Aleksander Brizmer. MIMO süsteem. Ettekanne aine Sideseadmete mudeldamine kursuse raames

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1 Aleksander Brizmer MIMO süsteem Ettekanne aine Sideseadmete mudeldamine kursuse raames

2 Sisukord Miks MIMO? Mis on MIMO? MIMO kanali mudelid MIMO rakendamine

3 Nõuded tuleviku traadita sidesüsteemile Suurem spektraalne efektiivsus + Suurem infoedastuskiirus + Suurem häirekindlus + Suurem leviala Suurem teenusekvaliteet

4 Traadita kanali puudused Mitmekiireline levi Interferents Path loss Piiratud sagedusriba (bandwidth)

5 Traadita kanali puudused (2)

6 Lahendused? Modulatsiooniskeemid? DSP algoritmid? Efektiivne sagedusplaneerimine? Uus lähenemisviis: kasutada ruumilist dimensiooni. Tehnoloogiad: juhitavad antennivõred ja MIMO.

7 Võtmesõnad Antennivõre (Antenna array) Saabumissuund (DOA), väljumissuund (DOD) Kiire formeerimine (Beamforming) Adaptiivsed algoritmid Signaalitöötlussüsteemid (DSP)

8 Saavutused? Suurem spektraalne efektiivsus Parem kvaliteet Laiem katvusala Väiksemad kulud

9 Antennide süsteemid

10 Sisukord Miks MIMO? Mis on MIMO? MIMO kanali mudelid MIMO rakendamine

11 Multiple Input Multiple Output MxN M saat. kanal N Vastuvõt.

12 MIMO vs Smart Antennas Mis vahe? Üks signaal Mitu signaali! Mitmekiireline levi on MIMO puhul boonus, sest võimaldab saata paralleelselt mitu sõltumatut andmevoogu!

13 MIMO boonused Array gain Kiire formeerimine tõstab SNR-i Diversity gain Suurendab teeninduspiirkonda, mahtuvust, kiirust ja kvaliteeti Spatial multiplexing Mitmed ruumilised andmevood (data pipes) saatja ja vastuvõtja vahel tõstavad mahtuvust ja kiirust Interference reduction Suurendab teeninduspiirkonda, mahtuvust, kiirust ja kvaliteeti Need boonused võivad olla üks teisega konfliktis- on vaja leida erinevate strateegiate vahelise kompromissi, et saavutada maksimaalselt võimalikku teenusekvaliteeti.

14 Array gain c b a MOD Receive Combining c b a TX: andmete moduleerimine, R bits / s / Hz RX: sama signaali erinevate versioonide jäglimine ja kombineerib erinevate teede kaudu saabunud signaale Müra keskmistamine array gain

15 Array gain (2) Array gain Signal 1evel (db) Time Gain ~ 10log10 # antennas

16 Diversity gain - RX c b a MOD Receive Combining c b a TX: andmete moduleerimine, R bits / s / Hz RX: erinevat teed pidi saabunud signaalide kombineerimine Süsteem valib vaid ühe tee mitmekiirelise levi teede hulgast! Mitmekiireline levi kvaliteet!

17 Diversity gain - TX c b a Space- Time Code c b a c' b' a' MOD MOD Space- Time Decoder c b a TX: andmete moduleerimine, R bits / s / Hz Kooder: tagab, et iga bit iga antenn Süsteem: vaid üks tee mitmekiirelise levi teede hulgast!

18 Multiplexing gain f e d c b a e f c d a b MOD MOD Space-time Receiver f e d c b a TX: bitide demultiplekseerimine (M andmevoogu) ja moduleerimine, R bits / s / Hz Spektraalne efektiivsus = M*R [bits / s / Hz] RX: sümbolite eraldamine ja multiplekseerimine Mitmekiireline levi spektraalne efektiivsus!

19 Kiirus vs SNR 5% outage capacity / 95% reliability vs. SNR. Channel BW is 200kHz

20 Interferentsi vähendamine User 1 c b a MOD User 2 g f e MOD Receive Combining c b a Interferentsi ruumiline kõrvaldamine RX: signaali+interferentsi jälgimine, erinevat teed pidi saabunud signaalide kombineerimine Interfereerija ruumiline filtreerimine Ruumiline filtreerimine suurendatud SNR

21 MIMO tehnoloogiad Selection diversity Switched multi-beam Adaptive array MIMO-SM (Spatial Multiplexing)

22 Selection diversity ( outage) = [ P ( outage) ] M PM 1 + Lihtsaim lähenemisviis Tugevama signaaliga antenni valimine Vajab vaid ühe RF ahela (LNA, filter/downconvertor) - Energia ebaefekriivne kasutamine, Enterferentsi kõrvaldamise võimalused on piiratud

