the top 25 percent and bottom 25 percent of the ranked observations. VARIANCE The most useful and reliable measures of dispersion are those that: take every observation into account and are based on an average deviation from a central value. The variance is such a measure of dispersion. Variance for ungrouped data Sample Variance, Consider the ages (in years) of 7 second hand cars: 13, 7, 10, 15, 12, 18 and 9. Step 1: Find the sample mean, = = 12 years. Step 2: Find the squared deviation of each observation from the sample mean. Car Ages x i Deviation (x i - ) Squared Deviations (x i - ) (x i - ) = 0 (x i - ) 2 = 84 Step 3: Find the average squared deviation that is the Variance S 2 = = 14 years 2 Page 12 of 16

13 Note: Divison by n would appear logical, but the variance statistic would then be a biased measure of dispersion. It can be shown to be unbiased if division is by (n - 1). For large samples (i.e. n > 30) however this distinction becomes less important. Variance can be also calculated as follows: x 2, x = 84, n=7 and = 12, then using the above formula: S 2 = = = 14 years 2 Variance for Grouped Data The variance for grouped data is as follows: = Consider Data of Example 4: Example 7: Marks, x Frequency Marks, x Frequency, f i Midpoint x i f i x i x 2 fx Total Mean, = = = 25.8 and fx 2 = Variance, S 2 = = = = marks 2 Page 13 of 16

14 The variance is a measure of average squared deviation about the arithmetic mean. It is expressed in squared units. Consequently, the meaning in a practical sense is obscure. To provide meaning, the measure should be expressed in the original units of the random variable. STANDARD DEVIATION A Standard Deviation is a measure which expresses the average deviation about the mean in the original units of the random variable. The Standard deviation is the square root of the variance that is s or s x. Mathematically: s x = = From Example 7: Standard Deviation, s = = = The standard deviation is a relatively stable measure of dispersion across different samples of the same random variable. It is therefore a rather powerful statistic. It describes how the observations are spread about the mean. COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION The coefficient of variation is defined as follows: CV = 100% This ratio describes how large the measure of dispersion is relative to the mean of the observation. A coefficient of variation value close to zero indicates low variability and a tight clustering of observations about the mean. Conversely, a large coefficient of variation value indicates that observations are more spread out about their mean value. From our example above, CV = 100% = 100% = 39.8%. Exercise 4: Find the mean and the standard deviation for the following data which records the duration of 20 telephone hotline calls on the 0772 line for advice on car repairs. Page 14 of 16

15 Duration Number of calls 0 - < < < < < 5 9 At a cost of \$2.60 per minute, what was the average cost of a call, and what was the total cost paid by the 20 telephone callers. Calculated the coefficient of variation and interpret it. Exercise 5: Employee bonuses earned by workers at a furniture factory in a recent month (US\$) were: Find the: a) Mean and standard deviation of bonuses. b) Interquartile range and quartile deviation. c) Coefficient of variation and comment. Exercise 6: Give three reasons why the standard deviation is regarded as a better measure of dispersion than the range. Exercise 7: Discuss briefly: a) Which measure of dispersion would you use if the mean is used as the measure of central location? Why? b) Which measure of dispersion would you use if the median is used as a measure of central location? Why? c) The limitation of the range as a measure of dispersion. Page 15 of 16

16 Exercise 8: Define the following terms as they are used in statistics. a) Outliers b) Skewness c) Kurtosis Page 16 of 16

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