# Appendix J: Credit and Deficit Calculations

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1 Appendix J: Credit and Deficit Calculations Supporting Documentation for Calculating Credits and Deficits Oregon Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report Detailed Calculations: Overview and Examples Credits and deficits will be calculated and expressed as metric tons of CO 2 equivalent. For purposes of understanding how credits and deficits would be calculated, this section provides an overview of the steps involved below, as well as six examples of credit and deficit calculation beginning on page 4. Calculating credits and deficits involves several steps because the LCFS covers fuels with different energy intensities, including liquid and non-liquid fuels. Carbon intensity of fuels is expressed in grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per megajoule (g CO 2 E/MJ). This is so that the lifecycle emissions of different types of liquid and non-liquid fuels can be compared. In order to translate a volume of fuel sold at a certain carbon intensity into credits and deficits expressed in metric tons of CO 2 equivalent, several steps are involved. Oregon s final rule regarding calculation of credits and deficits will address issues such as the number of significant digits and rounding. Overview: Step 1: Calculate the number of megajoules (MJ) of energy in the fuel sold Explanation: Because different liquid fuels have different energy densities, or are in non-liquid form, a metric is needed to compare the carbon intensity of non-liquid and liquid fuels. To put all of the liquid and non-liquid fuels on equal footing, megajoules are used instead of gallons, standard cubic feet 1 (scf), or kilowatt-hours (KWh). A table with energy densities in megajoules per unit of fuel is used to calculate the number of megajoules of energy in the fuel sold. Formula: Multiply the volume [gallons, standard cubic feet (scf) of gas, or kilowatt-hours (KWh) of electricity depending on the fuel type sold] by the energy density of the fuel from the energy density table below. Gallons of fuel (gallon) X energy density (MJ/gallon) = Number of MJ (MJ) Standard cubic feet of CNG (scf) X energy density (MJ/scf) = Number of MJ (MJ) Kilowatt-hours of electricity (KWh) X energy density (MJ/KWh) = Number of MJ (MJ) Oregon Energy Density Table Or Or 1 A standard cubic foot (abbreviated as scf) is a measure of quantity of gas, equal to a cubic foot of volume at 60 degrees Fahrenheit and psi of pressure. Page 1 of 12 Appendix J: Credit and Deficit Calculations Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report 11-AQ-004j 1/25/2011

2 Oregon Energy Densities of Fuels Fuel (units) MJ/gal Gasoline (MJ/gal) Diesel fuel (gal) (MJ/gal) CNG (scf).98 (MJ/scf) Electricity (KWh) 3.60 (MJ/KWh) Anhydrous Ethanol (gal) (MJ/gal) Neat Biomass-based diesel (gal) (MJ/gal) Step 2: Account for energy economy ratios, if necessary Explanation: Different types of vehicles use the energy in fuel more or less efficiently. For example, on average, an electric car will go three times farther than a gasoline vehicle on the same number of megajoules, while a heavy-duty natural gas vehicle will go only 94 percent as far as a diesel heavy-duty vehicle on the same number of megajoules. The Energy Economy Ratios (EERs) are used to adjust credits taking these differences into account. Below are both light-duty and heavy-duty tables of EERs. You can see that for some fuels, such as gasoline, E85, diesel or biomass-based diesel, the EER is 1.0, and the adjustment is unnecessary. Note: for more information on Energy Economy Rations, see Table 13: EER Values for Fuels Used in Light-Duty Applications in the Oregon Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report. Formula: Multiply the number of megajoules (MJ) in the fuel from Step 1 above by the energy economy ratio below. Number of MJ from Step 1 (MJ) X EER value from table = Adjusted number of MJ (MJ) Page 2 of 12 Appendix J: Credit and Deficit Calculations Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report

