# Analog to Digital, A/D, Digital to Analog, D/A Converters. An electronic circuit to convert the analog voltage to a digital computer value

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Analog to Digital, A/D, Digital to Analog, D/A Converters. An electronic circuit to convert the analog voltage to a digital computer value"

## Transcription

1 Analog to Digital, A/D, Digital to Analog, D/A Converters An electronic circuit to convert the analog voltage to a digital computer value Best understood by understanding Digital to Analog first. A fundamental circuit device used is the operational amplifier, or op-amp. Operational Amplifier A high gain electronic amplifier designed for use with feedback circuits to perform stable, predictable operations (there by its name) which are determined by the external components Transducer Interfacing Handbook, by Daniel H. Sheingold, Analog Devices, Σ - Differential Operational Amplifier Electrical Properties: Very high gain 10 5 to 10 6 at low frequencies Very high input impedance, resistance 0.0 volts between and + Summing Junction Wiring external components determines terminal characteristics I i I f Vin Ri - 0 V. A + Rf Vout V out R = + i = A Vin Vout Ri + R 1 f R R f i V in

2 Common Mode Rejection Ratio Common-mode- rejection (CMR), a quantity expressed logarithmically in decibels. The amplifier has a balanced differential input. This means that the output voltage is proportional to the difference between the input voltages; and the input terminals, which present high impedance to the input source, are electrically similar. High common-mode rejection means that the amplifier is sensitive only to the difference between the input voltages, even if they are swinging over a wide range, and the difference is quite small. (Analog Devices, Analogic) CMV CMRR = 0 log 10 e out Usually quite high 140dB. Normal-Mode Rejection Applies to any analog circuit. Normal-Mode Rejection Ratio (NMRR) is the ratio of the transfer function of the circuit or device for the signal component of interest to the transfer function of the unwanted signal component (noise) K( f0) NMRR = 0log10 K( f ) K is the transfer function at a given frequency.

3 Weighted Current Source Digital to Analog, D/A, Converter TTL Digital Input Data Bit 1 Bit Bit 4 Bit 8 Vref R R 4R 8R 1. V. I out - + A Rf Vout p-n-p transistors, diode used to switch the current through the transistor, current summed at the terminal, through Rf. Requires precision resistors range of R to n R. Expensive to manufacture.

4 D/A needs to supply output current to a 4 to 0 ma device. Example: A Current to Pneumatic I/P Converter. This circuit will supply the correct output current, with load resistance, R L variation. Small circuit forms programmable 4- to 0-mA transmitter p.9 edn April 17, 003

5 R-R D/A Converter Vref I I 1 R I R I 3 R R I 4 R R R R I 1 I I 3 I 4 Bit 8 Bit 4 Bit Bit 1 I out - + A Rf Vout I = *I 1 I 1 = *I I = *I 3 I 3 = *I 4 I = ****I 4 Ladder of only resistor values R and *R. Cheaper to manufacture. I OUT n [ 1 ] Vref Vref = = n R R

6 Analog to Digital Flash Converter n -1 comparators directly measure signal. Comparators compare the signal against a unique weight. The comparator s outputs are decoded to a binary signal. Very fast, but requires many precision components, 16 bit 65,535 comparators. Successive Approximation Architecture, SAR, A/D Converter Feedback type A/D converters; a D/A converter is in the feedback loop of a digital control circuit that changes its output until it equals the analog input. Completes a conversion in just n-steps, where n is the resolution of the converter in bits. The operation of this converter is analogous to weighing an unknown on a laboratory balance scale using standard weights in-a binary sequence such as 1, 1/, 1/4, 1/8... 1/n kilograms. Largest standard weight first and down to the smallest one. The largest weight is placed on the balance pan first. If it does not tip, the weight is left on and the next largest weight is added. If the balance does tip, the weight is removed and the next one added. The same procedure is used for the next largest weight and so on down to the smallest. (Datel-Intersil) Aliasing can be a problem. Use filtering ahead of A/D to remove noise.

