1. How did the Native Americans make it into the Americas? 2. What were the religious beliefs of most Native American tribes?

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1 Social Studies Standard 2 Test Review Native Americans, Explorers, & Colonization 1. How did the Native Americans make it into the Americas? The Native Americans crossed over the Land Bridge (Bering Strait) to get to the Americas. They crossed the Land Bridge while tracking Mammoths and other large mammals. 2. What were the religious beliefs of most Native American tribes? Most tribes believed in a Great Spirit. They also believed that nature had many gods that they would dance to, sing to and draw. 3. Where did Native Americans live? Plains, Eastern Woodlands, Pacific Northwest, Southwest and Southeast 4. What were the Native American regions and how did they get food? Plains: Hunted Buffalo and grew crops Eastern Woodlands: Hunted and Gathered Pacific Northwest: Fished and Hunted Southwest: Hunted and then developed irrigation for farming Southeast: Hunted and Gathered 5. What were the economic, political, and technological factors that led to exploration? Economic: Merchants bringing spices and other goods back from the Far East and could sell them for profit. King Henry and Portugal were the first to seek a water route to Asia to reduce the time needed to get goods back to their country and Spain sent Columbus to find new sources of goods. Political: Once the Spanish had found gold and silver and gained power from having it, other countries sent explorers to get their country ahead of the others. Competition began between the Nation-States for Power.

2 Technological: New and better ships were making sea travel easier and safer (Caravel). The invention of the Astrolabe, the compass and the reading of celestial stars helped sailors stay on course. Explorers were able to map routes and use them to follow that path again. 6. Who were these explorers and what did they accomplish?

3 7. What was the Columbian Exchange and what resulted because of it? The Columbian Exchange occurred when the Europeans brought new things with them. Native Americans traded(exchanged with) them and taught the Europeans how to grow new crops. From the Europeans: Cows, horses, pigs, wheat, rice, coffee and diseases From the Native Americans: corn, potatoes, peanuts and squash. 8. Circle and label the map to show what countries settled where in the modern day United States. Spanish (2 areas) English French Dutch 9. How did Europeans change the new world? What did the bring with them? The Europeans brought many diseases, animals and weapons.

4 10. Why did the English, Spanish, and French come to the new world? English: Religious Freedom and to have a better life Spanish: Gold, Power and to spread Christianity French: Power and to spread Christianity 11. How did the English, Spanish, and French colonies make money (profit)? English: Southern Colonies exported cash crops, Middle Colonies exported food to Caribbean and the New English Colonies exported lumber built ships. Spanish: Large Plantations (Encomiendos) produced cash crops French: Developed a fur trade with the Native Americans. 12. What type of governments did the English, Spanish, and French colonies have in place? English: Established Colonial Assemblies and governed themselves Spanish: Absolute Monarch, little self-government French: Absolute Monarch, little self-government 13. What did the English, French, and Spanish believe in terms of religion? Did they believe they should spread it? English: Mostly Protestant Spanish: Missionaries converted the Native People and established Roman Catholic Missions French: Converted Native Americans to Catholicism 14. How was slavery important to the colonies? Slavery was important because they needed the help to produce the cash crops.

5 15. What was triangular trade? The Triangular trade was when the British would trade for slaves, slaves were traded to the colonies, which were traded for lumber, cash crops and food back to Britain and start back over. This trade formed the shape of a triangle. 16. How African slaves keep their culture alive when coming the New World? They created the language of Gullah. They had a lot of knowledge about the livestock and farming techniques. They were able to make the colonist healthier by cooking greens and other vegetables. 17. What three groups fought with each other in the New World? French, English colonies and the Native Americans fought and caused the French and Indian War. 18. You will need to know where each of the three colonies where established.

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