1 Structural Strengthening of Concrete Structures Truncation of Post-Tensioned Tendons Haydn Kirrage BE (Civil) Hons, MEngSc, MIEAust Australian Prestressing Services Pty Ltd, General Manager Post Tensioning Institute of Australia, Director 21st May 2014
2 Today s Presentation What are tendon truncations? When should truncations be used? Why should truncations be used? PTIA recommended truncation procedures
3 Where is the development length of a post-tensioned tendon defined in AS3600???
4 It isn t. Post-tensioned tendons are always fully anchored by proprietary anchorage's. Live End Anchorage
5 Dead End Anchorage
6 What are Tendon Truncations? A newly formed, epoxy based, anchorage zone in an existing post-tensioning tendon The anchorage zone is strengthened to achieve comparable performance to that of a proprietary cast in place anchorage system. AS Cl Anchorages for tendons shall be capable of developing the tendon the minimum tensile strength (f pb ) Truncations should enable compliance with the intent of the code.
7 What are Tendon Truncations?
8 When should truncations be used? PTIA promote the use of tendon truncations whenever the tendon is to be preserved. It is appropriate to consider that the only tendons that do not require truncations are those that become redundant following the structural modifications, often due to insufficient lengths or substantially different load paths.
9 Post formed holes Most tendon truncations are driven by a requirement for post-formed holes in post-tensioned slabs: Large openings for stair penetrations, service shafts etc in retrofit applications Smaller penetrations generally for mechanical requirements Often larger holes, and those with limited tolerance for lateral positioning, intersect existing post-tensioned tendons. Cores can often be detailed to avoid clashes with tendons. Detail smaller penetrations to prevent the need to truncate tendons whenever possible.
10 Truncations in two way slabs Middle Strip / Middle Strip. Generally low PT and reinforcement intensity. Often surplus capacity available in positive moment Regions.
11 Truncations in two way slabs Two Way Slabs Column Strip / Middle Strip Generally higher PT and reinforcement intensity in column strips.
12 Truncations in two way slabs Two Way Slabs Column Strip / Column Strip Avoid where possible! Highest PT and reinforcement intensity. Extreme care required to maintain both flexural and (punching) shear capacity.
13 Truncations in one way slabs / bands Slab areas Low intensity of PT and reinforcement Bands / Beams High PT and reinforcement intensity Coring holes in beams is best avoided if at all possible due to the congestion of PT and reinforcement and little chance of alternate load paths. Well placed and detailed soft zones in new structures can minimize the need for tendon truncation and other remedial works.
14 What about tendon grout? Firstly, it is very important to understand the role of grout in a posttensioned tendon. Let s review the load transfer requirements of grout and the concept of residual stress. For compliance with AS Cl , in relation to strength provisions, the assumption is that at any time, the minimum effective stress in the tendons is not less than 0.5 f pb.. Furthermore, at the time the tendon grouting occurs, the effective stress in the tendon will be more, say ~0.6 f pb.
15 What about tendon grout? Therefore the actual load transferred by the grout will be less, ~ 0.4 f pb To achieve proof (yield) stress, much less again, say ~ 0.3 f pb Tendon grout was never intended / required to transfer the full load in the tendon as would need to be the case if a truncation was not employed.
16 What about tendon grout? Secondly, is the tendon FULLY grouted? How is this to be guaranteed? Visual inspection? Past grouting practices over the years have not always been as reliable as present day processes. Grout in one location on a tendon does not guarantee the quality, or even presence, of grout in ALL locations.
17 What about tendon grout? Factors effecting grout performance: Tendon blockage s Blockage s can occur when grouting post-tensioning tendons. This generally occurs when the duct seam fails, or, when the ducts are pulled apart by unforeseen displacement during concreting. Blockages should be rectified immediately, but without specific quality control processes in place there is potential for un-grouted zones to be present.
18 What about tendon grout? Factors effecting grout performance: Bleed Excessive bleed manifests itself as voids at tendon highpoints, resulting in poor bond transfer at the most highly stressed portion of the tendon. Poor grout quality is never acceptable in post-tensioned concrete construction. However, a fully un-grouted tendon will only generally lose a portion of its ultimate strength, say ~25%, as long as it is anchored, ie. it remains tensioned. An un-anchored, poorly grouted tendon may have close to zero capacity.
