# Appendix J: Credit and Deficit Calculations

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1 Appendix J: Credit and Deficit Calculations Supporting Documentation for Calculating Credits and Deficits Oregon Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report Detailed Calculations: Overview and Examples Credits and deficits will be calculated and expressed as metric tons of CO 2 equivalent. For purposes of understanding how credits and deficits would be calculated, this section provides an overview of the steps involved below, as well as six examples of credit and deficit calculation beginning on page 4. Calculating credits and deficits involves several steps because the LCFS covers fuels with different energy intensities, including liquid and non-liquid fuels. Carbon intensity of fuels is expressed in grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per megajoule (g CO 2 E/MJ). This is so that the lifecycle emissions of different types of liquid and non-liquid fuels can be compared. In order to translate a volume of fuel sold at a certain carbon intensity into credits and deficits expressed in metric tons of CO 2 equivalent, several steps are involved. Oregon s final rule regarding calculation of credits and deficits will address issues such as the number of significant digits and rounding. Overview: Step 1: Calculate the number of megajoules (MJ) of energy in Explanation: Because different liquid fuels have different energy densities, or are in non-liquid form, a metric is needed to compare the carbon intensity of non-liquid and liquid fuels. To put all of the liquid and non-liquid fuels on equal footing, megajoules are used instead of gallons, standard cubic feet 1 (scf), or kilowatt-hours (KWh). A table with energy densities in megajoules per unit of fuel is used to calculate the number of megajoules of energy in. Formula: Multiply the volume [gallons, standard cubic feet (scf) of gas, or kilowatt-hours (KWh) of electricity depending on the fuel type sold] by the energy density of the fuel from the energy density table below. Gallons of fuel (gallon) X energy density (MJ/gallon) = Number of MJ (MJ) Standard cubic feet of CNG (scf) X energy density (MJ/scf) = Number of MJ (MJ) Kilowatt-hours of electricity (KWh) X energy density (MJ/KWh) = Number of MJ (MJ) Or Or 1 A standard cubic foot (abbreviated as scf) is a measure of quantity of gas, equal to a cubic foot of volume at 60 degrees Fahrenheit and psi of pressure. Page 1 of 11 Appendix J: Credit and Deficit Calculations DRAFT Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report

2 California Energy Densities of Fuels (Oregon will be adjusting these as needed for Oregon fuels) Fuel (units) California Gasoline blendstock (gallon) California Reformulated Gasoline (gallon) Diesel fuel (gallon) CNG (scf) LNG (gallon) Electricity (KWh) Hydrogen (kg) Neat denatured Ethanol (gallon) Neat Biomass-based diesel (gallon) Step 2: Account for energy economy ratios, if necessary Energy Density (MJ/gallon) (MJ/gallon) (MJ/gallon) 0.98 (MJ/scf) (MJ/gallon) 3.60 (MJ/KWh) (MJ/kg) (MJ/gallon) (MJ/gallon) Explanation: Different types of vehicles use the energy in fuel more or less efficiently. For example, on average, an electric car will go three times farther than a gasoline vehicle on the same number of megajoules, while a heavy-duty natural gas vehicle will go only 90 percent as far as a diesel heavy-duty vehicle on the same number of megajoules. The Energy Economy Ratios (EERs) are used to adjust credits taking these differences into account. Below is California s table of EERs. You can see that for some fuels, such as gasoline, E85, diesel or biomass-based diesel, the EER is 1.0, and the adjustment is unnecessary. Formula: Multiply the number of megajoules (MJ) in the fuel from Step 1 above by the energy economy ratio below. Number of MJ from Step 1 (MJ) X EER value from table = Adjusted number of MJ (MJ) California s Energy Economy Ratio (EER) Values for Fuels Used in Light- and Medium-Duty, and Heavy-Duty Applications. Light/Medium-Duty Applications (Fuels used as gasoline replacement) EER Values Relative Fuel/Vehicle Combination to Gasoline Gasoline (incl. E6 and E10) or E85 (and other ethanol blends) 1.0 Heavy-Duty/Off-Road Applications (Fuels used as diesel replacement) Fuel/Vehicle EER Values Combination Relative to Diesel Diesel fuel or Biomass-based diesel blends CNG / ICEV 1.0 CNG or LNG Electricity / BEV, or PHEV 3.0 Hydrogen (H2) / FCV 2.3 H2 / FCV Electricity / BEV, or PHEV Page 2 of 11 Appendix J: Credit and Deficit Calculations DRAFT Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report

