# TYPES OF NUMBERS. Example 2. Example 1. Problems. Answers

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1 TYPES OF NUMBERS When two or more integers are multiplied together, each number is a factor of the product. Nonnegative integers that have exactly two factors, namely, one and itself, are called prime numbers. Except for one and zero, the other non-prime numbers are composite. One has only one factor, so it is neither prime nor composite. It is also the Multiplicative Identity since one multiplied by any number does not change the value. Written in symbols, n = n. Zero is the Additive Identity since adding zero to any number does not change the value. Written in symbols, 0 n = n. For more information, see the Math Notes box in Lesson.. of the Core Connections, Course text. Example Identify each integer as prime, composite, or neither. 6 6 has factors of, 6,, and so 6 is composite. 7 7 has factors of and 7 so 7 is prime. has only as a factor so is neither. Example For each composite number, factor it into primes and write the number as a product of primes using exponents as possible. = 6 = = 5 5 = 9 5 = 5 = 5 Problems Identify each integer as prime, composite, or neither. For each composite number, factor it into primes and write the number as a product of primes, using exponents as possible Answers prime prime prime 0. neither.. 5 Parent Guide with Extra Practice

2 PROPERTIES OF ADDITION AND MULTIPLICATION In addition and multiplication, the order of the numbers can be reversed: 5 = 5 and 5 = 5. This is called the Commutative Property. In symbols: The Commutative Property of Addition states: a b = b a and The Commutative Property of Multiplication states: a b = b a. When adding three numbers or multiplying three numbers, the grouping can be changed: ( ) 5 = ( 5) and ( ) 5 = ( 5). This is the Associative Property. In symbols: The Associative Property of Addition states: (a b) c = a (b c) and The Associative Property of Multiplication states: (a b) c = a (b c). The Distributive Property distributes one operation over another. So far in these courses, students have seen multiplication distributed over addition. In symbols: For all numbers a, b, and c, a(b c) = a b a c. For example, ( 5) = 5. Properties of numbers are also discussed in the Math Notes boxes in Lessons..,.., and 7.. of the Core Connections, Course text. For additional information see the Math Notes boxes in Lesson.. of the Core Connections, Course text or Lessons..5 and..7 of the Core Connections, Course text. The properties of multiplication and addition allow calculations to be rearranged. Doing this is helpful when doing calculations mentally. Name the property or reason that justifies each step. Example Calculate mentally: (7 5) Step = (5 7) Commutative Property of Multiplication Step = ( 5) 7 Associative Property of Multiplication Step = (00) 7 mental math Step = 700 mental math Example Calculate mentally: 8(56) Step = 8(50 6) by renaming 56 as 50 6 Step = 8(50) 8(6) Distributive Property Step = 00 8 mental math Step = 8 mental math Core Connections, Courses

3 Problems Listed below are possible steps used to mentally calculate a problem. Give the missing reasons that justify the steps.. 5(9) = 5(0 ( )) renamed 9 as 0 ( ) 5(0 ) = 5(0) 5( ) a 50 ( 5) = 50 ( 0 5) renamed 5 as 0 ( 5) 50 ( 0) ( 5) = (50 ( 0)) ( 5) b 0 ( 5) = 5 mental math = a = (86 00) 77 b = (586 ) 77 c = 777 mental math. 9() = (9) a (9) = (50 ) renamed 9 as 50 (50 ) = (50) () b (50) = (6 )(50) renamed as 6 (6 )(50) = 6( 50) c 6( 50) = 6(00) mental math 600 = 588 mental math Answers. a. Distributive b. Associative. a. Commutative b. Associative c. Associative. a. Commutative b. Distributive c. Associative Parent Guide with Extra Practice