3 Year Table: EER Values for Fuels Used in Light-Duty Applications Gasoline or any ethanol blend Fuel/Vehicle Combination Energy Economy Ratio CNG / Internal combustion engine vehicle (needs to be adjusted: not reformulated gasoline) Electricity / battery electric vehicle, or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle Hydrogen or fuel cell vehicle 3.0 (needs to be adjusted: not reformulated gasoline) TBA* TBA TBA TBA TBA TBA TBA TBA * In the 2014 review, DEQ will research what the EER for light-duty CNG should be after Data in this table is based on: California Environmental Protection Agency Air Resources Board. Appendices, Proposed Regulation to Implement the Low Carbon Fuel Standard, Vol. 2. Appendix C, pages C-5 through C-12. Released Date March 4, Diesel fuel Or Biomass-based diesel blends Table: EER Values for Fuels Used in Heavy-Duty Applications Fuel/Vehicle Combination Energy Economy Ratio Electricity / battery electric vehicle, or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle CNG or LNG Hydrogen or fuel cell vehicle *DEQ will research what the EER for all heavy-duty applications should be in future years in the 2014 review Data in this table is based on: California Environmental Protection Agency Air Resources Board. Appendices, Proposed Regulation to Implement the Low Carbon Fuel Standard, Vol. 2. Appendix C, pages C-5 through C-12. Released Date March 4, Step 3: Calculate the difference in the carbon intensity between the low carbon fuel standard and the fuel sold Explanation: Comparing the low carbon fuel standard for the year in question to the carbon intensity of a given fuel indicate whether selling the fuel will generate credits or deficits, and whether selling the fuel will generate a relatively large or small number of credits or deficits. Formula: Subtract the carbon intensity (CI) of the fuel sold from the carbon intensity required by the low carbon fuel standard. CI of standard (gco 2 E/MJ) CI of fuel sold (gco 2 E/MJ) = CI difference (gco 2 E/MJ) Page 3 of 12 Appendix J: Credit and Deficit Calculations Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report

4 Negative numbers mean there is a deficit because the fuel exceeds the standard, while positive numbers mean there are credits because the fuel s carbon intensity is less than the standard. Step 4: Calculate the credits/deficits in grams of CO 2 equivalent Explanation: Credits and deficits are expressed in volumes of greenhouse gas emissions, where credits show the emissions saved by selling a low carbon fuel compared to selling a fuel that exactly meets the low carbon fuel standard for that year. Deficits, by comparison, show the excess emissions incurred by selling a fuel whose carbon intensity is higher than the low carbon fuel standard, compared to selling a fuel that exactly meets the standard for that year. In this step, emissions are calculated in grams of CO 2 equivalent, while in the next step emissions are converted into metric tons of CO 2 equivalent. CO 2 equivalent, or CO 2 E, is a unit of measurement that combines CO 2 and other greenhouse gases like methane and nitrous oxide into one number. It describes, for a given mixture and amount of greenhouse gases, the amount of CO 2 that would have the same global warming potential. Formula: Multiply the number of megajoules in the fuel sold (calculated in Step 2) by the carbon intensity difference (calculated in Step 3). Number of MJ (MJ) X CI difference (gco 2 E/MJ) = number of grams CO 2 E (gco 2 E) Step 5: Convert the grams of CO 2 equivalent into metric tons of CO 2 equivalent Explanation: Greenhouse gas emissions are most commonly expressed in metric ton units. There are 1,000,000 grams per metric ton (g/metric ton), so the final step in the calculation is to divide the result from step 4 by 1,000,000. Formula: Divide the number of grams of carbon dioxide equivalent in step 4 by 1,000,000. Number of grams CO 2 E (gco 2 E) 1,000,000 (g/metric ton) = Number of metric tons CO 2 E (metric tons CO 2 e) Examples Example 1: Ethanol In 2014, a regulated party sells 20 million gallons of ethanol with a carbon intensity of gco 2 E/MJ in 2014, when the low carbon fuel standard is gco 2 E/MJ. (Note: This example is provided for illustration purposes and does not include indirect land use. The actual carbon intensity may be subject to change after the 2014 comprehensive program review.) Formula: Multiply the gallons of fuel sold by the energy density of the fuel from the energy density table on Page 2. Page 4 of 12 Appendix J: Credit and Deficit Calculations Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report