3 (BEV = battery electric vehicle, PHEV=plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, FCV = fuel cell vehicle, ICEV = internal combustion engine vehicle) Explanation: Comparing the low carbon fuel standard for the year in question to the carbon intensity of a given fuel indicate whether selling the fuel will generate credits or deficits, and whether selling the fuel will generate a relatively large or small number of credits or deficits. Formula: Subtract the carbon intensity (CI) of from the carbon intensity required by the low carbon fuel standard. CI of standard (gco 2 E/MJ) CI of fuel sold (gco 2 E/MJ) = CI difference (gco 2 E/MJ) Negative numbers mean there is a deficit because the fuel exceeds the standard, while positive numbers mean there are credits because the fuel s carbon intensity is less than the standard. Explanation: Credits and deficits are expressed in volumes of greenhouse gas emissions, where credits show the emissions saved by selling a low carbon fuel compared to selling a fuel that exactly meets the low carbon fuel standard for that year. Deficits, by comparison, show the excess emissions incurred by selling a fuel whose carbon intensity is higher than the low carbon fuel standard, compared to selling a fuel that exactly meets the standard for that year. In this step, emissions are calculated in grams of CO 2 equivalent, while in the next step emissions are converted into metric tons of CO 2 equivalent. CO 2 equivalent, or CO 2 E, is a unit of measurement that combines CO 2 and other greenhouse gases like methane and nitrous oxide into one number. It describes, for a given mixture and amount of greenhouse gases, the amount of CO 2 that would have the same global warming potential. Formula: Multiply the number of megajoules in (calculated in Step 2) by the carbon intensity difference (calculated in Step 3). Number of MJ (MJ) X CI difference (gco 2 E/MJ) = number of grams CO 2 E (gco 2 E) Step 5: Convert the grams of CO 2 equivalent into metric tons of CO 2 equivalent Explanation: Greenhouse gas emissions are most commonly expressed in metric ton units. There are 1,000,000 grams per metric ton (g/metric ton), so the final step in the calculation is to divide the result from step 4 by 1,000,000. Formula: Divide the number of grams of carbon dioxide equivalent in step 4 by 1,000,000. Number of grams CO 2 E (gco 2 E) 1,000,000 (g/metric ton) = Number of metric tons CO 2 E (metric tons CO 2 e) Page 3 of 11 Appendix J: Credit and Deficit Calculations DRAFT Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report