19 What about tendon grout? Un-Grouted Tendons If any un-grouted tendons are discovered, it is important to highlight the issue to the structural consultant. Remedial grouting techniques are available to minimize the impact on fixtures and finishing's. Such remediation may need to extended to beyond the tendons being truncated!
20 What about tendon grout? Bond Strength The bond strength of the strand to the concrete, in relation to a posttensioned tendon will be limited by one, or a combination of, the following criteria: Strand to Grout Grout to Duct Duct to Concrete Concrete Strand Tendon Grout Duct
21 What about bursting reinforcement? Truncations can be thought of as transferring load by both side adhesion and end bearing. The epoxy bond to the side faces should have sufficient adhesion to allow the end bearing load to be within the range as defined by AS Cl to alleviate the need for special confining reinforcement. Cut$Line Side% Adhesion End% Bearing
22 Tendon truncations PTIA recommendations No specific code coverage or guidance, practices in industry vary. The below advice is quite generic, it may not be suitable for your specific application, refer to a PTIA member company for further details. 1. Safety First Is all in-slab power completely disconnected? Engineers Safety in Design! Check this appears on your documents. We recommend that this is a formal sign of requirement.
23 Tendon truncations PTIA recommendations 2. Is any necessary propping / supporting structure in position? Ensure adequate propping is in position prior to commencement. Consider the requirements of the completed structure AND the temporary cases that may occur during concrete removal and as a result of concrete removal. Also consider the potential of damage to existing tendons during concrete removal. Do not design propping to occur in areas that may need to be formed during the truncation process.
24 Tendon truncations PTIA recommendations 3. Locate post-tensioning tendon positions Depending on the structure, as-built drawings may or may not be available. We recommend GPR scanning, by a suitably experienced operator, to ensure accurate identification of all tendons. In addition, evidence of tendons on site can also be gathered from structure itself by suitably experienced personnel. Tendon staples Anchorage patches Pan recesses Grout hoses
25 4. Concrete removal Tendon truncations PTIA recommendations Sawcut the perimeter of the hole to around 10mm depth prevent over break on the surface, this also avoids feathered edges. Using large capacity jack hammers remove the concrete until the duct is visible or if if the tendon depth is known, restrict large hammer to within say 10-20mm of the duct.
26 Tendon truncations PTIA recommendations 4. Concrete removal Never cut reinforcement without approval No matter how tempting!! Highly reinforced areas are also symptomatic of highly stressed, more sensitive areas of the structure.
27 4. Concrete removal Tendon truncations PTIA recommendations Lighter capacity hammers can be used to remove concrete around the tendon, without damaging the strand itself. Ensure minimum clearances around the strand are achieved. Take care when removing duct from the tendon, the cut material can be very sharp!
28 5. Infill Material Tendon truncations PTIA recommendations Why epoxy? Can I use a very high strength micro-concrete? Generally. No. Epoxy typically has compressive strengths of the order of 100MPa. However, there are some high performance micro-concretes now available that achieve similar compressive strengths the issue here is two-fold: a) Strength gain: Normally truncations are required to be cut within a day or two of the installation, and, b) Tensile / Bond Strength: Epoxies generally exhibit FAR higher tensile / bond strength that cementitious products
29 5. Infill Material Tendon truncations PTIA recommendations Epoxy should be chosen for their hardened performance criteria, and very importantly, their ability to be placed to the required placement depth. Epoxy reacts and cures exothermically, producing high levels of heat never exceed the manufacturers recommendations on placement depths.
30 6. Placement of Epoxy Tendon truncations PTIA recommendations Whilst all manufacturers recommendations must be followed, the most common error at site level is, part kit mixing and incorrect proportioning. Incorrect mix proportions can result in epoxies that turn to jelly and take days / weeks to cure if at all, or, react so fast that they self fracture. Once the epoxy has been place to the required depth, say 80mm 100mm, central about the strand, broadcast course sand or fine aggregate to promote bond to the topping compound.
31 Tendon truncations PTIA recommendations 7. Making good Topping compounds, generally cementitious, should be selected to achieve performance criteria appropriate for the location. Vehicular, forklift access, external, architectural etc. Allow minimum 24hours curing time prior to saw-cutting tendon. Strand ends should be epoxy coated at the cut face.
