White Umbelliferous Plants - How To Identify & Control

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1 White Umbelliferous Plants - How To Identify & Control Courtney LeClair Wisconsin DNR Bureau of Endangered Resources Early Detection Invasive Plant Coordinator

2 Overview: We will go over distinctive characteristics for six umbelliferous plant species We will talk about where and how they invade What are the threats they pose? Native look-alike species will also be addressed

3 Queen Anne s-lace (Daucus carota) Chris Evans, River to River CWMA, Bugwood.org Chris Evans, River to River CWMA, Bugwood.org Courtney LeClair, WI DNR Courtney LeClair, WI DNR

4 Queen Anne s-lace Characteristics Biennial; 2-4 tall Stems are densely hairy, hollow, grooved Umbels are 3-5 wide; generally dark flower in the center Leaf-like bracts under primary umbel; Blooms July - October Alternate leaves that are larger towards the base of the plant; carrot odor Seeds are covered with small hooks to attach to hair, fur, clothing, etc. Disturbed grasslands, fields, meadows

5 How to control Queen Anne s-lace Hand pull plants or use a sharp shovel to cut taproot below soil surface. Bag and dispose of plants Cut and bag flower heads before seed set Mowing will also work before seed set monitor for regrowth Controlled burns in fire adapted communities Foliar spray with glyphosate, metsulfuron,, or triclopyr Always follow label rates and recommendations

6 Hedgeparsley (Torilis Torilis japonica; T.arvensis) WI DNR Courtney LeClair, WI DNR T. arvensis T. japonica T. japonica Bracts Dan Tenaglia, Missouriplants.com, Bugwood.org WI DNR

7 Hedgeparsley Characteristics Biennial that can also act like an annual; 2-3 tall Freely branching form Stems and leaves have short hairs present Flowers bloom for about 2 weeks Small umbels; alternate leaves Taproot Seeds are covered with velcro-like hairs; Latches on to hair, fur, clothing, etc. Mainly seen invading roadsides, ROW, and woodland edges Rosettes look very similar to Queen Anne s-lace and young Herb Robert (Geranium robertianum). Leaves also look similar to those of wild chervil

8 Hedgeparsley Look-alikes Wild Chervil Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org Japanese Hedgeparsley Queen Anne s-lace Herb Robert Dan Tenaglia, Missouriplants.com, Bugwood.org Chris Evans, River to River CWMA, Bugwood.org Image 2004, Ben Legler

9 How to control hedgeparsley Hand pull plants or use a sharp shovel to cut taproot below soil surface. Bag and dispose of plants. Cut and bag flower heads before seed set. Mowing will also work before seed set Controlled burns in fire adapted communities Foliar spray in spring or on resprouts with metsulfuron, triclopyr,, or glyphosate. Always follow label rates and recommendations

10 Wild chervil (Anthriscus sylvestris) Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org Photo by Richard Old,

11 Wild chervil Characteristics Biennial or monocarpic perennial; 3-4 tall Stems are hollow and covered with soft hairs Leaves are fern-like and alternate Blooms late May early July Thick taproot up to 6 deep with lateral buds Smooth, black, oblong fruit are spread by wind, mowing eqp, & water. Lateral root buds can re sprout Often found along roadsides, pastures, open woods and other disturbed areas. Leaves look similar to poison hemlock

12 How to control wild chervil Use a sharp shovel to dig up entire root. Bag and dispose of plants. Mowing repeatedly before seed development can deplete root reserves Foliar spray before bloom and one month after bloom with clopyralid or dicamba Foliar spray can also be done with metsulfuron methyl or escort Always follow label rates and recommendations

13 Burnet-saxifrage/Scarlet pimpernel (Pimpinella saxifraga) J.R. Crellin J.R. Crellin Steve Garske Steve Garske

14 Burnet-saxifrage Characteristics Perennial; 3-4 Pithy stems are slightly hairy Often seen along roadsides, dry pastures, meadows Leaves are pinnate with 3-7 serrate leaflets; get smaller as they move up the stem Taproot with lateral rhizomes Blooms July September; umbels turn reddish in the fall Fruits are slightly ribbed Lower leaves resemble those of wild parsnip. Umbels resemble those of Queen Anne s-lace John Cardina, The Ohio State University, Bugwood.org

15 How to control burnet-saxifrage Prevent further distribution by cutting flower heads before seed set Cut stem treatment or foliar spray with glyphosate, metsulfuron,, or triclopyr Always follow label rates and recommendations

16 Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) Rhiannon Fernandez Courtney LeClair, WI DNR Jan Samanek, State Phytosanitary Administration, Bugwood.org William & Wilma Follette. USDA NRCS

17 Poison hemlock Characteristics Biennial or monocarpic perennial; 4-10 tall Stems are hollow, ridged, and hairless; purple mottling near base Alternate, pinnately compound leaves are hairless and shiny; broadly triangular shape; leaf veins end at the tips of the tooth margins Taproot Two joined seeds; ridged Often found along roadsides, fields, stream banks, and in floodplains Leaves look similar to wild chervil. Water hemlock (Cicuta maculate) has leaf veins that end in the notches between the tooth margins.

18 How to control poison hemlock Hand pull, dig, or grub when populations are small Ensure to remove entire taproot Do prior to flowering (bag and landfill since toxic) Cut and bag flower heads before seed set Mow close to the ground several times through out growing season Foliar spray with 2,4-D D +diesel oil poison_hemlock_m_c.htm Pennsylvania Dept. of Conservation and Natural Resources Many other herbicides can also be used Always follow label rates and recommendations

19 Donna R. Ellis, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org Giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org Donna R. Ellis, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org USDA APHIS PPQ Archive, USDA APHIS PPQ, Bugwood.org

20 Giant hogweed Characteristics Monocarpic perennial; 8-15 tall Stems are ribbed, hollow, covered in coarse, white hairs; purple mottling Leaves are deeply lobed and pointed; underside has coarse white hairs Blooms May to July; umbels up to 20 wide Often found along roadsides, vacant lots, and in moist woodlands or wetlands American cow parsnip (Heracleum lanatum) is 3-7 tall with non-mottled flower stems and pinnately divided leaves. David Eagan, WI DNR Large, deep taproot

21 Great angelica (Angelica atropurpurea) is smaller with a smooth, purplish stem, spherical umbel and pinnately compound leaves. IPANE Continued Glade mallow (Napaea dioica L.) is 3-6 tall with leaves 4-12 with 5-9 deep lobes that are coarsely toothed David Eagan, WI DNR David Eagan, WI DNR

22 How to control giant hogweed Hand pull or dig out seedlings Dig up plants below soil surface Cut and bag flower heads before seed set Foliar spray with 5% triclopyr + 2% clopyralid 1.5 oz. Escort/acre 2.5% Garlon 3A Always follow label rates and recommendations

23 For More Information Wisconsin DNR: Invasive Plants Association of Wisconsin: Midwest Invasive Plant Network: Invasive Plant Atlas of New England: nin.ciesin.columbia.edu/ipane/ USDA Plants: plants.usda.gov

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