MOVING TO THE IPv6 WORLD Eric CARMÈS 6WIND

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1 MOVING TO THE IPv6 WORLD Eric CARMÈS 6WIND Transition issues IP version 6 (IPv6) is a new version of the Internet Protocol, designed as a successor to the current IP version 4 (). The transition between today's Internet and a future IPv6-based one will be a long process during which both protocol versions will coexist. The IETF has created the NGTrans Working Group to assist the IPv6 transition and propose the technical solutions to achieve it. Thanks to these mechanisms, IPv6 can be used even is IPv6 is not supported by the end-to-end infrastructure. The IPv6 specification introduces major modifications. Not only has the IP address length been extended to 128 bits but also the IP header format and the way header information is processed have been modified. Moving from to IPv6 is not straightforward and mechanisms to enable coexistence and transition between the two versions have to be standardised. Today hundreds of million people are connected to the Internet and an equivalent number of hosts and devices implement the IP protocol. Switching on a D-day from to IPv6 following a "Y2K model" would prove impractical. Migration to IPv6 within such a very short period would require the re-definition of a world-wide IPv6 addressing plan, the installation of the IPv6 protocol on every router and host and modification of existing applications to run over IPv6. It would incur heavy expense and could cause unacceptable service interruptions as well as major damage to critical distributed applications. Such an approach would simply be nonsense as many working applications have not been designed to take benefits from IPv6 new features and do not require any of the IPv6 improvements. No general rule can be applied to the to IPv6 transition process. In some cases, moving directly to IPv6 will be the unique solution. In Asia for instance, IPv6 is strongly pushed by a political decision to extend the number of IP addresses to sustain the economic growth of a country and provide any citizen with a sufficient number of IP addresses. Another example is the large-scale deployment of a new IP architecture (such as mobile or home networking) to provide disruptive peer-to-peer applications and innovative services. Other transition plans will enable a gradual interoperability between and IPv6 as transition evolves. Here, ISPs and entreprises will prefer to preserve the heavy investments made to deploy networks. The mechanisms proposed by the NGTrans group and described hereafter will be implemented to interconnect and IPv6 networks as well as or IPv6 servers and clients. Some studies foresee that the transition period will last between today and At that time, networks should have totally disappeared. A really long story compared to the growth of the Internet, from its beginning, to today's networks!! Technical Issues Three main transition techniques have been defined by the NGTrans working group. The first technique is the dual-stack network. This approach is quite easy to implement and requires hosts and routers to implement both and IPv6 protocols. This enables networks to support both and IPv6 services and applications during the transition period in which IPv6 services emerge and IPv6 applications become available. At the present time, the dual-stack approach is a fundamental mechanism for introducing IPv6 in existing architectures and will remain heavily used in the near future. The drawback, here is that an address must be retained in every dual-stack machine. It is obviously an issue as IPv6 is deployed to solve the address scarcity. So, as IPv6 spreads, the dual-stack technique will have to be selected where it specifically helps the transition process, for instance in routers and servers. A dual-stack server can support legacy -only clients, new IPv6-only clients, and of course dual-stack clients. A blend of translation and the dual stack model, known as DSTM (Dual Stack Transition Mechanism), has been defined to allow for the case where insufficient addresses are available for the basic dual stack model. The second technique relies on tunnelling. Tunnelling enables the interconnection of IP clouds. For instance, IPv6 clouds can be interconnected through a native service by means of a tunnel. IPv6 packets are encapsulated by a border router before transportation across an network and decapsulated at the border of the receiving IPv6 network. Tunnels can be statically or dynamically configured. 6to4, 6over4, configured and