5 20,000,000 Volume of fuel (gallons) X Energy density (MJ/gallon, from Energy Densities table) = 1,550,600,000 MJ Step 2: Account for energy economy ratios, if necessary Formula: Multiply the number of MJ in the fuel from Step 1 above by the energy economy ratio from table on Page 2. 1,550,600,000 Number of MJ from Step 1 (MJ) X 1.0 EER value from table = 1,550,600,000 Adjusted number of MJ (MJ) Step 3: Calculate the difference in the carbon intensity between the low carbon fuel standard and the fuel sold Formula: Subtract the carbon intensity (CI) of the fuel sold from the carbon intensity required by the standard CI of standard (gco 2 E/MJ) CI of fuel sold (gco 2 E/MJ) = CI difference (gco 2 E/MJ) Step 4: Calculate the credits/deficits in grams of CO 2 equivalent Formula: Multiply the number of megajoules in the fuel sold (calculated in Step 2) times the carbon intensity difference (calculated in Step 3). 1,550,600,000 Number of MJ (MJ) X CI difference (gco 2 E/MJ) = 38,935,566,000 Number of grams CO 2 E (gco 2 E) Step 5: Convert the grams of CO 2 equivalent into tons of CO 2 equivalent Formula: Divide the number of grams of carbon dioxide equivalent in step 4 by 1,000,000 g/ton to convert the number of grams into metric tons. 38,935,566,000 Number of grams CO 2 E (gco 2 E) = 38,936 Number of metric tons CO 2 E (metric tons CO 2 E) The final result is 38,936 metric tons CO 2 E CREDITS. Because this number is positive, it is a credit, and can be sold or banked. Example 2: Diesel and Renewable Diesel In 2014, the low carbon fuel standard for diesel is gco 2 E/MJ. (Note: This example is provided for illustration purposes and does not include indirect land use. The actual carbon intensity may be subject to change after the 2014 comprehensive program review.) A regulated party sells: 25 million gallons of diesel with a carbon intensity of gco 2 E/MJ 4.5 million gallons of renewable diesel with a carbon intensity of gco 2 E/MJ Page 5 of 12 Appendix J: Credit and Deficit Calculations Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report

6 The credits and deficits are calculated separately for each fuel. Diesel calculations 25,000,000 Volume of fuel (gallons) X Energy density (MJ/gallon, from Energy Densities table) = 3,237,250,000 MJ Step 2: Account for energy economy ratios, if necessary. EER is 1.0, no adjustments necessary Step 3: Calculate the difference in the carbon intensity between the low carbon fuel standard and the fuel sold CI of standard (gco 2 E/MJ) CI of fuel sold (gco 2 E/MJ) = CI difference (gco 2 E/MJ) Step 4: Calculate the credits/deficits in grams of CO 2 equivalent 3,237,250,000 Number of MJ (MJ) X CI difference (gco 2 E/MJ) =-6,409,755,000 Number of grams CO 2 E (gco 2 E) Step 5: Convert the grams of CO 2 equivalent into tons of CO 2 equivalent -6,409,755,000 Number of grams CO 2 E (gco 2 E) = -6,410 Number of metric tons CO 2 E (metric tons CO 2 E) The final result is -6,410 metric tons CO 2 E deficit. Renewable diesel calculations 4,500,000 Volume of fuel (gallons) X Energy density (MJ/gallon, from Energy Densities table) = 582,705,000 MJ Step 2: Account for energy economy ratios, if necessary. EER is 1.0, no adjustments necessary Step 3: Calculate the difference in the carbon intensity between the low carbon fuel standard and the fuel sold CI of standard (gco 2 E/MJ) CI of fuel sold (gco 2 E/MJ) = CI difference (gco 2 E/MJ) Note: The standard used above is subject to change pending analysis of indirect land use change during the 2014 comprehensive program review. Page 6 of 12 Appendix J: Credit and Deficit Calculations Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report

7 Step 4: Calculate the credits/deficits in grams of CO 2 equivalent 582,705,000 Number of MJ (MJ) X CI difference (gco 2 E/MJ) = 39,559,842,450 Number of grams CO 2 E (gco 2 E) Step 5: Convert the grams of CO 2 equivalent into tons of CO 2 equivalent 39,559,842,450 Number of grams CO 2 E (gco 2 E) = 39,560 Number of metric tons CO 2 E (metric tons CO 2 E) The final result is 39,560 metric tons CO 2 E of credit. NET RESULT: The regulated party would then subtract their 6,410 metric tons deficit from their 39,560 metric tons credit, and have a CREDIT of 33,150 metric tons. Page 7 of 12 Appendix J: Credit and Deficit Calculations Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report