7 Sigma Delta A/D Integrating type, uses an comparator and a single bit DAC.The output of the DAC is subtracted from the input signal. The resulting signal is then integrated, and the integrator output voltage is converted to a single-bit digital output (1 or 0) by the comparator. The resulting bit becomes the input to the DAC, and the DAC s output is subtracted from the ADC input signal, etc. This closedloop process is carried out at a very high oversampled rate. The digital data coming from the ADC is a stream of ones and zeros, and the value of the signal is proportional to the density of digital ones coming from the comparator. This bit stream data is then digitally filtered and decimated to result in a binary-format output. Sigma-Delta Modulator Operation The input voltage V IN is first summed with the output of a feedback DAC. This summing can be accomplished by means of a switched capacitor circuit which accumulates charge onto a capacitor summing node. An integrator then adds the output of this summing node to a value it has stored from the previous integration step. A comparator outputs a logic 1 if the integrator output is greater than or equal to zero volts and a logic 0 otherwise. A 1-bit DAC feeds the output of the comparator back to the summing node: +V REF for logic 1 and -V REF for logic 0. This feedback tries to keep the integrator output at zero by making the ones and zeros output of the comparator equal to the analog input. (Analog Devices) Excellent Normal Mode Noise rejection. Theoretically, therefore, any integration interval which is an integral number of cycles of any normal mode noise will reject that noise completely. Thus, if the ramp-up time is a multiple of 1/60 second (say, 0.05, or 0.10 seconds), then 60 Hz pick-up will be attenuated by infinity. Moreover, if it is 0.10 seconds, then both 50 and 60 Hz noise components will be rejected; a convenient and useful consideration for implementing industrial systems in both 50 Hz and 60 Hz environments. (Analogic)

8 Analog Multiplexer Analog multiplexers are the circuits that time-share an A/D converter among a number of different analog channels. Since the A/D converter in many cases is the most expensive component in a data acquisition system, multiplexing analog inputs to the A/D is an economical approach. Usually the analog multiplexer operates into a sample-hold circuit, which holds the required analog voltage long enough for A/D conversion. (Datel-Intersil) Older technology. These devices are not generally used in process control instrumentation. However, the temperature transmitters used in our lab use this technology.

9 Quantization Error Resolution is the number output states in bits, example 1 bit resolution. n -1 decision points. Smallest signal that can be resolved: Q = (Full Scale) / n Example 1 bit A/D 10 volts full scale; Q= 10/4096 =.44 mv.

10 Input Quantization Noise f(x) 1 X X 1 X 1 X 0 Uniform Density Function The mean of this function, m x = X + X 1 The variance of the function is [ ] ( X X1) σ x = E x mx = 1 Random noise is uniformly distributed in the interval, quantization level, Q. ( ) The quantization variance is σ e = 1 Assume full scale of 1 volt, the is -n where is the The signal to noise ratio SNR Noise Ratio is usually expressed in decibels, db. SNR σ x n = = 1 σ x The Signal to σ e σ x 10 log 10 σ e = Therefore each bit of an A/D converter adds 6 db signal to noise ratio improvement.

11 Monotonicity: In a D/A converter, as the digital input to the converter increases from zero to the maximum, the analog input never exhibits a decrease in output from one conversion to the next. Linearity: The maximum deviation from a straight line drawn through the end points, expressed in percentage of full scale. (Analogic) Frequently one of the bits is assigned as a sign bit. Therefore for a 1 bit A/D the quantization error is 0.05%. Analog Filter Single Pole Low Pass, RC, used to remove electrical noise form the signal. Specification is usually expressed as 3dB at some frequency. Excessive filtering can cause delays in the control response, which is why control engineers should carefully consider the effects of filtering. Electrical noise should be removed by: 1) Using the proper type of wire/cable ) Shielding, EMI suppression 3) Use proper grounding techniques 4) Filtering, The process control equipment manufacture provides electrical filtering, that should be sufficient to remove electrical noise.

12 Anti Aliasing Filters: Aliasing occurs as a result of improper information or signal sample data processing that causes distortion. The definition of proper sampled data signal processing is contained in Shannon's Sampling Theorem. This theorem is defined in the frequency domain and states that to recover without distortion any information, signal or disturbances which contain no frequency component higher than Fc, the signal must be sampled at a rate at least equal to *Fc. There are two ways of describing this theorem, one in the time domain and the other in the frequency domain. There is a direct relationship between these domains. Any signal defined in one domain can be defined in the other. If a sin wave is sampled at a rate almost equal to the sample frequency, the resultant frequency is very low and equal to the absolute value of the difference between the input and sample frequencies. It the frequencies are equal, the resultant waveform will have a steady state value. To gain a better understanding of the aliasing effect in terms of industrial control, the analysis must be shifted from the time domain to the frequency domain. Electronic controllers have an input filter, usually a single pole, low pass passive, fixed RC filter. It is used to filter electrical noise and limit the input rate of change. In the frequency domain, the filter defines a spectrum or "window" to the process and transmitter, allowing low frequencies or disturbances to pass while attenuating higher frequencies. The selection of the filter time constant is based on the dynamics of the process as well as the noise present. The corner frequency of most digital controller's filter is around 10 Hz. In a digital controller with a sample rate of Fs, this "window" and its mirror images are shifted and centered around the sample frequency, Fs, and its harmonics. Should the sample frequency be too low, a portion of the sampled frequencies will be folded over into the spectrum of the original frequencies. During reconstruction of the processed signals, distortion will occur. In the ideal case to eliminate distortion from a signal that contains no frequency component higher than Fc, the filter would have to pass all signals or disturbances unattenuated up to Fc, completely suppress all those above Fc and have a sample rate equal to or greater than Fc. This is another way of stating Shannon's Sampling Theorem. Bessel function filters are frequently used to suppress this distortion.

