# Chapter 2 Formulas and Decimals

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2 In the above example, to compare to 0.05 we can add two zeros to the end of Remember this does not change its value Notice it is now easy to compare them. Which is larger 500 or 35? Obviously 500 is larger than 35 so 0.05 is larger than (In Statistics this tells us that the P-value is significantly low.) Try another one. Compare 4.3 to Again if we add zeros to the 4.3 so that it ends in the same place value we get the following Which is larger, or 4997? Since is larger than 4997 we see that 4.3 is larger than Try the following examples with your instructor. Example 1: Which is larger or 0.03? Example : Which is larger or 1.0? Rounding Decimals To correctly round a decimal, we need to decide to which place value we want to round to. We then look to the right of that place value. If the number to the right is 5 or above, we will round up by adding one to the place value. If the number to the right is 4 or below, we will round down by leaving the place value alone. The key to remember is that after rounding, we want to stop after the place value so that the number is simpler to use. 0

3 For example round to the hundredths place. The hundredths place is the 3. Looking to the right of it we see a 7. Since 7 is large (5 or above) we round up by adding 1 to the place value. So the 3 becomes 4 and we cut off the rest of the numbers Let s try another example. Round to the tenths place. The tenths place is the 8. Looking to the right of it we see a 3. Since 3 is small (4 or below) we round down by leaving the place value alone. So the 8 stays as it is and we cut off the rest of the numbers Try the following examples with your instructor. Pay close attention to the place values. Example 3: Round to the thousandths place. Example 4: Round to the ones place. Example 5: Round to the tenths place. Addition and Subtraction Let s look at an example. Let s add ; It is important to line up the place values before adding or subtracting. Let us rewrite 7.9 as so that both numbers end in the thousandths place. Now we add exactly as if the numbers were whole numbers

4 Similarly to subtract, we can add zeros to make sure the numbers end in the same place value. Now we can line up the place values and subtract. Let s subtract First let s rewrite the 9 as so that the place values line up. Now subtract. Remember an easy way to borrow is to borrow 1 from 9000, which leaves Then add 10 to the last place value Try the next few examples with your instructor. Example 6: Example 7: Example 8: Example 9:

5 Practice Problems Section A 1. Which is larger 0.08 or ?. Which is smaller 1.13 or 1.08? 3. Which is smaller or ? 4. Which is larger 34.5 or ? 5. Which is larger 0.05 or ? 6. Which is smaller or 8.7? 7. Round to the thousandths place. 8. Round to the ones place. 9. Round to the tenths place. 10. Round to the hundredths place. 11. Round to the ones place. 1. Round to the thousandths 13. Round to the tenths place. 14. Round to the hundredths 15. Round to the ten-thousandths place. Perform the indicated operation for # A formula we have seen before is the profit formula P = R C where P is profit, R is revenue and C is cost. 40. Find the profit if R = \$ and C = \$ Find the profit if R = \$13000 and C = \$ Another formula we have seen is the perimeter of a rectangular region in geometry. P = L +W + L + W 4. Find the perimeter of a rectangular field that is 1.4 miles by 0.85 miles. 43. Find the distance around the outside of a room that is 13.5 feet by 10.8 feet. 3

7 Example : 1. x Example 3: x 100 Example 4: 1000 x Recall that exponents are repeated multiplication. So another example: 3 0. = 0. x 0. x 0. = (answer). 1.3 means 1.3 x 1.3 = Here is Try the following examples with your instructor. Example 5: Simplify.5 Example 6: Simplify Example 7: Let s see if you are ready to find the area of a circle using the formula A r. Let s see if we can find the area of a circle with a radius 1.5 cm. (Remember 3.14 and we should always do exponents before multiplying.) 5

8 Practice Problems Section B Perform the indicated operation for # x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 0.3 x x 10 x x 8 x A company makes a monthly profit of \$ The total profit after m months is given by the formula T = x m. 8. Find the total profit after 1 months (1 year). 9. Find the total profit after 36 months (3 years). The volume of a can (circular cylinder) is given by the formula V and h is the height. (Use 3.14 ) r h where r is the radius 30. Find out how much water a water tank can hold if the radius of the tank is 1.5 meters and the height is 10 meters. (Use 3.14 ) 31. What is the volume of a cylinder shaped trash can that has a radius of.1 feet and a height of 4 feet? (Use 3.14 ) Section C Formulas with Dividing Decimals x Look at the following z-score formula again from Statistics. z. Suppose we want to calculate the z-score if x 17.6 pounds, 13.8 pounds, and.5 pounds. Not only do we need to be able to subtract decimals, but we also need to be able to divide decimals. So let s review dividing decimals some. 6

9 Much like multiplying decimals, the key to dividing decimals is that we need to make sure to put the decimal in the correct place. We need to make sure that the number we are dividing by (divisor) is a whole number. If the divisor is a whole number then the decimal in the answer will be directly above where it is in the number we are dividing. That is pretty confusing, but I hope an example will help clear it up. Look at One thing to note is that the first number (dividend) always goes on the inside of the long division. The number you are dividing by (divisor) goes on the outside Since the divisor is not a whole number, we need to move the decimal one place to the right. We will have to move the decimal inside 1 place to the right as well. Hence the division becomes: Notice the dividend does not have to be a whole number. Only the divisor does. Now divide as if they are whole numbers. You may need to add zeros to the end of the dividend if it does not come out even Notice we keep adding zeros and dividing until we get a zero remainder or we see a repeating pattern. In this case we got a zero remainder after the thousandths place. Notice also the decimal is directly above where it is in the dividend. This again is only the case when the divisor is a whole number. We can also use estimation to see if the decimal is in the right place. 14 is slightly over half of 5, so the answer should be a little bigger than one-half (0.5). Occasionally we divide decimals by powers of 10 (10, 100, 1000, etc.) Remember when you multiply by a power of 10 the decimal simply moves to the right. It is similar with division. If you divide by a power of 10, you move the decimal to the left the same number of places as the number of zeros in your power of 10. For example moves the decimal 3 places to the left so is the answer. A good way to remember the left and right rules is to think of it as bigger and smaller. When we multiply by a number like 1000, we are making the number larger, so the decimal has to move to the right. When we divide by a number like 1000, we are making the number smaller, so the decimal has to move to the left. 7