34 Tendon truncations PTIA recommendations New truncations, ready for penetration removal
35 Special Cases Thin slabs / low tendon truncations Tend to break through the soffit when removing concrete. Ensure floor space under allows for debris collection and re-forming. Saw-cut slab soffit to 10mm after concrete removal at perimeter. If the strand to soffit cover is excessive, provide a cementitious self leveling grout bed to reduce the depth of epoxy under strand to within 35mm. If epoxy must be placed directly onto formwork ensure appropriate debonding agents, eg plastic sheet or proprietary debonding waxes are used on formwork. *** Epoxies have essentially zero resistance to fire ***
36 Special Cases Slabs on Ground Post-tensioned slabs on ground must remain completely isolated from all points of restraint including the sub-grade. If any break through occurs during the installation of the truncations, provide a self leveling grout bed on the sand / plastic to seal the hole prior to placement of epoxy infill. Allow grout to cure for 24hrs prior to placement of epoxy, or, as directed by the epoxy manufacturers instructions.
37 Special Cases Deep Sections Truncations in deep sections, with low tendons, are best avoided where possible. Take care when assessing slab / beam capacities and propping requirements during installation. Ensure infill material is acceptable for in service performance.
38 Anchorage Proximity Restrictions? We are often asked about how close to an anchorage can a truncation be formed. This often occurs when slabs are formed out of tolerance. If de-stressing can still occur and the tendons can be reset ie. if the tendons are not grouted or cut off, this is the preferred option. If grouting has already occurred, truncations will be required. In the rare event that the defect is noticed after the tendons have been cut and sealed, but not yet grouted other options are available.
39 Anchorage Proximity Restrictions? Post-tensioning anchors transfer VERY large forces. Never disturb concrete in anchorage zones! All distances shown are absolute minimums, consult a PTIA member for site specific details. Live Ends (Up to 5x12.7mm) Maintain a minimum distance of 1,000mm from the start of the truncation to the face of the anchorage 1,000mm The combined effect of adjacent anchorage's may require additional clearance.
40 Anchorage Proximity Restrictions? Pan Live Ends (Up to 5x12.7mm) Maintain a minimum distance of 1,500mm from the start of the truncation to the face of the Anchorage. 1,500mm It is good practice to visually inspect the grout hose for the presence of good grout, prior to commencing the work in the vicinity of any anchorage type
41 Anchorage Proximity Restrictions? Onioned Dead Ends (Up to 5x12.7mm) Maintain a minimum distance of 700mm from the start of the truncation to the start of the bonded length. The exclusion zones noted are for both the vibration of the demolition and the void created for the truncation.
42 Oops I ve hit a tendon! Inevitably, situations arrive where tendons are inadvertently cut before a truncation is provided, often during coring operations. Partial Severance Experienced core drill operators generally identify when they hit a post-tensioned tendon, which may result in partial severance only. Often a core drill bit will effect only an edge strand or hit the top of the strands themselves. Each strand is comprised of 7 wires, in many cases partial capacity may be available.
43 Oops I ve hit a tendon! Partial severance my not require a truncation if the partial capacity can be justified in a design review. Full Severance a) Cuts where prestress loss is measurable Cores, sawcuts, etc. b) Cuts where prestress loss is unknown Mechanically broken or disturbed concrete A truncation should be installed at a distance from the cut point so as to minimize the chance of further slippage during mechanical concrete removal. In case a) above, it is useful to monitor for any prestress loss. Refer to a PTIA member company for further advice.
44 Consideration for Logistics Builder / Developer Noise & Vibration Dust Out of hours work required?? Floors below Access if concrete removal penetrates slab?? Isolation of in slab power and other services Timeframe highly dependent on the nature of the truncation Always allow for a minimum 24hour curing period, ~ 60MPa.