13 Digital Filter Used to filter hydraulic, process induced noise. Should not be used to filter electrical noise! The filter is an exponentially weighted moving average EWMA, of the current variable, PV current, and the past filtered signal, PV f : PV f = λ * PVcurrent + (1 λ) * PV f Lambda is the weighting factor. In the digital domain, there is a sample interval T s. This is the internal execution time of the filter/control algorithm. Lambda, 0.0 < λ < 1.0 is calculated based of the filter time T f by: λ = 1 Avoid using a large number, high filter time constants result in poor control performance. e T T Avoid exceeding 1.5 seconds filter time if possible. Never use the Controller Reset as a filter! Remember the reset term integrates the error, not filtering the PV; even though the results may appear to be the same. s f

### ELG3336: Converters Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs) Digital to Analog Converters (DACs) 111 110 101 100 011 010

ELG3336: Converters Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs) Digital to Analog Converters (DACs) Digital Output Dout 111 110 101 100 011 010 001 000 ΔV, V LSB V ref 8 V FS 4 V 8 ref 7 V 8 ref Analog Input V

### Analog Signal Conditioning

Analog Signal Conditioning Analog and Digital Electronics Electronics Digital Electronics Analog Electronics 2 Analog Electronics Analog Electronics Operational Amplifiers Transistors TRIAC 741 LF351 TL084

### CONVERTERS. Filters Introduction to Digitization Digital-to-Analog Converters Analog-to-Digital Converters

CONVERTERS Filters Introduction to Digitization Digital-to-Analog Converters Analog-to-Digital Converters Filters Filters are used to remove unwanted bandwidths from a signal Filter classification according

### This representation is compared to a binary representation of a number with N bits.

Chapter 11 Analog-Digital Conversion One of the common functions that are performed on signals is to convert the voltage into a digital representation. The converse function, digital-analog is also common.

### DIGITAL-TO-ANALOGUE AND ANALOGUE-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION

DIGITAL-TO-ANALOGUE AND ANALOGUE-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION Introduction The outputs from sensors and communications receivers are analogue signals that have continuously varying amplitudes. In many systems

### Digital to Analog and Analog to Digital Conversion

Real world (lab) is Computer (binary) is digital Digital to Analog and Analog to Digital Conversion V t V t D/A or DAC and A/D or ADC D/A Conversion Computer DAC A/D Conversion Computer DAC Digital to

### The counterpart to a DAC is the ADC, which is generally a more complicated circuit. One of the most popular ADC circuit is the successive

The counterpart to a DAC is the ADC, which is generally a more complicated circuit. One of the most popular ADC circuit is the successive approximation converter. 1 2 The idea of sampling is fully covered

### Section 3. Sensor to ADC Design Example

Section 3 Sensor to ADC Design Example 3-1 This section describes the design of a sensor to ADC system. The sensor measures temperature, and the measurement is interfaced into an ADC selected by the systems

### MODULE 13 - INTERFACING THE ANALOG WORLD TO DIGITAL CIRCUITS

Introduction to Digital Electronic Design Module 13, Interfacing Analog to Digital Circuits 1 MODULE 13 - INTERFACING THE ANALOG WORLD TO DIGITAL CIRCUITS OVERVIEW: Digital circuits require the input signal

### Lab 9: Op Amps Lab Assignment

3 class days 1. Differential Amplifier Source: Hands-On chapter 8 (~HH 6.1) Lab 9: Op Amps Lab Assignment Difference amplifier. The parts of the pot on either side of the slider serve as R3 and R4. The

### Lecture 19. Link. Peter Cheung Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering Imperial College London

Lecture 19 Link Peter Cheung Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering Imperial College London URL: www.ee.ic.ac.uk/pcheung/teaching/de1_ee/ E-mail: p.cheung@imperial.ac.uk Lecture 17 Slide 1 Linking

### Conversion Between Analog and Digital Signals

ELET 3156 DL - Laboratory #6 Conversion Between Analog and Digital Signals There is no pre-lab work required for this experiment. However, be sure to read through the assignment completely prior to starting

### FILTER CIRCUITS. A filter is a circuit whose transfer function, that is the ratio of its output to its input, depends upon frequency.