8 Example 3: Electric vehicles In 2014, the low carbon fuel standard is 89.93g CO 2 E/MJ. (Note: This example is provided for illustration purposes and does not include indirect land use. The actual carbon intensity may be subject to change after the 2014 comprehensive program review.) An electric utility supplies electricity to 400 electric light-duty cars that used a total of 2,810,000 kilowatt-hours (KWh) of electricity at a carbon intensity (adjusted for energy economy ratio) of gco 2 E/MJ. 2,810,000 Volume of fuel (KWh) X 3.60 Energy density (MJ/KWh, from Energy Densities table) = 10,116,000 MJ Step 2: Account for energy economy ratios, if necessary 10,116,000 Number of MJ from Step 1 (MJ) X 3.9 EER value from table = 39,452,400 Adjusted number of MJ (MJ) Step 3: Calculate the difference in the carbon intensity between the low carbon fuel standard and the fuel sold CI of standard (gco 2 E/MJ) CI of fuel sold (gco 2 E/MJ) = 50.2 CI difference (gco 2 E/MJ) Step 4: Calculate the credits/deficits in grams of CO 2 equivalent 39,452,400 Number of MJ (MJ) X 50.2 CI difference (gco 2 E/MJ) =1,980,510,480 Number of grams CO 2 E (gco 2 E) Step 5: Convert the grams of CO 2 equivalent into metric tons of CO 2 equivalent 1,980,510,480 Number of grams CO 2 E (gco 2 E) = 1,981 Number of metric tons CO 2 E (metric tons CO 2 E) Final result is 1,981 metric tons CO 2 E CREDIT. Because this number is positive, it is a credit, and can be sold or banked. Page 8 of 12 Appendix J: Credit and Deficit Calculations Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report

9 Example 4: Regulated party excludes fuel sold to exempted uses from credit and deficit calculations In 2014, the low carbon fuel standard for diesel is 89.55g CO 2 E/MJ.(Note: This example is provided for illustration purposes and does not include indirect land use. The actual carbon intensity may be subject to change after the 2014 comprehensive program review.) A regulated party sells 28 million gallons of diesel and 560,000 gallons of biodiesel from waste oil in 2014 to both farm and non-farm uses, as indicated below (and sells no other transportation fuels). This is a blend of two percent biodiesel. The credits and deficits are calculated separately for each fuel. Diesel calculations The regulated party sells 28 million gallons of diesel with a carbon intensity of gco 2 E/MJ. However, of those 28 million gallons, 3 million gallons were sold to farm coops, and the regulated party demonstrated the fuel was farm use. (Farm uses of fuel are exempt under HB 2186.) The regulated party would then calculate deficits only on the remaining 25 million gallons of diesel which was not sold for farm use. The final deficit calculation would be 6,410 metric tons of deficit (see diesel calculations for Example 2 on page 5). Biodiesel calculations The regulated party sells 611,200 gallons of biodiesel from waste oil (yellow grease average) with a carbon intensity of gco 2 E/MJ. Of this amount, 11,200 gallons were sold to exempt farm uses. The regulated party would then only calculate credits for the remaining 600,000 gallons which were not sold for farm use. 600,000 Volume of fuel (gallons) X Energy density (MJ/gallon, from Energy Densities table) = 71,730,000 MJ Step 2: Account for energy economy ratios, if necessary. EER is 1.0, no adjustments necessary Step 3: Calculate the difference in the carbon intensity between the low carbon fuel standard and the fuel sold CI of standard (gco 2 E/MJ) CI of fuel sold (gco 2 E/MJ) = CI difference (gco 2 E/MJ) Step 4: Calculate the grams of CO2 equivalent 71,730,000 Number of MJ (MJ) X CI difference (gco 2 E/MJ) =5,828,062,500 Number of grams CO 2 E (gco 2 E) Step 5: Convert the grams of CO 2 equivalent into metric tons of CO2 equivalent 5,828,062,500 Number of grams CO 2 E (gco 2 E) Credit = 5,828 Number of metric tons CO 2 E (metric tons CO 2 E) NET RESULT: The regulated party would then subtract their 6,410 metric tons deficit from their 5, 828 metric tons credit, and have a DEFICIT of 582 metric tons. Because this deficit is under ten percent (10%) of their total deficit for the year, this regulated party can carry over the deficit to the following year (5,828 metric tons of deficit is 9.09% of 6,410 metric tons of deficit). Page 9 of 12 Appendix J: Credit and Deficit Calculations Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report