45 Summary Tendon truncations, performed correctly, allow for surety in design. Tendon performance may be guaranteed for the life of the structure. Relatively simple and economical to install. PTIA member companies can assist with the design and execution of tendon truncations. THANK YOU
FUTURE SLAB PENETRATIONS and DEMOLITION of POST-TENSIONED FLOORS 1.0 INTRODUCTION Post-tensioned floor slabs in Australia and South East Asia are now universally regarded as the most cost effective form
Anchoring or Fastening To, or Drilling Through, the Structure Lester B. Pearson International Airport Parking Structure 1. General The Parking Garage is a cast-in-place concrete structure prestressed (post-tensioned)
Specification (Measurement) Transport and Main Roads Specifications MRS89 Post-tensioned Concrete January 2015 Copyright http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/ State of Queensland (Department of
POST TENSIONING / PRE- TENSIONING LUMUCSO, JAY-AR T. History The first post-tensioning systems consisted of ¼-in.wires bundled in groups of 3 to 12. Eight wire bundles were the most common; the wires were
Draft Table of Contents Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary ACI 318-14 BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL CONCRETE (ACI 318 14) Chapter 1 General 1.1 Scope of ACI 318
Post Tensioning Awards 2009 Project Summary Type of structure Location Architects Structural Engineer Residential with leisure suites including Swimming pool, Cinema, Virtual Golf, Wine Cellars, and Parking
POST-TENSIONING IN BUILDING STRUCTURES Ed Cross 1 BE, Grad.Dip(Tech.Mgt), MIEAust, CPEng SUMMARY This paper outlines the major advantages of the use of post-tensioning in building structures. Economics
Strengthening of Large Storage Tank Foundation Walls in an Aggressive Environment by External Post-tensioning May 7th 2013: Dominique Deschamps Scope of the paper Presentation of the project Cause of cracks
Concrete Technology and Construction Practical Application ICT STAGE 3 Practical Applications (CGLI) Page 1 of 8 CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY AND CONSTRUCTION PRACTICAL APPLICATION Reference should be made throughout
Tilt-up & Pre-cast Construction Tilt-Up concrete construction is not new; it has been in use since the turn of the century. More recently it has been developed into a preferred method of construction for
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION SERIES 8000 PRECAST CONCRETE TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION PART 8000 - PRECAST CONCRETE TABLE OF CONTENTS Item Number Page 8100 PRECAST CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION - GENERAL 8-3 8101 General
1.2 Advantages and Types of Prestressing This section covers the following topics. Definitions Advantages of Prestressing Limitations of Prestressing Types of Prestressing 1.2.1 Definitions The terms commonly
University of Missouri Hospitals and Clinics Structural Repair and Protection of Post-tensioned Parking Garage 1 University of Missouri Project The University of Missouri Health Care Patient and Visitor
Multistrand Post-Tensioning tlink M7, Sydney, Australia Ballina Bypass, Australia PT Strands, Australia Since 1954, designers and constructors of bridges, buildings and civil engineering worldwide over
Testing Anchors in Cracked Concrete Guidance for testing laboratories: how to generate cracks BY ROLF ELIGEHAUSEN, LEE MATTIS, RICHARD WOLLMERSHAUSER, AND MATTHEW S. HOEHLER ACI Committee 355, Anchorage
City of Bellevue POST-TENSIONED CONCRETE PRECONSTRUCTION MEETING AGENDA APPENDIX B3 Project Name/Location: Meeting Date: First Pour Date: Project Team Name/Company Phone Email Building Official* Building
A B AccelBridge External Post-Tensioning for Full-Depth Precast Deck Panels A B ABC Made Simple. Information Prepared for 2012 Virginia Concrete Conference presented herein pertains to proprietary products.
STRENGTHENING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SLABS USING POST-TENSIONING WITH ANCHORAGES BY BONDING Duarte Faria *, Valter Lúcio**, António Ramos*** *PhD Student, Science and Technology Faculty, New University
Designer s NOTEBOOK BLAST CONSIDERATIONS For a surface blast, the most directly affected building elements are the façade and structural members on the lower four stories. Although the walls can be designed
Fracture Mechanics of Concrete Structures Proceedings FRAMCOS-3 AEDIFICA TIO Publishers, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany SEISMIC RETROFITTING TECHNIQUE USING CARBON FIBERS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS H.