FILTER CIRCUITS Introduction Circuits with a response that depends upon the frequency of the input voltage are known as filters. Filter circuits can be used to perform a number of important functions in

### Digital to Analog Converter. Raghu Tumati

Digital to Analog Converter Raghu Tumati May 11, 2006 Contents 1) Introduction............................... 3 2) DAC types................................... 4 3) DAC Presented.............................

### Precision Fully Differential Op Amp Drives High Resolution ADCs at Low Power

Precision Fully Differential Op Amp Drives High Resolution ADCs at Low Power Kris Lokere The op amp produces differential outputs, making it ideal for processing fully differential analog signals or taking

### Digital-to-Analog Conversion

ANALOG.PPT(01/10/2009) 4.1 Lecture 10 Digital-to-Analog Conversion Objectives Understand how a weighted-resister DAC can be used to convert numbers with binary or non-binary bit weightings Understand the

### Exp.no. (14) Digital to Analog converters

Exp.no. (14) Digital to Analog converters OBJECT:- To Interface Digital -to-analog converter to 8085 using 8255 and write Assembly Language Program to generate Ramp Wave form. THEORY:- Digital-to-Analog

### Digital Signal Processing ADC and DAC

Digital Signal Processing ADC and DAC Moslem Amiri, Václav Přenosil Masaryk University Resource: The Scientist and Engineer's Guide to Digital Signal Processing (www.dspguide.com) By Steven W. Smith Quantization

### The Electronic Scale

The Electronic Scale Learning Objectives By the end of this laboratory experiment, the experimenter should be able to: Explain what an operational amplifier is and how it can be used in amplifying signal

### LEVERAGING FPGA AND CPLD DIGITAL LOGIC TO IMPLEMENT ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTERS

LEVERAGING FPGA AND CPLD DIGITAL LOGIC TO IMPLEMENT ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTERS March 2010 Lattice Semiconductor 5555 Northeast Moore Ct. Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 USA Telephone: (503) 268-8000 www.latticesemi.com

### Outline. Analog to Digital Converters. Overview of architectures for implementing analog to digital conversion INF4420

INF4420 Analog to Digital Converters Jørgen Andreas Michaelsen Spring 2013 1 / 34 Outline Overview of architectures for implementing analog to digital conversion Spring 2013 Analog to Digital Converters

### Peggy Alavi Application Engineer September 3, 2003

Op-Amp Basics Peggy Alavi Application Engineer September 3, 2003 Op-Amp Basics Part 1 Op-Amp Basics Why op-amps Op-amp block diagram Input modes of Op-Amps Loop Configurations Negative Feedback Gain Bandwidth

### Digital-to-Analog Conversion

Digital-to-Analog Conversion Curtis A. Nelson Engr355 1 Introduction Connecting digital circuitry to sensor devices is simple if the sensor devices are inherently digital themselves. Switches, relays,

### Cologne Chip DIGICC TM. CODEC Technology. Technology Background

DIGICC TM CODEC Technology Technology Background Technology Background 5 November 2004 Cologne AG Eintrachtstrasse 113 D - 50668 Köln Germany Tel.: +49 (0) 221 / 91 24-0 Fax: +49 (0) 221 / 91 24-100 http://www.cologne.com

### Operational Amplifiers: Part 2. Non-ideal Behavior of Feedback Amplifiers DC Errors and Large-Signal Operation

Operational Amplifiers: Part 2 Non-ideal Behavior of Feedback Amplifiers DC Errors and Large-Signal Operation by Tim J. Sobering Analog Design Engineer & Op Amp Addict Summary of Ideal Op Amp Assumptions

### Interfacing Analog to Digital Data Converters

Converters In most of the cases, the PIO 8255 is used for interfacing the analog to digital converters with microprocessor. We have already studied 8255 interfacing with 8086 as an I/O port, in previous

### EAC215 Homework 4. Page 1 of 6

EAC215 Homework 4 Name: 1. An integrated circuit (IC) op-amp has (a) two inputs and two outputs (b) one input and one output (c) two inputs and one output 2. Which of the following characteristics does

### Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. LAB 1 - Introduction to USRP

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Ben-Gurion University of the Negev LAB 1 - Introduction to USRP - 1-1 Introduction In this lab you will use software reconfigurable RF hardware from National

### Basic DACs for Electronic Engineers

No. AN9741 July 1997 Intersil Linear Basic DACs for Electronic Engineers Author: Ronald Mancini Why and Where are DACs Used? The name is digital-to-analog converter, and the function of a DAC, as the name

### LM 358 Op Amp. If you have small signals and need a more useful reading we could amplify it using the op amp, this is commonly used in sensors.