23 Switched multi-beam + Mitmed fikseeritud kiired erinevates suundades RX: suurema SNR-iga kiire valimine M beams array gain of M Lihtne DSP osa (antennide massiivi kontroll) TX: üks kiir vähendatud interferents teiste kasutajate suhtes - Array gain of M ainult otsenähtavusele lähedad tingimused Interferentsi kõrvaldamise võimalused on piiratud

24 Adaptive array Iga antenni poolt saabunud signaale kaalutakse ja kombineeritakse SNR suurendamine- Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC) SINR suurendamine- MMSE combining + MRC: kogu energia kombineerimine, M ant = array gain of M, levikeskkonnast sõltumata! MMSE: M antenniga M-1 interfereerija kõrvaldamine Interferentsi vähendamine on võimalik nii LOS kui ka mitmekiirelise levi tingimustes - On vaja M RF ahelat Komplitseeritud DSP lahendused kaalutegurite arvutamisel

25 MIMO-SM + TX: M antenni, M sõltumatut andmevoogu kiirus kuni M korda suurem M ~ 10 outdoors/100 indoors - On vaja M RF ahelat Mitmekiirelise levi keskkond peab olema piisavalt rikkas (korrelatsioon) Ei ole kooskõlas olemasolevaid standarde kasutatavate lahendustega

26 Sisukord Miks MIMO? Mis on MIMO? MIMO kanali mudelid MIMO rakendamine

27 MIMO kanal h ij Kanali impulsskarakteristik on maatrikskujuline: Element on kanal TX antennist j RX antennini i h ij h = [ ] h ij sõltub viidest (τ), saabumis- ja väljumissuunast (DOA (Ω) ja DOD (Ψ))

28 Kanali maatriks Maatriksi rank sõltumatud signaali levimise teed Maatriksi struktuur sõltub levikeskkonnast

29 MIMO modelleerimismeetodid Ülekannemaatriksi (transfer matrix) mudel h ij statistiliste omaduste ja elementide vahelise korrelatsiooni modelleerimine Kahesuunaline mudel Mitmekiirelise levi (multipath) komponentide statistiliste omaduste modelleerimine

30 Ülekannemaatriksi mudel Maatriksi elemendid on Gaussi jaotusega ja korreleerimata Korrelatsioon: maatriks H x korrelatsiooni maatriksi ruutjuur Otsenähtavus: Gaussi jaotusega elememtide lõplik keskväärtus Erijuhtum: keyhole (pinhole) effekt

31 Kahesuunaline mudel Modelleeritakse mitmekiirelise levi komponentide amplituudi, viidet, DOA ja DOD. Geomeetriline mudel: DOD ja DOA on takistuse asukohaga määratud Töötab hästi suuremate kärgede (macrocell) puhul, kuid ei sobi väiksemate kärgede (microcell, picocell) jaoks.

32 Sisukord Miks MIMO? Mis on MIMO? MIMO kanali mudelid MIMO rakendamine

33 MIMO kasutatakse: WiFi / WiMax IEEE e WLAN IEEE n töörühm Snandardieelsed lahendused on juba saadavad

34 Perspektiivid Super 3G (NTT DoCoMo) 4G Extension of 3G MIMO+OFDM modulation e.g. WWRF

35 MIMO-OFDM leviala (näide)

36 Kokkuvõtted + Suurem spektraalne efektiivsus Suurem kiirus Suurem SNR Laiem leviala Interferentsi efektiivsem kõrvaldamine - DSP apparatuuri komplekssus Sobimatus osa tänapäeva standardidega

37 Thank you for you attention!

38 Kasutatud allikad Prof. Robert W. Heath Jr. Introduction to MIMO Communication, CS 395T: Wireless Networking Seminar Dave Borison, Airgo Networks: How MIMO Multiplies Wireless Capacity Louis Bélanger, Lyrtech Inc. MIMO Holds Key to High Bandwidth Wireless Systems Ernst Bonek: MIMO and its Radio Channel Modeling Datacom Research: Using mimo-ofdm technology to boost wireless LAN performance today OFDM_for_Wireless_LANs_White_Paper_1.0.pdf Dr. Jack Winters, Motia: Understanding MIMO Andreas F. Molisch: Modeling of Directional Wireless Propagation Channels, International Unit of Radio Science, Semtember 2002 bulletin

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