STRENGTHENING OF JIAMUSI PRE-STRESSED CONCRETE HIGHWAY BRIDGE BY USING EXTERNAL POST-TENSIONING TECHNOLOGY IN CHINA Ali Fadhil Naser and Wang Zonglin School of Transportation Science and Engineering, Bridge
BUILDING AND SAFETY DEPARTMENT Statement of Special Inspections, 2013 CBC PROJECT ADDRESS PERMIT NUMBER # Description of Work: This Statement of Special Inspections is submitted in fulfillment of the requirements
Technical Notes 3B - Brick Masonry Section Properties May 1993 Abstract: This Technical Notes is a design aid for the Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures (ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402-92) and Specifications
MPT PRESTRESSING & POST TENSIONING SYSTEM MPT PRESTRESSING AND POST-TENSIONING SYSTEM is designed and tested to meet stringent standards, The range of buildings and civil engineering applications includes:
BRIDGE REHABILITATION TECHNIQUES Yogesh Chhabra, General Manager, The D S Brown Company, 57 Pioneer Road, Singapore 628508 Web www.dsbrown.com E-Mail firstname.lastname@example.org Ph. +6598444104, +6565588111
September 1, 2003 CONCRETE MANUAL 5-694.900 5-694.901 GENERAL CONCRETE PAVEMENT REHABILITATION 5-694.900 Concrete Pavement Rehabilitation is an extremely valuable tool of the Minnesota Department of Transportation
AN ERGONARMOR COMPANY TECHNICAL INFORMATION SPECIFICATION FOR INSTALLATION 07/11 SUPERSEDES 04/00 PAGE 1 OF 6 CORROSION ENGINEERING RESIN-BASED POLYMER CONCRETES AND GROUTS 1. SCOPE 1.1 This specification
ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLGY 4 ADVANCED CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY BASEMENT CONSTRUCTION YEAR 3 SEMESTER 1 AIDAN WALSH R00060057 Lecturer: Jim Cahill 29 th November 2011 TABLE OF CONTENTS SUMMARY 1 MAIN BODY SECTION
Foundations 65 5 FOUNDATIONS by Richard Chylinski, FAIA and Timothy P. McCormick, P.E. 66 Foundations Foundations 67 FOUNDATIONS Let's assume that the retrofit has been done correctly from the roofline
McBarron Vincent Barley page 1 The use of Temporary Soil Anchors in Service Freeport Mine Irian Jaya, Indonesia Paul McBarron, Austress Menard, Sydney, Australia Philippe Vincent, Austress Menard Sydney,
6. INSTALLATION It is essential to identify location of openings, mechanical and electrical (M&E) services, and other fixtures before installation of drywall. The setting out of the framing system, openings
CALIFONIA OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDADS BOAD POPOSED STATE STANDAD, TITLE 8, DIVISION 1, CHAPTE 4 DAFT Petitioner s language with edits and revisions for Advisory Committee (AC) discussion. Construction
Modifications to ACI 301 Significant additions and modifications boost the power of the reference specification for structural concrete by W. Calvin McCall This is the second of three articles discussing
Repair and Reinforcement of Glulam Beams for Tinora High School 1. Introduction Gary W. Gray, PE Owner and Principal Gray Engineering and Design, LLC London, Kentucky USA Paul C. Gilham, PE Chief Engineer
PRESENTATION ON REPAIR AND REHABILITATION OF BUILDINGS DAMAGED IN EARTHQUAKE By H P Gupta & D K Gupta DIFFERENT TYPES OF DAMAGES 1.Minor cracks 0.5 to 5 mm wide in load or non-load bearing walls 2.Major
Structural Inspection Foundations 0211 Footings Concrete pad and continuous footings The concrete footings consist of continuous strip footings at the building perimeter of the following sizes: 16 wide
Improving Cyclone, Earthquake and Tsunami Resistance of Houses Photo: Cyclone Damage on Aitutaki in the Cook Islands Courtesy of D Kaunitz (Emergency Architects Australia) Improving Cyclone, Earthquake
Community Development Permit Services SPECIAL INSPECTION AND TESTING AGREEMENT INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE PROJECT NAME PROJECT ADDRESS PERMIT NUMBER CITY RECEIVED STAMP AND INITIALS Instructions: BEFORE
SECTION 3 DESIGN OF POST TENSIONED COMPONENTS FOR FLEXURE DEVELOPED BY THE PTI EDC-130 EDUCATION COMMITTEE LEAD AUTHOR: TREY HAMILTON, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA NOTE: MOMENT DIAGRAM CONVENTION In PT design,