4 MULTIPLICATION WITH GENERIC RECTANGLES If a large rectangle is cut into a number of smaller rectangles, then the area of the large rectangle is equal to the sum of the areas of all the smaller rectangles. The idea of breaking a product up into parts is the basis for multiplication using generic rectangles. We say generic because the dimensions are not to scale. We use it to help us visualize multiplication and as a way to multiply numbers by using a diagram. Multiplication using rectangle models reinforces the multiplication algorithm and will continue to be used and extended through Algebra and Algebra. For additional information, see the Math Notes box in Lesson.. of the Core Connections, Course text and Lesson.. of the Core Connections, Course text. Example 0 Multiply 5 using a generic rectangle. Since we are multiplying a two-digit number by a two-digit number we need a generic rectangle as shown at right. The numbers to be multiplied are separated (decomposed) based on place value. In this case, for example, has two tens (0) and ones. The area of the product (the large rectangle) is equal to the sum of the areas of each of the smaller rectangles. The area of each of the smaller rectangles is found by multiplying its dimensions. Find the area of each of the smaller rectangles and then sum them together. 5 = (0 )(0 5) = = Example Multiply 5 using a generic rectangle Since we are multiplying a three-digit number by a two-digit number we need six sections in our rectangle. Fill in the areas and add them together to get: 5 = = Core Connections, Courses

5 Problems Use a generic rectangle to find each product What multiplication problem does each generic rectangle represent and what is the product? Answers , = = = 0,6 Parent Guide with Extra Practice 5

6 EQUIVALENT FRACTIONS Fractions that name the same value are called equivalent fractions, such as = 6 9. One method for finding equivalent fractions is to use the Multiplicative Identity (Identity Property of Multiplication), that is, multiplying the given fraction by a form of the number such as, 5, etc. In this course we call these fractions a Giant One. Multiplying by does 5 not change the value of a number. For additional information, see the Math Notes boxes in Lesson.. of the Core Connections, Course text or Lesson..8 of the Core Connections, Course text. Example Find three equivalent fractions for. = = 6 = 8 Example Use the Giant One to find an equivalent fraction to 7 using 96ths: 7 =? 96 Which Giant One do you use? Since 96 = 8, the Giant One is 8 8 : = Problems Use the Giant One to find the specified equivalent fraction. Your answer should include the Giant One you use and the equivalent numerator Answers. 5 5, 0., , 7., , 0 6., 8 6 Core Connections, Courses

7 SIMPLIFYING FRACTIONS The Giant One is also useful when simplifying or reducing fractions to lowest terms. Use the greatest common factor of the numerator and denominator for the Giant One. Divide the numerator and denominator by the greatest common factor and write the resulting fraction as a product with the Giant One. What remains is the simplified version of the fraction. Example Example Simplify 0. The greatest common factor of 0 and is. Simplify The greatest common factor of 5 and 60 is 5. Problems Simplify each fraction to lowest terms Answers Parent Guide with Extra Practice 7

8 FRACTION-DECIMAL-PERCENT EQUIVALENTS Fractions, decimals, and percents are different ways to represent the same portion or number. fraction words or pictures decimal percent Representations of a Portion For additional information, see the Math Notes boxes in Lessons.. and..5 of the Core Connections, Course text, Lesson.. of the Core Connections, Course text, or Lesson.. of the Core Connections, Course text. For additional examples and practice, see the Core Connections, Course Checkpoint 5 materials or the Core Connections, Course Checkpoint materials. Examples Decimal to percent: Multiply the decimal by 00. (0.8)(00) = 8% Fraction to percent: Write a proportion to find an equivalent fraction using 00 as the denominator. The numerator is the percent. 5 = x 00 so 5 = = 80% Decimal to fraction: Use the digits in the decimal as the numerator. Use the decimal place value name as the denominator. Simplify as needed. a. 0. = 0 = 5 b. 0.7 = 7 00 Percent to decimal: Divide the percent by 00. % 00 = 0. Percent to fraction: Use 00 as the denominator. Use the percent as the numerator. Simplify as needed. % = 00 = 50 56% = = 5 Fraction to decimal: Divide the numerator by the denominator. 8 = 8 = = 5 8 = 0.65 = = 0.77 = 0.7 To see the process for converting repeating decimals to fractions, see problem - in the Core Connections, Course text, problem 9-05 in the Core Connections, Course text, or the Math Notes boxes referenced above. 8 Core Connections, Courses