LM 358 Op Amp S k i l l L e v e l : I n t e r m e d i a t e OVERVIEW The LM 358 is a duel single supply operational amplifier. As it is a single supply it eliminates the need for a duel power supply, thus

### Analog and Digital Interfacing

Analog and Digital Interfacing BJ Furman Spring, 1999 DAC & ADC Digital-to-Analog Conversion (DAC) Converts a binary word from computer to a scaled analog voltage Used for controlling systems that require

### CMOS Analog IC Design Page

CMOS Analog IC Design Page 10.5-4 NYQUIST FREQUENCY ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERTERS The sampled nature of the ADC places a practical limit on the bandwidth of the input signal. If the sampling frequency is f

### Chapter 20 DAC, DAC AND ANALOG- DIGITAL MIX INTERFACES

Chapter 20 DAC, DAC AND ANALOG- DIGITAL MIX INTERFACES Lesson 2 DIGITAL TO ANALOG CONVERTER (DAC or D/A) Ch20L2-"Digital Principles and Design", Raj Kamal, Pearson Education, 2006 2 Outline DAC DAC Circuit

### Electronics The application of bipolar transistors

Electronics The application of bipolar transistors Prof. Márta Rencz, Gergely Nagy BME DED October 1, 2012 Ideal voltage amplifier On the previous lesson the theoretical methods of amplification using

### INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL TUTORIAL 3 SIGNAL PROCESSORS AND RECEIVERS

INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL TUTORIAL 3 SIGNAL PROCESSORS AND RECEIVERS This tutorial provides an overview of signal processing and conditioning for use in instrumentation and automatic control systems.

### PC BASED PID TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER

PC BASED PID TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER R. Nisha * and K.N. Madhusoodanan Dept. of Instrumentation, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 22, India ABSTRACT: A simple and versatile PC based Programmable

### PCM Encoding and Decoding:

PCM Encoding and Decoding: Aim: Introduction to PCM encoding and decoding. Introduction: PCM Encoding: The input to the PCM ENCODER module is an analog message. This must be constrained to a defined bandwidth

### Designing interface electronics for zirconium dioxide oxygen sensors of the XYA series

1 CIRCUIT DESIGN If not using one of First Sensors ZBXYA interface boards for sensor control and conditioning, this section describes the basic building blocks required to create an interface circuit Before

### Balanced circuits and differential amplifiers

Engineering Note 18.1 Balanced circuits and differential amplifiers J M Woodgate FInstSCE DISCLAIMER Care is taken to determine that 'Engineering Notes' do not refer to any copyrighted or patented circuit

### ADC Accuracy Vs Resolution : I am so confused. What does my application really require?

ADC Accuracy Vs Resolution : I am so confused. What does my application really require? By Mohit Arora Introduction The way ADC makers specify the performance of the ADC in datasheets can be confusing

### EE 311: Electrical Engineering Junior Lab Active Filter Design (Sallen-Key Filter)

EE 311: Electrical Engineering Junior Lab Active Filter Design (Sallen-Key Filter) Objective The purpose of this experiment is to design a set of second-order Sallen-Key active filters and to investigate

### ECG-Amplifier. MB Jass 2009 Daniel Paulus / Thomas Meier. Operation amplifier (op-amp)

ECG-Amplifier MB Jass 2009 Daniel Paulus / Thomas Meier Operation amplifier (op-amp) Properties DC-coupled High gain electronic ec c voltage amplifier Inverting / non-inverting input and single output

### Operational Amplifiers

Operational Amplifiers Introduction The operational amplifier (op-amp) is a voltage controlled voltage source with very high gain. It is a five terminal four port active element. The symbol of the op-amp

### Operational Amplifiers

perational Amplifiers. perational Amplifiers perational amplifiers (commonly known as opamps) are integrated circuits designed to amplify small voltages (or currents) to usable levels. The physical packaging

### Basics on Digital Signal Processing

Basics on Digital Signal Processing Introduction Vassilis Anastassopoulos Electronics Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Patras Outline of the Course 1. Introduction (sampling quantization)

### Precision, Unity-Gain Differential Amplifier AMP03

a FEATURES High CMRR: db Typ Low Nonlinearity:.% Max Low Distortion:.% Typ Wide Bandwidth: MHz Typ Fast Slew Rate: 9.5 V/ s Typ Fast Settling (.%): s Typ Low Cost APPLICATIONS Summing Amplifiers Instrumentation

### 4.3 Analog-to-Digital Conversion

4.3 Analog-to-Digital Conversion overview including timing considerations block diagram of a device using a DAC and comparator example of a digitized spectrum number of data points required to describe

### AVR127: Understanding ADC Parameters. Introduction. Features. Atmel 8-bit and 32-bit Microcontrollers APPLICATION NOTE

Atmel 8-bit and 32-bit Microcontrollers AVR127: Understanding ADC Parameters APPLICATION NOTE Introduction This application note explains the basic concepts of analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and the

### Objectives The purpose of this lab is build and analyze Differential amplifiers based on NPN transistors (or NMOS transistors).