4 Examples Example 1: Ethanol A regulated party sells 20 million gallons of ethanol with a carbon intensity of gco 2 E/MJ in 2014, when the low carbon fuel standard is gco 2 E/MJ. (Note: This is just an example. The actual phase-in and carbon intensity might be different.) Formula: Multiply the gallons of fuel sold by the energy density of the fuel from the energy density table on Page 2. 20,000,000 Volume of fuel (gallons) X Energy density (MJ/gallon, from California Energy Densities table) = 1,610,600,000 MJ Step 2: Account for energy economy ratios, if necessary Formula: Multiply the number of MJ in the fuel from Step 1 above by the energy economy ratio from table on Page 2. 1,610,600,000 Number of MJ from Step 1 (MJ) X 1.0 EER value from table = 1,610,600,000 Adjusted number of MJ (MJ) the fuel sold Formula: Subtract the carbon intensity (CI) of from the carbon intensity required by the standard CI of fuel sold (gco 2 E/MJ) = CI difference (gco 2 E/MJ) Formula: Multiply the number of megajoules in (calculated in Step 2) times the carbon intensity difference (calculated in Step 3). 1,610,600,000 Number of MJ (MJ) X CI difference (gco 2 E/MJ) = 22,403,446,000 Number of grams CO 2 E (gco 2 E) Step 5: Convert the grams of CO 2 equivalent into tons of CO 2 equivalent Formula: Divide the number of grams of carbon dioxide equivalent in step 4 by 1,000,000 g/ton to convert the number of grams into metric tons. 22,403,446,000 Number of grams CO 2 E (gco 2 E) = 22,403 Number of metric tons CO 2 E (metric tons CO 2 E) Page 4 of 11 Appendix J: Credit and Deficit Calculations DRAFT Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report

5 The final result is 22,403 metric tons CO 2 E CREDITS. Because this number is positive, it is a credit, and can be sold or banked. Example 2: Diesel and Renewable Diesel In 2014, the low carbon fuel standard for diesel is gco 2 E/MJ (example only). A regulated party sells: 25 million gallons of diesel with a carbon intensity of 93.0 gco 2 E/MJ 4.5 million gallons of renewable diesel with a carbon intensity of gco 2 E/MJ The credits and deficits are calculated separately for each fuel. Diesel calculations 25,000,000 Volume of fuel (gallons) X Energy density (MJ/gallon, from California Energy Densities table) = 3,361,750,000 MJ Step 2: Account for energy economy ratios, if necessary. EER is 1.0, no adjustments necessary CI of fuel sold (gco 2 E/MJ) = CI difference (gco 2 E/MJ) 3,361,750,000 Number of MJ (MJ) X CI difference (gco 2 E/MJ) = -5,681,357,500 Number of grams CO 2 E (gco 2 E) Step 5: Convert the grams of CO 2 equivalent into tons of CO 2 equivalent -5,681,357,500 Number of grams CO 2 E (gco 2 E) = Number of metric tons CO 2 E (metric tons CO 2 E) The final result is -5,681 metric tons CO 2 E deficit. Renewable diesel calculations 4,500,000 Volume of fuel (gallons) X Energy density (MJ/gallon, from California Energy Densities table) = 567,585,000 MJ Page 5 of 11 Appendix J: Credit and Deficit Calculations DRAFT Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report

6 Step 2: Account for energy economy ratios, if necessary. EER is 1.0, no adjustments necessary CI of fuel sold (gco 2 E/MJ) = 9.15 CI difference (gco 2 E/MJ) 567,585,000 Number of MJ (MJ) X 9.15 CI difference (gco 2 E/MJ) = 5,193,402,750 Number of grams CO 2 E (gco 2 E) Step 5: Convert the grams of CO 2 equivalent into tons of CO 2 equivalent 5,193,402,750 Number of grams CO 2 E (gco 2 E) = 5193 Number of metric tons CO 2 E (metric tons CO 2 E) The final result is +5,193 metric tons CO 2 E of credit. NET RESULT: The regulated party would then subtract their 5681 metric tons deficit from their 5193 metric tons credit, and have a DEFICIT of 488 metric tons. Page 6 of 11 Appendix J: Credit and Deficit Calculations DRAFT Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report