9 Problems Convert the fraction, decimal, or percent as indicated.. Change to a decimal.. Change 50% into a fraction in lowest terms.. Change 0.75 to a fraction in lowest terms.. Change 75% to a decimal. 5. Change 0.8 to a percent. 6. Change 5 7. Change 0. to a fraction. 8. Change 8 to a percent. to a decimal. 9. Change to a decimal. 0. Change 0.08 to a percent.. Change 87% to a decimal.. Change 5 to a percent.. Change 0. to a fraction in lowest terms.. Change 65% to a fraction in lowest terms. 5. Change 9 to a decimal. 6. Change 5% to a fraction in lowest terms. 7. Change 8 5 to a decimal. 8. Change.5 to a percent. 9. Change to a decimal. 6 Change the decimal to a percent. 0. Change 7 to a decimal.. Change % to a fraction. Change the fraction to a decimal.. Change 7 to a decimal. 8 Change the decimal to a percent.. Change 0.75 to a percent. Change the percent to a fraction.. Change 0. to a fraction 5. Change 0.75 to a fraction Parent Guide with Extra Practice 9

10 Answers % 6. 0% % % or % ; 6.5% ; %; ; 87.5%. 99 = Core Connections, Courses

11 OPERATIONS WITH FRACTIONS ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS Before fractions can be added or subtracted, the fractions must have the same denominator, that is, a common denominator. We will present two methods for adding or subtracting fractions. AREA MODEL METHOD Step : Copy the problem. Step : Draw and divide equal-sized rectangles for each fraction. One rectangle is cut vertically into an equal number of pieces based on the first denominator (bottom). The other is cut horizontally, using the second denominator. The number of shaded pieces in each rectangle is based on the numerator (top). Label each rectangle, with the fraction it represents. Step : Step : Step 5: Superimpose the lines from each rectangle onto the other rectangle, as if one rectangle is placed on top of the other one. Rename the fractions as sixths, because the new rectangles are divided into six equal parts. Change the numerators to match the number of sixths in each figure. Draw an empty rectangle with sixths, then combine all sixths by shading the same number of sixths in the new rectangle as the total that were shaded in both rectangles from the previous step Parent Guide with Extra Practice

12 Example 5 can be modeled as: so Thus, 5 = 9 0. Example 5 would be: = 0 Problems Use the area model method to add the following fractions Answers = 5 Core Connections, Courses

13 IDENTITY PROPERTY OF MULTIPLICATION (GIANT ONE) METHOD The Giant One, known in mathematics as the Identity Property of Multiplication or Multiplicative Identity, uses a fraction with the same numerator and denominator (, for example) to write an equivalent fraction that helps to create common denominators. For additional information, see the Math Notes box in Lesson.. of the Core Connections, Course text. For additional examples and practice, see the Core Connections, Course Checkpoint materials. Example Add using the Giant One. Step : Multiply both and by Giant s to get a common denominator. = Step : Add the numerators of both fractions to get the answer. = 7 Problems Find each sum or difference. Use the method of your choice Parent Guide with Extra Practice

14 Answers =. =. 9 8 = = To summarize addition and subtraction of fractions:. Rename each fraction with equivalents that have a common denominator.. Add or subtract only the numerators, keeping the common denominator.. Simplify if possible. Core Connections, Courses

15 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF MIXED NUMBERS To subtract mixed numbers, change the mixed numbers into fractions greater than one, find a common denominator, then subtract. Other strategies are also possible. For additional information, see the Math Notes box in Lesson.. of the Core Connections, Course text. For additional examples and practice, see the Core Connections, Course Checkpoint materials. Example Find the difference: 5 5 = 6 5 = 8 5 = = 5 5 = 5 = 8 5 Problems Find each difference Answers or or or 5 65 or 7 Parent Guide with Extra Practice 5

16 To add mixed numbers, it is possible to change the mixed numbers into fractions greater than one, find a common denominator, then add. Many times it is more efficient to add the whole numbers, add the fractions after getting a common denominator, and then simplify the answer. For additional information, see the Math Notes box in Lesson.. of the Core Connections, Course text. For additional examples and practice, see the Core Connections, Course Checkpoint materials. Example Find the sum: = 8 5 = = 5 = = 0 Problems Find each sum Answers = = = = Core Connections, Courses