10 Example 5: Diesel and low carbon biodiesel sold to farm uses where a regulated party does not claim any exemptions In 2014, the low carbon fuel standard is gco2e/mj. (Note: This example is provided for illustration purposes and does not include indirect land use. The actual carbon intensity may be subject to change after the 2014 comprehensive program review.) A regulated party sells 28 million gallons of diesel and 560,000 gallons of biodiesel in 2014, as indicated below (and sells no other transportation fuels). This is a blend of two percent biodiesel. The credits and deficits are calculated separately for each fuel. Diesel calculations The regulated party elects to NOT claim exemptions for fuel sold for farm uses in Hence, credits/deficits for diesel are calculated on the full 28 million gallons of diesel sold. 28,000,000 Volume of fuel (gallons) X Energy density (MJ/gallon, from Energy Densities table) = 3,625,720,000 MJ Step 2: Account for energy economy ratios, if necessary. EER is 1.0, no adjustments necessary Step 3: Calculate the difference in the carbon intensity between the low carbon fuel standard and the fuel sold CI of standard (gco 2 E/MJ) CI of fuel sold (gco 2 E/MJ) =-1.98 CI difference (gco 2 E/MJ) Step 4: Calculate the credits/deficits in grams of CO 2 equivalent 3,625,720,000 Number of MJ (MJ) X CI difference (gco 2 E/MJ) =-7,178,925,600 Number of grams CO 2 E (gco 2 E) Step 5: Convert the grams of CO 2 equivalent into tons of CO 2 equivalent -7,178,925,600 Number of grams CO 2 E (gco 2 E) = -7,179 Number of metric tons CO 2 E (metric tons CO 2 E) Renewable diesel calculations The regulated party elects to NOT claim exemptions for fuel sold for farm uses in Hence, credits/deficits for diesel are calculated on the full 560,000 gallons of biodiesel sold. Page 10 of 12 Appendix J: Credit and Deficit Calculations Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report

11 560,000 Volume of fuel (gallons) X Energy density (MJ/gallon, from Energy Densities table) = 72,514,400 MJ Step 2: Account for energy economy ratios, if necessary. EER is 1.0, no adjustments necessary Step 3: Calculate the difference in the carbon intensity between the low carbon fuel standard and the fuel sold CI of standard (gco 2 E/MJ) CI of fuel sold (gco 2 E/MJ) = CI difference (gco 2 E/MJ) Step 4: Calculate the credits/deficits in grams of CO 2 equivalent 72,514,400 Number of MJ (MJ) X CI difference (gco 2 E/MJ) = 4,923,002,616 Number of grams CO 2 E (gco 2 E) Step 5: Convert the grams of CO 2 equivalent into tons of CO 2 equivalent 4,923,002,616 Number of grams CO 2 E (gco 2 E) = 4,923 Number of metric tons CO 2 E (metric tons CO 2 E) The regulated party would then subtract their 7,179 metric tons deficit from their 4,923 metric tons credit, and have a DEFICIT of 2,256 metric tons. Because this deficit is over ten percent (10%) of their total deficit for the year, this regulated party cannot carry over the deficit to the following year (4,923 metric tons of deficit is 68.57% of 7,179 metric tons of deficit). They would need to purchase credits to cover the deficit, or use banked credits from previous years. Page 11 of 12 Appendix J: Credit and Deficit Calculations Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report

12 Example 6: Gasoline In 2014, a regulated party sells 200 million gallons of gasoline with a carbon intensity of gco 2 E/MJ and 20 million gallons of Midwest corn ethanol with a carbon intensity of gco 2 E/MJ (and no other transportation fuels). Gasoline calculations The regulated party sells 200 million gallons of gasoline with a carbon intensity of gco 2 E/MJ. 200,000,000 Volume of fuel (gallons) X Energy density (MJ/gallon, from Energy Densities table) = 23,218,000,000 MJ Step 2: Account for energy economy ratios, if necessary. EER is 1.0, no adjustments necessary Step 3: Calculate the difference in the carbon intensity between the low carbon fuel standard and the fuel sold CI of standard (gco 2 E/MJ) CI of fuel sold (gco 2 E/MJ) = CI difference (gco 2 E/MJ) Step 4: Calculate the grams of CO2 equivalent 23,218,000,000 Number of MJ (MJ) X CI difference (gco 2 E/MJ) = -55,955,380,000 Number of grams CO 2 E (gco 2 E) Step 5: Convert the grams of CO 2 equivalent into metric tons of CO2 equivalent -55,955,380,000 Number of grams CO 2 E (gco 2 E) = -37,369 Number of metric tons CO 2 E (metric tons CO 2 E) Ethanol calculations The regulated party sells 20 million gallons of ethanol with a carbon intensity of gco 2 E/MJ. Which generates 38,936 metric tons of credit in (See ethanol calculations for Example 1 on page 4.) NET RESULT: The regulated party would then subtract their 37,369 metric tons deficit from their 38,936 metric tons credit, and have a CREDIT of 1,567 metric tons. Page 12 of 12 Appendix J: Credit and Deficit Calculations Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report

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