2 automatic tunnels belong to the tunnelling technique family. The TB (Tunnel Broker) approach has been proposed to automatically manage tunnel requests coming from the users and ease the configuration process. ISATAP (Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol) is a new Internet draft describing another technique to avoid tunnel manual configuration. Shipworm is yet another technique, specifically designed for tunnelling through Network Address Translators. Finally, in later stages of transition, tunnels will also be used to interconnect remaining clouds through the IPv6 infrastructure. The last technique uses a translation mechanism. Translation is necessary when an IPv6 only host has to communicate with an host. The IP header has to be translated and an address pool may be required to provide an alias for the IPv6 host during the communication. The translation will be more complex if the application processes IP addresses; in fact such translation inherits most of the problems of Network Address Translators. ALGs (Application-Level Gateways) are required to translate embedded IP addresses, recompute checksums, etc. SIIT (Stateless IP/ICMP Translation) and NAT- PT (Network Address Translation - Protocol Translation) are the associated translation techniques. Like tunnelling techniques, translation can be implemented in border routers and hosts. BIS (Bump In the Stack) and BIA (Bump In the API) mechanisms have been defined for translation within a host. So, a lot of and perhaps too many transition mechanisms have been defined. This complex set of coexistence and transition techniques can be mixed and matched in many ways. All the transition techniques are mature now and we can expect an understanding of the best current practices to emerge. Implications Transition is not always the solution - It is important to keep in mind that transition is not the solution to all the problems. Some disruptive applications need IPv6 for mass deployment. Deploying transition mechanisms at a large scale can also lead to scalability issues that could heavily limit the IPv6 performance compared to a native solution. That is mainly the reason why the 3GPP project has chosen IPv6. and IPv6 coexistence - When and IPv6 have to coexist, keeping to IPv6 transition under control is essential to avoid the deployment of two parallel Internet infrastructures. IPv6 applications will benefit from heavy investments made to deploy existing networks. Transition is not only an IPv6 issue IP is not an isolated technology and there are many interactions with existing and emerging technologies. For instance, defining how to carry the IPv6 traffic over a MPLS architecture is of key importance as IPv6 will get direct benefits from MPLS technical and technological improvements. Service continuity - to IPv6 transition is not only an address or a routing issue. Available and emerging enhanced services such as IP QoS, IP security, telephony over IP have to be continuously provided whatever the IP infrastructure might be. Transition solutions - Transition mechanisms proposed by the NGTrans Working Group bring some necessary engineering tools to build transition strategies. Choosing the convenient mechanisms, defining where to locate and how to deploy them is not an obvious task. Based on guidelines, user-oriented transition plans will be required to ease the transition process. These plans would describe actual cases focused on provider infrastructure, Intranet architecture or LAN environment according to different transition strategies. A need for IPv6 service and transition platforms Telcos, ISPs, enterprises need solutions to manage efficiently the transition to IPv6. Smart solutions at the point of presence, at the border of wireless and wired infrastructures, at the enterprise premises have to be proposed to deploy transition mechanisms at a large scale and enable to deploy IPv6 services over existing architectures or native IPv6 ones. Training activities - Comprehensive specific training activities have to be developed to explain to telecoms and network engineers how transition mechanisms work and how to implement them through an efficient transition plan.