1 Lab 03: Differential Amplifiers (BJT) (20 points) NOTE: 1) Please use the basic current mirror from Lab01 for the second part of the lab (Fig. 3). 2) You can use the same chip as the basic current mirror;

### Chapter 6: From Digital-to-Analog and Back Again

Chapter 6: From Digital-to-Analog and Back Again Overview Often the information you want to capture in an experiment originates in the laboratory as an analog voltage or a current. Sometimes you want to

### Lecture 3 Power System Measurement. Course map

Lecture 3 Power System Measurement 1 Course map 2 1 Outline of the Lecture Instrument Transformers (NPAG Ch. 6) Voltage Transformer Current Transformers Measurement Setups Transducers (NPAG Ch. 22) 3 The

### Chapter 12: The Operational Amplifier

Chapter 12: The Operational Amplifier 12.1: Introduction to Operational Amplifier (Op-Amp) Operational amplifiers (op-amps) are very high gain dc coupled amplifiers with differential inputs; they are used

### Lab 7: Operational Amplifiers Part I

Lab 7: Operational Amplifiers Part I Objectives The objective of this lab is to study operational amplifier (op amp) and its applications. We will be simulating and building some basic op amp circuits,

### Digital to Analog Converter

Digital to Analog Converter Jungchul Lee Kamran Jeelani Jonathan Beckwith Topics of Discussion What is a DAC? Types of DAC Circuits esistorstring DAC NBit Binary weighted DAC Ladder DAC Specifications

### Low Noise, Single Supply, Electret Microphone Amplifier Design for Distant Acoustic Signals

Low Noise, Single Supply, Electret Microphone Amplifier Design for Distant Acoustic Signals Donald J. VanderLaan November 26, 2008 Abstract. Modern day electronics are often battery powered, forcing the

### Op amp DC error characteristics and the effect on high-precision applications

Op amp DC error characteristics and the effect on high-precision applications Srudeep Patil, Member of Technical Staff, Maxim Integrated - January 01, 2014 This article discusses the DC limitations of

### QUICK START GUIDE FOR DEMONSTRATION CIRCUIT 956 24-BIT DIFFERENTIAL ADC WITH I2C LTC2485 DESCRIPTION

LTC2485 DESCRIPTION Demonstration circuit 956 features the LTC2485, a 24-Bit high performance Σ analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The LTC2485 features 2ppm linearity, 0.5µV offset, and 600nV RMS noise.

### Voice---is analog in character and moves in the form of waves. 3-important wave-characteristics:

Voice Transmission --Basic Concepts-- Voice---is analog in character and moves in the form of waves. 3-important wave-characteristics: Amplitude Frequency Phase Voice Digitization in the POTS Traditional

Performance of an IF sampling ADC in receiver applications David Buchanan Staff Applications Engineer Analog Devices, Inc. Introduction The concept of direct intermediate frequency (IF) sampling is not

### Part 2: Receiver and Demodulator

University of Pennsylvania Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering ESE06: Electrical Circuits and Systems II Lab Amplitude Modulated Radio Frequency Transmission System Mini-Project Part : Receiver

### Transistor Amplifiers

Physics 3330 Experiment #7 Fall 1999 Transistor Amplifiers Purpose The aim of this experiment is to develop a bipolar transistor amplifier with a voltage gain of minus 25. The amplifier must accept input

### Multi-Stage Amplifiers

Experiment-4 Multi-Stage Amplifiers Introduction The objectives of this experiment are to examine the characteristics of several multi-stage amplifier configurations. Several of these will be breadboarded

### Dual High Speed, Implanted BiFET Op Amp AD644

a FEATURES Matched Offset Voltage Matched Offset Voltage Over Temperature Matched Bias Currents Crosstalk 124 db at 1 khz Low Bias Current: 35 pa max Warmed Up Low Offset Voltage: 500 V max Low Input Voltage

### ABCs of ADCs. Analog-to-Digital Converter Basics. Nicholas Gray Data Conversion Systems Staff Applications Engineer

ABCs of ADCs Analog-to-Digital Converter Basics Nicholas Gray Data Conversion Systems Staff Applications Engineer November 24, 2003 Corrected August 13, 2004 Additional Corrections June 27, 2006 1 Agenda