POST-TENSIONED SLABS SPECIALISED ENGINEERED SOLUTIONS FOR STRUCTURES 02/03 Uncover the true potential of your structure...while building confidence DESIGN SOLUTIONS CCL carries out complete designs for
Chapter 2 Basis of design and materials 2.1 Structural action It is necessary to start a design by deciding on the type and layout of structure to be used. Tentative sizes must be allocated to each structural
9.3 Two-way Slabs (Part I) This section covers the following topics. Introduction Analysis and Design Features in Modeling and Analysis Distribution of Moments to Strips 9.3.1 Introduction The slabs are
Emergency repair of Bridge B421 over the Olifants River after fl ood damage INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND Bridge B421 is located on the R555 at km 5.03 on Section 01E between Witbank (now known as emalahleni)
Buildings Department Practice Note for Authorized Persons, Registered Structural Engineers and Registered Geotechnical Engineers APP-68 Design and Construction of Cantilevered Reinforced Concrete Structures
GUIDE TO BASIC FLOOR REPAIRS Basic Repair Guidelines for Common Floor Defects Including RANDOM CRACKS, SPALLED JOINTS, GOUGES, JOINT FILLER SEPARATION AND MORE... 14 CRITICAL STEPS TOWARDS ACHIEVING PERMANENT,
GENERAL SPECIFICATION FOR CIVIL ENGINEERING WORKS SECTION 17 PRESTRESSING 17.1 17.2 2006 Edition SECTION 17 PRESTRESSING GENERAL Materials for grout 17.01 Materials for grout for prestressing systems shall
Building Project using Post-Tensioning Paulo Marques 1 Resume Nowadays building flexibility is an aspect to be taken into account at the idealization and project stages. The number of buildings that throughout
Nordimpianti System Srl, 66100 Chieti (CH), Italy Precast concrete bridge elements produced with slipformer technology For over 40 years, Nordimpianti has designed and built equipment for the production
Tensile Test Results of Post Tensioning Cables From the Background The Midbay bridge, located on State Road 293 between State Road 2 and U.S. 98 in Niceville, Florida is a concrete segmental box bridge
University of Pittsburgh Rehabilitation Strategies for Bonded Concrete Overlays of Asphalt Pavements Authors: J. M Vandenbossche S. Sachs August 2013 1. Introduction Bonded concrete overlays of asphalt
POLYMERIC CONCRETE BRIDGE DECK OVERLAY (Adopted 02-20-14) Description The polymeric concrete bridge deck overlay shall consist of an epoxy polymer that acts together with special aggregate to form an overlay
PART E SPECIFICATIONS Page 1 of 5 PART E - SPECIFICATIONS GENERAL E1. APPLICABLE SPECIFICATIONS, STANDARD DETAILS AND DRAWINGS E1.1 The City of Winnipeg Works and Operations Division Standard Construction
SECTION 3 DESIGN OF POST- TENSIONED COMPONENTS FOR FLEXURE DEVELOPED BY THE PTI EDC-130 EDUCATION COMMITTEE LEAD AUTHOR: TREY HAMILTON, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA NOTE: MOMENT DIAGRAM CONVENTION In PT design,
Compression Test, METHOD OF STATEMENT FOR STATIC LOADING TEST Tension Test and Lateral Test According to the American Standards ASTM D1143 07, ASTM D3689 07, ASTM D3966 07 and Euro Codes EC7 Table of Contents
Chapter 5 Bridge Deck Slabs Bridge Engineering 1 Basic types of bridge decks In-situ reinforced concrete deck- (most common type) Pre-cast concrete deck (minimize the use of local labor) Open steel grid
NATSPEC 1 18 November, 2003 1 GENERAL 1.1 CROSS REFERENCES Cross reference Conform to the Preliminaries. Conform to the Environmental Management section of the invitation to tender document. Related worksections
NATIONAL CODE OF PRACTICE FOR PRECAST, TILT-UP AND CONCRETE ELEMENTS IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION FEBRUARY 2008 ISBN 978-0-642-32784-0 (Print Version) Commonwealth of Australia (Department of Education, Employment
Retrofitting of RCC Structure WIH Strengthening of Shear Wall with External Post Tensioning Cables Yogesh Ghodke, G. R. Gandhe Department of Civil Engineering, Deogiri Institute of Engineering and Management