3 USING THE ISATAP AND 6TO4 TUNNELLING MECHANISMS The following example shows how ISATAP and 6to4 tunnelling mechanisms can be used in a first stage of IPv6 deployment to interconnect IPv6/ nodes over an existing architecture. Using 6to4 enables 6to4 hosts (meaning that at least one 6to4 address has been configured) to communicate with other 6to4 hosts located on the same site but also with 6to4 hosts located in other sites over the Internet thanks to 6to4 routers. It also enables the communication with IPv6 native hosts connected for instance to the 6bone thanks to a 6to4 relay router. To do so, 6to4 uses a public address to create the 64-bit identifier portion for an IPv6 address. The full address of a 6to4 node is: 2002:WWXX:YYZZ:[SLA ID]:[Interface ID] where 2002 is the TLA ID reserved to 6to4 addresses, WWZZ:YYZZ corresponds to the colon-hexadecimal representation of an address. The 6to4 prefixes are advertised by local routers and hosts use them to build an auto-configured 6to4 address. Additionally, a 2002::/16 route is used to tunnel the IPv6 traffic to other 6to4 hosts outside the local network. This traffic is forwarded to the 6to4 router located at the border of the IPv6 site, then it encapsulates the traffic in an header and sends it to the destination address that is embedded in the right portion of the 6to4 address. At the other side, the IPv6 packet is decapsulated and forwarded to the appropriate node. One of the advantages of the 6to4 mechanism is that a customer can use IPv6 without having any global IPv6 prefixes allocated by ISPs or others. Only one valid, globally unique 32-bit address is necessary. 6to4 requires less configuration than configured tunnels. ISATAP can also be used for communication between /IPv6 nodes through an network. The full format of an ISATAP identifier is: ::0:5EFE:w.x.y.z. where 0:5EFE is the combination of a reserved OUI (Organizational Unit Identifier) and a type indicating an embedded address and w.x.y.z. is a unicast public or private address. The ISATAP interface identifier can be combined with any 64 bit prefix including 6to4 prefixes to build an IPv6 address (refer to figure example). In this example, two remote ISATAP hosts of two sites using the same private address space are configured with the 6to4 prefix advertised by each local 6to4 router. The addresses and the IPv6 prefixes and addresses to be used are mentioned in the example. The IPv6 packet is firstly encapsulated in the LAN thanks to the ISATAP mechanism using private addresses. Then the border router removes the header and replaces it to tunnel the IPv6 packet between the two border routers using a 6to4 tunnel. At last, the destination border router removes the header and replaces it to tunnel the IPv6 packet to its final destination using private addresses. 2002:D4EA:EE72:1710:0:5EFE: ISATAP Host INTERNET 2002:D4EA:6416:1710::/64 6to4 Router LAN LAN to4 Router ISATAP Host 2002:D4EA:6416:1710:0:5EFE: :D4EA:EE72:1710::/64 Figure 1: Mixing ISATAP and 6to4 tunnelling mechanisms

4 WHICH TRANSITION MECHANISM TO CHOOSE FOR AN H323-BASED APPLICATION? Let us take the example described Figure 2. An H323 infrastructure is currently deployed in an enterprise whose premises are located in different sites. The architecture relies on a H323 gatekeeper, vocal services application server, phones and application client software running on PCs. A typical migration example is going to take place when PCs will begin to run applications on IPv6. How to enable communications between IPv6 PCs and phones and gatekeeper? H323 gatekeeper and server Solution 1: Dual Stack GateKeeper Local Site 3 IPv6 H323 Solution 3: Software DSTM in border router Host DSTM client router Local Site 2 /IPv6 Local Site Solution 2: NAT-PT in border router H323 Phone Figure 2 : Transition solutions for H323-based applications The first solution would be to implement a dual stack in the gatekeeper. Assuming the IPv6 version of the gatekeeper is available, it implies a significant upgrade which may have impacts on the overall architecture. In that migration case, tunnelling does not bring any solution and translation mechanisms such as NAT-PT have to be considered. To use NAT-PT, an H323 Application Level Gateway has to be implemented to translate the traffic into the right IP version knowing that the H323 protocol has some specificities such as using dynamic ports. The ALG may also have significant impacts on the performance if it has to process a lot of sessions in parallel. At last, as NAT-PT has the same drawbacks as a standard NAT and IPSec cannot be implemented. The NAT-PT function has to be located in border router. At the client side, no modification is required at all. A third solution could rely on the DSTM technique. The DSTM function is distributed between the border router which acts as a Termination End Point and the client which runs a DSTM client. This second part could be an issue because the DSTM client has to be available under the host environment. You also have to deploy an address allocation protocol and server (DHCPv6 for instance) providing the address during the H323 session. This short example shows that the transition solution is not unique and the right solution is certainly not only driven by technical considerations.

5 BIO : Eric Carmès is 6WIND's co-founder and Chief Operating Officer. 6WIND, a French spin-off company from the Dassault / Thales (former Thomson-CSF) group, is the first one to market the 6WINDGate, a smart and IPv6 router. As this equipment implements QoS, security, mobility management for the both versions of IP as well as all the different transition mechanisms, it brings an efficient solution for providing to IPv6 service continuity. In Thomson-CSF, Eric Carmès was responsible for the development of the IPv6 technology now embedded in 6WIND's products. He is now in charge of the design of a new generation of IPv6 service and transition platforms.

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