17 MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS MULTIPLYING FRACTIONS WITH AN AREA MODEL Multiplication of fractions is reviewed using a rectangular area model. Lines that divide the rectangle to represent one fraction are drawn vertically, and the correct number of parts are shaded. Then lines that divide the rectangle to represent the second fraction are drawn horizontally and part of the shaded region is darkened to represent the product of the two fractions. Example 5 8 (that is, of 5 8 ) Step : Draw a generic rectangle and divide it into 8 pieces vertically. Lightly shade 5 of those pieces. Label it 5 8. Step : Use a horizontal line and divide the generic rectangle in half. Darkly shade of 5 and label it. 8 Step : Write a number sentence. 5 8 = 5 6 The rule for multiplying fractions derived from the models above is to multiply the numerators, then multiply the denominators. Simplify the product when possible. For additional information, see the Math Notes boxes in Lesson 5.. of the Core Connections, Course text or Lesson..5 of the Core Connections, Course text. For additional examples and practice, see the Core Connections, Course Checkpoint 7A materials. Parent Guide with Extra Practice 7

18 Example a. 7 7 b Problems Draw an area model for each of the following multiplication problems and write the answer Use the rule for multiplying fractions to find the answer for the following problems. Simplify when possible Answers = = = 5. 0 = = = = = = = = Core Connections, Courses

19 MULTIPLYING MIXED NUMBERS There are two ways to multiply mixed numbers. One is with generic rectangles. For additional information, see the Math Notes box in Lesson.. of the Core Connections, Course text. Example Find the product:. Step : Draw the generic rectangle. Label the top plus. Label the side plus. Step : Write the area of each smaller rectangle in each of the four parts of the drawing. Find the total area: = = = = = Step : Write a number sentence: = Example Find the product: = 6 = = = Problems Use a generic rectangle to find each product Parent Guide with Extra Practice 9

20 Answers You can also multiply mixed numbers by changing them to fractions greater than, then multiplying the numerators and multiplying the denominators. Simplify if possible. For more information, see the Math Notes box in Lesson 5.. of the Core Connections, Course text. For additional examples and practice, see the Core Connections, Course Checkpoint 7A materials. Example Problems Find each product, using the method of your choice. Simplify when possible Answers Core Connections, Courses

21 DIVISION BY FRACTIONS Division by fractions introduces three methods to help students understand how dividing by fractions works. In general, think of division for a problem like 8 as, In 8, how many groups of are there? Similarly, means, In, how many fourths are there? For more information, see the Math Notes boxes in Lessons 7.. and 7.. of the Core Connections, Course text or Lesson.. of the Core Connections, Course text. For additional examples and practice, see the Core Connections, Course Checkpoint 8B materials. The first two examples show how to divide fractions using a diagram. Example Use the rectangular model to divide:. Step : Step : Using the rectangle, we first divide it into equal pieces. Each piece represents. Shade of it. Then divide the original rectangle into four equal pieces. Each section represents. In the shaded section,, there are fourths. Step : Write the equation. = Example In, how many s are there? In there is one full That is, =? shaded and half of another one (that is half of one-half). Start with. So: = (one and one-half halves) Parent Guide with Extra Practice

22 Problems Use the rectangular model to divide Answers. 8 rds 6ths. halves quarters. one fourths 8 sixths three fourths fourths. quarters halves 5. rds 9ths halves ninths The next two examples use common denominators to divide by a fraction. Express both fractions with a common denominator, then divide the first numerator by the second. Example Example 5 => => 0 => 6 5 or 5 6 => 6 => => 8 or 8 Core Connections, Courses

23 One more way to divide fractions is to use the Giant One from previous work with fractions to create a Super Giant One. To use a Super Giant One, write the division problem in fraction form, with a fraction in both the numerator and the denominator. Use the reciprocal of the denominator for the numerator and the denominator in the Super Giant One, multiply the fractions as usual, and simplify the resulting fraction when possible. Example 5 Example 6 = = = = 8 = 9 = Example 7 Example 8 = = 8 9 = Compared to: = 0 9 = 0 9 = 9 Problems Complete the division problems below. Use any method Answers Parent Guide with Extra Practice