### Content Map For Career & Technology

Content Strand: Applied Academics CT-ET1-1 analysis of electronic A. Fractions and decimals B. Powers of 10 and engineering notation C. Formula based problem solutions D. Powers and roots E. Linear equations

### LAB 12: ACTIVE FILTERS

A. INTRODUCTION LAB 12: ACTIVE FILTERS After last week s encounter with op- amps we will use them to build active filters. B. ABOUT FILTERS An electric filter is a frequency-selecting circuit designed

### Filters & Wave Shaping

Module 8 AC Theory Filters & Wave Shaping Passive Filters & Wave Shaping What you'll learn in Module 8. Module 8 Introduction Recognise passive filters with reference to their response curves. High pass,

### The George Washington University School of Engineering and Applied Science Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

The George Washington University School of Engineering and Applied Science Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Final Design Report Dual Channel Stereo Amplifier By: Kristen Gunia Prepared

### OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS. o/p

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS 1. If the input to the circuit of figure is a sine wave the output will be i/p o/p a. A half wave rectified sine wave b. A fullwave rectified sine wave c. A triangular wave d. A

### Filters and Waveform Shaping

Physics 333 Experiment #3 Fall 211 Filters and Waveform Shaping Purpose The aim of this experiment is to study the frequency filtering properties of passive (R, C, and L) circuits for sine waves, and the

### Op Amp Circuit Collection

Op Amp Circuit Collection Note: National Semiconductor recommends replacing 2N2920 and 2N3728 matched pairs with LM394 in all application circuits. Section 1 Basic Circuits Inverting Amplifier Difference

### Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers

Physics 3330 Experiment #7 Fall 2005 Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers Purpose The aim of this experiment is to construct a bipolar transistor amplifier with a voltage gain of minus 25. The amplifier must

### FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYZERS

FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYZERS Dynamic Response Analyzers Servo analyzers When you need to stabilize feedback loops to measure hardware characteristics to measure system response BAFCO, INC. 717 Mearns Road

### 9.7 DATA CONVERTERS AN INTRODUCTION

9.7 DATA ONVERTERS AN INTRODUTION In this section we begin the study of another group of analog I circuits of great importance; namely, data converters. 9.7.1 Digital Processing of Signals Most physical

### Programmable Single-/Dual-/Triple- Tone Gong SAE 800

Programmable Single-/Dual-/Triple- Tone Gong Preliminary Data SAE 800 Bipolar IC Features Supply voltage range 2.8 V to 18 V Few external components (no electrolytic capacitor) 1 tone, 2 tones, 3 tones

### Pulse Width Modulation

Pulse Width Modulation Pulse width modulation (PWM) is a technique in which a series of digital pulses is used to control an analog circuit. The length and frequency of these pulses determines the total

### MAS.836 HOW TO BIAS AN OP-AMP

MAS.836 HOW TO BIAS AN OP-AMP Op-Amp Circuits: Bias, in an electronic circuit, describes the steady state operating characteristics with no signal being applied. In an op-amp circuit, the operating characteristic

### for Sensing and Actuation

Capacitive Interface Electronics for Sensing and Actuation Bernhard E. Boser University of California, Berkeley boser@eecs.berkeley.edu 1 Outline Capacitive Sensors Applications Displacement sensors Readout

### Advantages of High Resolution in High Bandwidth Digitizers

Advantages of High Resolution in High Bandwidth Digitizers Two of the key specifications of digitizers are bandwidth and amplitude resolution. These specifications are not independent - with increasing

### Lab #9: AC Steady State Analysis

Theory & Introduction Lab #9: AC Steady State Analysis Goals for Lab #9 The main goal for lab 9 is to make the students familar with AC steady state analysis, db scale and the NI ELVIS frequency analyzer.

### SINGLE-SUPPLY OPERATION OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

SINGLE-SUPPLY OPERATION OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS One of the most common applications questions on operational amplifiers concerns operation from a single supply voltage. Can the model OPAxyz be operated

### Chapter 12. Common Switching Functional Blocks

Chapter 12 Common Switching Functional Blocks Voltage Comparators In many applications, it is necessary to cause a digital switching action when an analog voltage rises above or drops below some value.