7 Example 3: Electric vehicles In 2014, the low carbon fuel standard is g CO 2 E/MJ. (Note: This is just an example only and may not reflect the actual standard in 2014.) An electric utility supplies electricity to 400 electric light-duty cars that used a total of 2,810,000 kilowatt-hours (KWh) of electricity at a carbon intensity (adjusted for drive train efficiencies) of 34.9 gco 2 E/MJ. 2,810,000 Volume of fuel (KWh) X 3.60 Energy density (MJ/KWh, from California Energy Densities table) = 10,116,000 MJ Step 2: Account for energy economy ratios, if necessary 10,116,000 Number of MJ from Step 1 (MJ) X 3.0 EER value from table = 30,348,000 Adjusted number of MJ (MJ) CI of fuel sold (gco 2 E/MJ) = CI difference (gco 2 E/MJ) 30,348,000 Number of MJ (MJ) X CI difference (gco 2 E/MJ) = 1,711,930,680 Number of grams CO 2 E (gco 2 E) Step 5: Convert the grams of CO 2 equivalent into metric tons of CO 2 equivalent 1,711,930,680 Number of grams CO 2 E (gco 2 E) = 1,712 Number of metric tons CO 2 E (metric tons CO 2 E) Final result is 1,712 metric tons CO 2 E CREDIT. Because this number is positive, it is a credit, and can be sold or banked. Page 7 of 11 Appendix J: Credit and Deficit Calculations DRAFT Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report

8 Example 4: Regulated party excludes fuel sold to exempted uses from credit and deficit calculations In 2014, the low carbon fuel standard is g CO 2 E/MJ. (Note: This is just an example). A regulated party sells 28 million gallons of diesel and 560,000 gallons of biodiesel from waste oil in 2014 to both farm and non-farm uses, as indicated below (and sells no other transportation fuels). This is a blend of two percent biodiesel. The credits and deficits are calculated separately for each fuel. Diesel calculations The regulated party sells 28 million gallons of diesel with a carbon intensity of 93.0 gco 2 E/MJ. However, of those 28 million gallons, 3 million gallons were sold to farm coops, and the regulated party demonstrated the fuel was farm use. (Farm uses of fuel are exempt under HB 2186.) The regulated party would then calculate deficits only on the remaining 25 million gallons of diesel which was not sold for farm use. The final deficit calculation would be 5681 metric tons of deficit (see diesel calculations for Example 2 on page 5). Biodiesel calculations The regulated party sells 560,000 gallons of biodiesel from waste oil with a carbon intensity of gco 2 E/MJ. Of this amount, 11,200 gallons were sold to exempt farm uses. The regulated party would then only calculate credits for the remaining 548,800 gallons which were not sold for farm use. 548,800 Volume of fuel (gallons) X Energy density (MJ/gallon, from California Energy Densities table) = 69,220,144 MJ Step 2: Account for energy economy ratios, if necessary. EER is 1.0, no adjustments necessary the fuel sold CI of fuel sold (gco 2 E/MJ) = CI difference (gco 2 E/MJ) Step 4: Calculate the grams of CO2 equivalent 69,220,144 Number of MJ (MJ) X CI difference (gco 2 E/MJ) = 5,372,175,376 Number of grams CO 2 E (gco 2 E) Step 5: Convert the grams of CO 2 equivalent into metric tons of CO2 equivalent 5,372,175,376 Number of grams CO 2 E (gco 2 E) Credit = 5,372 Number of metric tons CO 2 E (metric tons CO 2 E) NET RESULT: The regulated party would then subtract their 5681 metric tons deficit from their 5372 metric tons credit, and have a DEFICIT of 309 metric tons. Page 8 of 11 Appendix J: Credit and Deficit Calculations DRAFT Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report