24 OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS ADDING AND SUBTRACTING DECIMALS: Write the problem in column form with the decimal points in a vertical column. Write in zeros so that all decimal parts of the number have the same number of digits. Add or subtract as with whole numbers. Place the decimal point in the answer aligned with those above. MULTIPLYING DECIMALS: Multiply as with whole numbers. In the product, the number of decimal places is equal to the total number of decimal places in the factors (numbers you multiplied). Sometimes zeros need to be added to place the decimal point. DIVIDING DECIMALS: When dividing a decimal by a whole number, place the decimal point in the answer space directly above the decimal point in the number being divided. Divide as with whole numbers. Sometimes it is necessary to add zeros to the number being divided to complete the division. When dividing decimals or whole numbers by a decimal, the divisor must be multiplied by a power of ten to make it a whole number. The dividend must be multiplied by the same power of ten. Then divide following the same rules for division by a whole number. For additional information, see the Math Notes boxes in Lesson 5.. of the Core Connections, Course text, or Lessons.. and.. of the Core Connections, Course text. For additional examples and practice, see the Core Connections, Course Checkpoint, Checkpoint 7A, and Checkpoint 8B materials. Example Add 7.7, 8.9,.56, and Example Multiply 0.7 by ( decimal places ) x ( decimal places) (6 decimal places) Example Subtract from Example 5 Divide. by ) Example Multiply 7. by ( decimal places ) x.5 ( decimal places ) ( decimal places) Example 6 Divide 7. by.. First multiply each number by 0 or Core Connections, Courses

25 Problems Parent Guide with Extra Practice 5

26 Divide. Round answers to the hundredth, if necessary Answers or or or , , , Core Connections, Courses

27 MULTIPLYING DECIMALS AND PERCENTS Understanding how many places to move the decimal point in a decimal multiplication problem is connected to the multiplication of fractions and place value. Computations involving calculating a percent of a number are simplified by changing the percent to a decimal. Example Example Multiply (0.) (0.). In fractions this means Knowing that the answer must be in the hundredths place tells you how many places to move the decimal point (to the left) without using the fractions. Multiply (.7) (0.0). In fractions this means Knowing that the answer must be in the thousandths place tells you how many places to move the decimal point (to the left) without using the fractions. (tenths)(tenths) = hundredths Therefore move two places. 0. x (tenths)(hundredths) = thousandths Therefore move three places..7 x Example Calculate 7% of.5 without using a calculator. Since 7% = 7 00 = 0.7, 7% of.5 (0.7) (.5) x Parent Guide with Extra Practice 7

28 Problems Identify the number of places to the left to move the decimal point in the product. Do not compute the product.. (0.) (0.5). (.5) (0.). (.) (.6). (0.6) (.) 5. 7 (.06) 6. (.) (.6) Compute without using a calculator. 7. (0.8) (0.0) 8. (.) (0.) 9. (.75) (0.09) 0. (.5) (.). (.8) (0.0). (7.89) (6.). 8% of % of % of % of % of % of Answers Core Connections, Courses

30 ADDITION OF INTEGERS IN GENERAL When you add integers using the tile model, zero pairs are only formed if the two numbers have different signs. After you circle the zero pairs, you count the uncircled tiles to find the sum. If the signs are the same, no zero pairs are formed, and you find the sum of the tiles. Integers can be added without building models by using the rules below. If the signs are the same, add the numbers and keep the same sign. If the signs are different, ignore the signs (that is, use the absolute value of each number.) Subtract the number closest to zero from the number farthest from zero. The sign of the answer is the same as the number that is farthest from zero, that is, the number with the greater absolute value. Example For, is farther from zero on the number line than, so subtract: =. The answer is, since the, that is, the number farthest from zero, is negative in the original problem. Problems Use either model or the rules above to find these sums.. ( ). 6 ( ). 7 ( 7) ( 8) 8. 0 ( ) 9. ( 6) ( 0) ( ) ( 6) ( 65) ( ) 5. 5 ( ) ( ) ( 8). 6 ( ) ( ) 9. 6 ( ) 9. 0 ( 70) 5. ( 7) ( 8) ( ) 6. 6 ( ) 7. 6 ( 8) 9 8. ( ) 8 ( 6) ( 70) ( ) ( 5) 0 0 Core Connections, Courses