### US-SPI New generation of High performances Ultrasonic device

US-SPI New generation of High performances Ultrasonic device Lecoeur Electronique - 19, Rue de Courtenay - 45220 CHUELLES - Tel. : +33 ( 0)2 38 94 28 30 - Fax : +33 (0)2 38 94 29 67 US-SPI Ultrasound device

### b 1 is the most significant bit (MSB) The MSB is the bit that has the most (largest) influence on the analog output

CMOS Analog IC Design - Chapter 10 Page 10.0-5 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF A DIGITAL-ANALOG CONVERTER b 1 is the most significant bit (MSB) The MSB is the bit that has the most (largest) influence on the analog output

### VCO Phase noise. Characterizing Phase Noise

VCO Phase noise Characterizing Phase Noise The term phase noise is widely used for describing short term random frequency fluctuations of a signal. Frequency stability is a measure of the degree to which

### EXPERIMENT 1.2 CHARACTERIZATION OF OP-AMP

1.17 EXPERIMENT 1.2 CHARACTERIZATION OF OPAMP 1.2.1 OBJECTIVE 1. To sketch and briefly explain an operational amplifier circuit symbol and identify all terminals 2. To list the amplifier stages in a typical

### Analog Expansion Modules Input Specifications

S7-2 Programmable ontroller System Manual Analog Expansion Modules Specifications Table A-15 Analog Expansion Modules Order Numbers Order Number Expansion Model EM Inputs EM Outputs emovable onnector 6ES7

### Measuring Insulation Resistance of Capacitors

Application Note Measuring Insulation Resistance of Capacitors A common use of high resistance measuring instruments (often called megohmmeters or insulation resistance testers) is measuring the insulation

LABORATORY EXPERIMENT Infrared Transmitter/Receiver (Note to Teaching Assistant: The week before this experiment is performed, place students into groups of two and assign each group a specific frequency

### Basic Op Amp Circuits

Basic Op Amp ircuits Manuel Toledo INEL 5205 Instrumentation August 3, 2008 Introduction The operational amplifier (op amp or OA for short) is perhaps the most important building block for the design of

### 1. Oscilloscope is basically a graph-displaying device-it draws a graph of an electrical signal.

CHAPTER 3: OSCILLOSCOPE AND SIGNAL GENERATOR 3.1 Introduction to oscilloscope 1. Oscilloscope is basically a graph-displaying device-it draws a graph of an electrical signal. 2. The graph show signal change

### Log Amp Basics X = 1. Figure 1: Graph of Y = log (X)

MT077 TUTORIAL Log Amp Basics BASIC LOG AMP CONCEPTS AND TERMINOLOGY The term "Logarithmic Amplifier" (generally abbreviated to "log amp") is something of a misnomer, and "Logarithmic Converter" would

### Isolated AC Sine Wave Input 3B42 / 3B43 / 3B44 FEATURES APPLICATIONS PRODUCT OVERVIEW FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM

Isolated AC Sine Wave Input 3B42 / 3B43 / 3B44 FEATURES AC averaging technique used to rectify, amplify, and filter 50 Hz to 400 Hz sine-wave signals. Accepts inputs of between 20 mv to 550 V rms to give

### APPLICATION NOTE - 016

APPLICATION NOTE - 016 Testing RFI Line Filters Frequency Response Analysis Testing RFI line filters Radio frequency interference (RFI) is unwanted electromagnetic noise within a radio communications frequency

### Analog to Digital (ADC) and Digital to Analog (DAC) Converters

Analog to Digital (ADC) and Digital to Analog (DAC) Converters M. Rabiee Eastern Kentucky University Introduction: Electric voltage and current signals are often referred to as analog signals. Analog signals

### Generating Common Waveforms Using the LM555, Operational Amplifiers, and Transistors

Generating Common Waveforms Using the LM555, Operational Amplifiers, and Transistors Kenneth Young November 16, 2012 I. Abstract The generation of precise waveforms may be needed within any circuit design.

### Absolute Maximum Ratings

RC15 Voltage-to-Frequency Converters www.fairchildsemi.com Features Single supply operation Pulse output DTL/TTL/CMOS compatible Programmable scale factor (K) High noise rejection Inherent monotonicity

### Analog/Digital Conversion. Analog Signals. Digital Signals. Analog vs. Digital. Interfacing a microprocessor-based system to the real world.

Analog/Digital Conversion Analog Signals Interacing a microprocessor-based system to the real world. continuous range x(t) Analog and digital signals he bridge: Sampling heorem Conversion concepts Conversion

### Operational Amplifiers

662 25 Principles of Electronics Operational Amplifiers 25.1 Operational Amplifier 25.3 Basic Circuit of Differential Amplifier 25.5 Common-mode and Differentialmode signals 25.7 Voltage Gains of DA 25.9

### FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. 2

Applications of the LM3524 Pulse-Width-Modulator The LM3524 Regulating Pulse-Width-Modulator is commonly used as the control element in switching regulator power supplies. This is in keeping with its intended