9 Example 5: Diesel and low carbon biodiesel sold to farm uses where a regulated party does not claim any exemptions In 2014, the low carbon fuel standard is gco2e/mj. (Note: This is just an example). A regulated party sells 28 million gallons of diesel and 560,000 gallons of biodiesel in 2014, as indicated below (and sells no other transportation fuels). This is a blend of two percent biodiesel. The credits and deficits are calculated separately for each fuel. Diesel calculations The regulated party elects to NOT claim exemptions for fuel sold for farm uses in Hence, credits/deficits for diesel are calculated on the full 28 million gallons of diesel sold. 28,000,000 Volume of fuel (gallons) X Energy density (MJ/gallon, from California Energy Densities table) = 3,765,160,000 MJ Step 2: Account for energy economy ratios, if necessary. EER is 1.0, no adjustments necessary CI of fuel sold (gco 2 E/MJ) = CI difference (gco 2 E/MJ) 3,765,160,000 Number of MJ (MJ) X CI difference (gco 2 E/MJ) = -6,363,120,400 Number of grams CO 2 E (gco 2 E) Step 5: Convert the grams of CO 2 equivalent into tons of CO 2 equivalent -6,363,120,400 Number of grams CO 2 E (gco 2 E) = Number of metric tons CO 2 E (metric tons CO 2 E) Renewable diesel calculations The regulated party elects to NOT claim exemptions for fuel sold for farm uses in Hence, credits/deficits for diesel are calculated on the full 560,000 gallons of biodiesel sold. 560,000 Volume of fuel (gallons) X Energy density (MJ/gallon, from California Energy Densities table) = 70,632,800 MJ Page 9 of 11 Appendix J: Credit and Deficit Calculations DRAFT Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report

10 Step 2: Account for energy economy ratios, if necessary. EER is 1.0, no adjustments necessary CI of fuel sold (gco 2 E/MJ) = CI difference (gco 2 E/MJ) 70,632,800 Number of MJ (MJ) X CI difference (gco 2 E/MJ) = 5,481,811,608 Number of grams CO 2 E (gco 2 E) Step 5: Convert the grams of CO 2 equivalent into tons of CO 2 equivalent 5,481,811,608 Number of grams CO 2 E (gco 2 E) = 5482 Number of metric tons CO 2 E (metric tons CO 2 E) The regulated party would then subtract their 6363 metric tons deficit from their 5482 metric tons credit, and have a DEFICIT of 881 metric tons. Because this deficit is over ten percent (10%) of their total deficit for the year, this regulated party cannot carry over the deficit to the following year (881 metric tons of deficit is 13.8% of 6363 metric tons of deficit). They would need to purchase credits to cover the deficit, or use banked credits from previous years. Page 10 of 11 Appendix J: Credit and Deficit Calculations DRAFT Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report

11 Example 6: Gasoline A regulated party sells 200 million gallons of gasoline with a carbon intensity of 92.7 gco 2 E/MJ and 20 million gallons of ethanol with a carbon intensity of gco 2 E/MJ (and no other transportation fuels). Gasoline calculations The regulated party sells 200 million gallons of gasoline with a carbon intensity of 92.7 gco 2 E/MJ. 200,000,000 Volume of fuel (gallons) X Energy density (MJ/gallon, from California Energy Densities table) = 23,126,000,000 MJ Step 2: Account for energy economy ratios, if necessary. EER is 1.0, no adjustments necessary the fuel sold 92.7 CI of fuel sold (gco 2 E/MJ) = CI difference (gco 2 E/MJ) Step 4: Calculate the grams of CO2 equivalent 23,126,000,000 Number of MJ (MJ) X CI difference (gco 2 E/MJ) = 32,145,140,000 Number of grams CO 2 E (gco 2 E) Step 5: Convert the grams of CO 2 equivalent into metric tons of CO2 equivalent 32,145,140,000 Number of grams CO 2 E (gco 2 E) = 32,145 Number of metric tons CO 2 E (metric tons CO 2 E) Ethanol calculations The regulated party sells 20 million gallons of ethanol with a carbon intensity of gco 2 E/MJ. Which generates 22,403 metric tons of credit in (See ethanol calculations for Example 1 on page 4.) NET RESULT: The regulated party would then subtract their 32,145 metric tons deficit from their 22,403 metric tons credit, and have a DEFICIT of 9,742 metric tons. To make up the deficit, the company could buy credits generated by other fuel providers (see examples 1 and 3) or could use banked credits. Page 11 of 11 Appendix J: Credit and Deficit Calculations DRAFT Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report

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