31 Answers SUBTRACTION OF INTEGERS Subtraction of integers may also be represented using the concrete models of number lines and () and ( ) tiles. Subtraction is the opposite of addition so it makes sense to do the opposite actions of addition. When using the number line, adding a positive integer moves to the right so subtracting a positive integer moves to the left. Adding a negative integer move to the left so subtracting a negative integer moves to the right. When using the tiles, addition means to place additional tile pieces into the picture and look for zeros to simplify. Subtraction means to remove tile pieces from the picture. Sometimes you will need to place zero pairs in the picture before you have a sufficient number of the desired pieces to remove. For additional information, see the Math Notes box in Lesson.. of the Core Connections, Course text. Example 6 6 Example ( ) ( ) = ( ) = Parent Guide with Extra Practice

32 Example 6 ( ) Build the first integer. Remove three negatives. Three negatives are left. 6 ( ) = Example ( ) Build the first integer. It is not possible to remove three negatives so add some zeros. Now remove three negatives and circle any zeros. One positive remains. ( ) = Problems Find each difference. Use one of the models for at least the first five differences.. 6 ( ). ( ). 6 ( ) ( ) () 8. ( 0) ( 0). 6 ( ) 5. 6 ( ) 5. 8 ( 8) ( 9) Answers (and possible models) Core Connections, Courses

33 CONNECTING ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION In the next six examples, compare (a) to (b), (c) to (d), and (e) to (f). Notice that examples (a), (c), and (e) are subtraction problems and examples (b), (d), and (f) are addition problems. The answers to each pair of examples are the same. Also notice that the second integers in the pairs are opposites (that is, they are the same distance from zero on opposite sides of the number line) while the first integers in each pair are the same. a. ( 6) ( 6) = 8 b. 6 6 = 8 c. ( ) ( ) = d. = e. ( ) ( ) = f. = You can conclude that subtracting an integer is the same as adding its opposite. This fact is summarized below. SUBTRACTION OF INTEGERS IN GENERAL To find the difference of two integers, change the subtraction sign to an addition sign. Next change the sign of the integer you are subtracting, and then apply the rules for addition of integers. For more information on the rules for subtracting integers, see the Math Notes box in Lesson.. of the Core Connections, Course text. Parent Guide with Extra Practice

34 Examples Use the rule for subtracting integers stated above to find each difference (that is, subtract). a. 9 ( ) becomes 9 () = b. 9 ( ) becomes 9 () = c. 9 becomes 9 ( ) = d. 9 becomes 9 ( ) = Problems Use the rule stated above to find each difference.. 9 ( ) ( ) ( 5) ( 6) ( 6). 5 ( ) ( 5) ( 6). 5 ( 5) 6. 5 ( ) 6 ( 7) 5. 5 ( 5) ( 6) ( ). ( ) 5. 0 ( ) 6. 5 ( 9) 7. 7 ( 7) ( ) ( 55) ( 00) Answers Core Connections, Courses

35 MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION OF INTEGERS Multiply and divide integers two at a time. If the signs are the same, their product will be positive. If the signs are different, their product will be negative. Follow the same rules for fractions and decimals. Remember to apply the correct order of operations when you are working with more than one operation. For additional information, see the Math Notes box in Lesson.. of the Core Connections, Course text. Examples a. = 6 or = 6 b. ( ) = 6 or () () = 6 c. = or = d. ( ) ( ) = or ( ) ( ) = e. ( ) = 6 or ( ) = 6 f. ( ) = or ( ) = g. 9 ( 7) = 6 or 7 9 = 6 h. 6 9 = 7 or 9 ( 6) = 7 Problems Use the rules above to find each product or quotient.. ( )(). ( )(). ( )(5). ( )(8) 5. ()( 9) 6. ()( 8) 7. (5)( ) 8. (05)( 7) 9. ( 7)( 6) 0. ( 7)( 9). ( )( 8). ( 7)( ). ( 8)( )(). ( )( )( ) 5. ( 5)( )(8)() 6. ( 5)( )( 6)( ) 7. ( )( 5)()(8) 8. ( )( 5)( )( 8) 9. ( )( 5)()( 8) 0. ( 5)()( 8). 0 ( 5). 8 ( ). 96 ( ). 8 ( 6) ( ) ( 5). 08 ( ). 6. ( ). 5 ( 6) ( ) ( 7) ( 5) ( ) 0. 7 Parent Guide with Extra Practice 5