Chapter 8 Detailing of Reinforcment in Concrete Structures 8.1 Scope Provisions of Sec. 8.1 and 8.2 of Chapter 8 shall apply for detailing of reinforcement in reinforced concrete members, in general. For
DESIGNING STRUCTURES IN EXPANSIVE CLAY A GUIDE FOR A RCHITECTS AND E NGINEERS Table of Contents 1. Introduction Page 1 2. Common Foundation Systems Page 2 3. Drilled Piers Page 3 a. Skin Friction Piers
DESIGN OF SLABS Department of Structures and Materials Engineering Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia Introduction Types of Slab Slabs are plate elements
SEISMIC DESIGN PROVISIONS FOR PRECAST CONCRETE STRUCTURES IN ACI 318 by S.K. Ghosh, Ph. D. Neil M. Hawkins, Ph. D. President Professor Emeritus S.K. Ghosh Associates Inc. Department of Civil Engineering
New Approach for Tremie Concrete used for Deep Foundations Dr. Karsten Beckhaus Technical Manager - Bauer Foundations Australia Martin Larisch Project Manager - Piling Contractors Pty Ltd Dr. Habib Alehossein
Introduction Eurocodes Specification Cost Structural Eurocodes BS EN 1990 (EC0): BS EN 1991 (EC1): Basis of structural design Actions on Structures BS EN 1992 (EC2): BS EN 1993 (EC3): BS EN 1994 (EC4):
Slab on Ground Load Transfer Systems Construction Innovators Index 4 Diamond Dowels 6 PD³ Dowel Cradles 7 Plate Dowel Cradles 8 Square Dowels 9 Square Dowels with Dowelmaster sleeves 10 Square Dowels with
Legend Insulation zone Blue text Air tightness barrier (note: this can also act as a vapour control layer) Guidance on thermal continuity Red text Guidance on air tightness Values used in psi calculations
Strengthening and Repair of Reinforced Concrete Structures Ian Wienholt Business Development Manager 34 years of Concrete Repair and Strengthening Experience Over 12,000 Repair Project Over 25,000 PT Projects
August 2016 1 Waterproofing Showers and Bathrooms Guide The purpose of this guide is to provide guidance on how a shower area or wet room can be successfully waterproofed and tiled with the products available
CI/SfB Et6 BALCON TM STEEL BALCONY CONNECTION SYSTEM Introduction Balconies, whether steel or concrete, are a common feature of residential developments - providing much desired outdoor space and additional
Fire Damage Evaluation and Repair of Precast Concrete Garage By Alfredo E. Bustamante and Michael W. Lee Vehicular fires in parking garages are not an infrequent event. Research by the authors indicates
Specifying Post-Tensioning Theodore L. Neff, P.E. Executive Director Post-Tensioning Institute Presentation Objectives Identify the most current & appropriate p specs for different applications Highlight/
SPECIFICATION INJECTION GROUTING HYDROPHOBIC POLYURETHANE 1510, 1570, AND/OR 1572 DESCRIPTION: General Furnish all labor, equipment, and materials necessary and incidental thereto to perform all required
111 Nonlinear Models of Reinforced and Post-tensioned Concrete Beams ABSTRACT P. Fanning Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering, University College Dublin Earlsfort Terrace, Dublin 2, Ireland. Email:
Virginia Concrete Conference 2009 Woodrow Virginia Approach Spans David Tackoor, HNTB Formerly of URS Corp for Potomac Crossing Consultants Woodrow 1 Second Severn Crossing 2 Medway Crossing (Channel Tunnel
Collapse of Flying Formwork During Concrete Placement No. 8 July 2002 A formwork collapse occurred during the construction of a new manufacturing building which was being built in suburban Boston for a
Fixing Instructions: 01 Porcelain to Screeded Concrete Floors Surface Tiles can be fixed to all structurally sound surfaces consisting of concrete, sand and cement screeds and renders, blockwork, masonry,
Safe & Sound Bridge Terminology Abutment A retaining wall supporting the ends of a bridge, and, in general, retaining or supporting the approach embankment. Approach The part of the bridge that carries
FLEXURAL PERFORMANCE OF RC BEAMS STRENGTHENED WITH PRESTRESSED CFRP SHEETS Piyong Yu, Pedro F. Silva, Antonio Nanni Center for Infrastructure and Engineering Studies Department of Civil, Architectural,