37 DIAMOND PROBLEMS In every Diamond Problem, the product of the two side numbers (left and right) is the top number and their sum is the bottom number. Diamond Problems are an excellent way of practicing addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of positive and negative integers, decimals and fractions. They have the added benefit of preparing students for factoring binomials in algebra. product ab a b a b sum Example 0 0 The top number is the product of 0 and 0, or 00. The bottom number is the sum of 0 and 0, or 0 0 = Example 8 The product of the right number and is 8. Thus, if you divide 8 by you get, the right number. The sum of and is 6, the bottom number. 8 6 Example 6 To get the left number, subtract from 6, 6 =. The product of and is 8, the top number. 8 6 Example 8 The easiest way to find the side numbers in a situation like this one is to look at all the pairs of factors of 8. They are: and 8, and, and, and 8 and. Only one of these pairs has a sum of : and. Thus, the side numbers are and. 8 Parent Guide with Extra Practice 7

38 Problems Complete each of the following Diamond Problems x y a 8b b a 7a Answers. and. and 6. 6 and 6. 6 and and and and and and and 50. and 7 5. and. xy and x y. a and a 5. 6b and 8b 6. a and a 8 Core Connections, Courses

39 ABSOLUTE VALUE The absolute value of a number is the distance of the number from zero. Since the absolute value represents a distance, without regard to direction, absolute value is always non-negative The symbol for absolute value is. On the number line above, both 5 and 5 are 5 units from zero. This distance is displayed as 5 = 5 and is read, The absolute value of negative five equals five. Similarly, 5 = 5 means, The absolute value of five is five. x = 5 means that x could be either 5 or 5 because both of those points are five units from zero. The problem x = 5 has no solution because the absolute value of a number has to be positive. Do not confuse this fact when a negative sign appears outside the absolute value symbol. For additional information, see the Math Notes box in Lesson.. of the Core Connections, Course text. Examples a. 6 = 6 b. 7 = 7 c. x = 9 x = 9 or 9 d. x = no solution e. x = x = or f. 8 = 5 = 5 Part (d) has no solution, since any absolute value is positive. In part (e), the problem asks for the opposite of x, which is negative. Problems Determine the absolute value or the values of x.... x =. x = 6 5. x = 6. x = x = 9. x = x = Make a table using x-values from to to draw a graph of each equation. 6. y = x 7. y = x 8. y = x 9. y = x 0. y = x Parent Guide with Extra Practice 9

40 Answers...,. 6, 6 5., 6., no solution 9., , y y y y y x x x x x ORDER OF OPERATIONS When students are first given expressions like, some students think the answer is and some think the answer is. This is why mathematicians decided on a method to simplify an expression that uses more than one operation so that everyone can agree on the answer. There is a set of rules to follow that provides a consistent way for everyone to evaluate expressions. These rules, called the Order of Operations, must be followed in order to arrive at a correct answer. As indicated by the name, these rules state the order in which the mathematical operations are to be completed. For additional information, see the Math Notes boxes in Lesson 6.. of the Core Connections, Course text, Lesson.. of the Core Connections, Course text, or Lesson.. of the Core Connections, Course text. For additional examples and practice, see the Core Connections, Course Checkpoint 5 materials or the Core Connections, Course Checkpoint materials. The first step is to organize the numerical expression into parts called terms, which are single numbers or products of numbers. A numerical expression is made up of a sum or difference of terms. Examples of numerical terms are:, (6), 6(9 ),, (5 ), and 6 6. For the problem above,, the terms are circled at right. Each term is simplified separately, giving 8. Then the terms are added: 8 =. Thus, =. 0 Core Connections, Courses

41 Example To evaluate an expression: (6 ) 0 Circle each term in the expression. Simplify each term until it is one number by: Simplifying the expressions within the parentheses. Evaluating each exponential part (e.g., ). Multiplying and dividing from left to right. Finally, combine terms by adding or subtracting from left to right. (6 ) 0 () 0 9 () Example 5 8 6( 5 ) 5 a. Circle the terms. b. Simplify inside the parentheses. c. Simplify the exponents. d. Multiply and divide from left to right. Finally, add and subtract from left to right. a ( 5 ) 5 b ( 9) 5 c ( 9) 5 d Example 0 57 a. Circle the terms. b. Multiply and divide left to right, including exponents. Add or subtract from left to right. a b. 0 6 Parent Guide with Extra Practice

42 Problems Circle the terms, then simplify each expression (9 ) 7. 6(7 ) (8 ) ( 5) (7 7) 8. (5 ) (9 ). 9() 6 (6 ) (7 ) (9 ) ( ) 8. 6 (6 ) (5 ) 9. ( 5 ) ( 5 ) Answers Core Connections, Courses

43 CHOOSING A SCALE The axis (or axes) of a graph must be marked with equal-sized spaces called intervals. Marking the uniform intervals on the axes is called scaling the axes. The difference between consecutive markings tells the size (scale) of each interval. Note that each axis of a two-dimensional graph may use a different scale. Sometimes the axis or set of axes is not provided. A student must count the number of usable spaces on the graph paper. How many spaces are usable depends in part on how large the graph will be and how much space will be needed for labeling beside each axis. Follow these steps to scale each axis of a graph.. Find the difference between the smallest and largest numbers (the range) you need to put on an axis.. Count the number of intervals (spaces) you have on your axis.. Divide the range by the number of intervals to find the interval size.. Label the marks on the axis using the interval size. Sometimes dividing the range by the number of intervals produces an interval size that makes it difficult to interpret the location of points on the graph. The student may then exercise judgment and round the interval size up (always up, if rounded at all) to a number that is convenient to use. Interval sizes like,, 5, 0, 0, 5, 50, 00, etc., work well. For more information, see the Math Notes box in Lesson.. of the Core Connections, Course text. Example. The difference between 0 and 60 is 60.. The number line is divided into 5 equal intervals.. 60 divided by 5 is.. The marks are labeled with multiples of the interval size Example. The difference between 00 and 0 is 00.. There are intervals.. 00 = 75. The axis is labeled with multiples of Parent Guide with Extra Practice

44 Example. The difference on the vertical axis is = 750. (The origin is (0, 0).) On the horizontal axis the range is 6 0 = 6.. There are 5 spaces vertically and spaces horizontally.. The vertical interval size is = 50. The horizontal interval is 6 =.. The axes are labeled appropriately Example Sometimes the axes extend in the negative direction.. The range is 0 ( 5) = 5.. There are 7 intervals along the line = 5. Label the axes with multiples of five Problems Scale each axis: Core Connections, Courses

45 7. y 8. y x Use fractions. y y x x x Answers.,, 6, 8, 0,. 9, 6,, 0,, 6. 86, 0, 8,., 8, 8, 8, 8 5.,, 0, 9, , 6,,, 0, 8 7. x:,, 6, 8, y:, 8,, 6, 9. x: 60, 0, 80, 0, 60 y: 0, 80, 0, 60, 0 8. x:, 6, 9, 5, 8 y:, 8,, 0, 0. x :,,,, y :,,,, Parent Guide with Extra Practice 5

46 FOUR-QUADRANT GRAPHING The graphing that was started in earlier grades is now extended to include negative values, and students will graph algebraic equations with two variables. For addition information, see problem - in the Core Connections, Course text and problem -0 in the Core Connections, Course text. GRAPHING POINTS Points on a coordinate graph are identified by two numbers in an ordered pair written as (x, y). The first number is the x coordinate of the point and the second number is the y coordinate. Taken together, the two coordinates name exactly one point on the graph. The examples below show how to place a point on an xy coordinate graph. Example Graph point A(, ). Go right units from the origin (0, 0), then go down units. Mark the point. y Example Plot the point C(, 0) on a coordinate grid. Go to the left from the origin units, but do not go up or down. Mark the point. y x C x A(, ) 6 Core Connections, Courses

47 Problems. Name the coordinate pair for each point shown on the grid below.. Use the ordered pair to locate each point on a coordinate grid. Place a dot at each point and label it with its letter name. Z y U S K(0, ) L( 5, 0) M(, ) N(, ) y W x O(, ) P(, 6) x V Q(, 5) R( 5, ) T T(, 6) Answers. S(, ) T(, 6) U(0, 6) V(, ) W( 6, 0) Z( 5, ). L N y x M R P T K O Q Parent Guide with Extra Practice 7

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