10 Now you try some examples with your instructor. Example 1: Example : Example 3: Example 4: Fractions can also be converted to decimals simply by dividing the numerator by the denominator. Remember the denominator is the divisor and has to go on the outside of the long division. For example the fraction 5/8 is really 5 8, so if we add zeros to the 5 and divide, we get the following: Notice we did not have to move the decimal as our divisor 8 was already a whole number. 8

11 Try a couple more examples with your instructor. Example 5: Convert 3/16 into a decimal. Example 6: Convert 5/6 into a decimal. Place a bar over any repeating part. Practice Problems Section C Divide the following and write your answer as a decimal or whole number Convert 1/4 into a decimal. 3. Convert /3 into a decimal. 33. Convert 3/5 into a decimal 34. Convert 5/9 into a decimal. 9

12 35. Convert 3/8 into a decimal. 36. Convert 7/99 into a decimal. 37. Convert 3/5 into a decimal 38. Convert 7/4 into a decimal. 39. Jim works in construction and gets paid \$ every four weeks. How much does he make each week? 40. Miko needs \$ for a down payment on a home. If she can save \$860.0 each month, how many months will it take her to get the money she needs. (Not counting interest). Let s see if we can solve the z-score problem from the beginning of the section. Use the x formula z 41. Find the z-score if x 17.6 pounds, 13.8 pounds, and 1.6 pounds. 4. Find the z-score if x 73.1 inches, 69. inches, and.5 inches. The following formula calculates the volume of a cone in geometry. V rh 43. Find the volume of a cone with a radius of 4 cm and a height of 1. cm. (Use 3.14 ) 44. Find the volume of a cone with a radius of 0.5 yards and a height of yards. (Use 3.14 ) 3 Section D Scientific Notation Numbers in science and statistics classes are sometimes very small (like the size of an atom) or very large (like the distance from Earth to the Sun. Numbers like that can have a huge amount of zeros and are very difficult to read, let alone interpret. Scientific Notation is a way of writing numbers that makes them more manageable, especially very small and very large quantities. One number that is very important in Statistics is P-value. P-value is a number very close to zero. For example you may see a P-value = This is a difficult number to interpret. Let s talk about scientific notation and see if there is an easier way of writing this number. To understand scientific notation we need to first review multiplying and dividing decimals by powers of ten. These concepts were covered in our last two sections. Notice a power of 10 like is a 1 with four zeros or When we multiply a decimal by 10, we move the decimal 4 4 places to the right (making it larger). When we divide a decimal by 10, we move the decimal 4 places to the left (making it smaller). 30

13 4 4 Dividing a decimal by 10 is the same as multiplying by 10. The negative exponent means it is 4 in the denominator of a fraction (division). Let s review this idea. So if I multiply 3.5 x 10 = x = If I multiply 3.5 x 10 = = Multiplying by a negative power of 10 makes the decimal small. Multiplying by a positive power of 10, makes the number large. OK, now we are ready for scientific notation. A number is in scientific notation if it is a number between 1 and 10 1 number 10, times a 4 power of 10. For example we saw above that = 3.5 x 10. This is scientific notation. The first number is between 1 and 10 and we are multiplying by a power of also equals 3 35 x 10. This is not scientific notation since the first number is not between 1 and 10. How do we convert a large or small number into scientific notation? Let s look at an example. Suppose we are looking at a distance in astronomy of 83,000,000 miles. To write this number in scientific notation, ask yourself where the decimal would be to make it a number between 1 and 10. Right now the decimal is after the last zero. To be a number between 1 and 10 the decimal needs to be between the 8 and 3. So our scientific notation number should be 8.3 x some power of 10. What power of 10 should we use? We moved the decimal 7 places so the 7 7 power of 10 should be 10 or 10, but which one? Do we need 8.3 to get larger or smaller so it will equal 83,000,000 miles? Larger of course. So we should use the positive exponent since 7 that makes numbers larger. So the scientific notation for 83,000,000 miles is 8.3 x 10. Now you try the next couple examples with your instructor. Example 1: Write the number in scientific notation. Example : Write the number 63,500 pounds in scientific notation. 31

14 Practice Problems Section D Convert the following numbers into scientific notation 1., , , , ,400, , ,00, ,000, ,450, The following numbers are in scientific notation. Write the actual number they represent x. 6.4 x x x x x x x x x x x How can we tell if a number in scientific notation represents a large or small number? 3. Let s see if you are ready to tackle the P-value example from the beginning of the section. Remember the P-value was Write this number in scientific notation. We often compare P-values to 0.05, so was this P-value larger or smaller than 0.05? 33. Statistics computer programs can also calculate P-values, but they are often given in 6 scientific notation. Here is a printout from the Stat Program. (P-value = x 10 ) What number is this scientific notation representing? Is it larger or smaller than 0.05? 34. A science journal stated that the distance from the Earth to Pluto is approximately 4.67 billion (4,670,000,000) miles. Write this number in scientific notation. 35. An astronomy book stated that the distance between Mars and the Sun is approximately 8.79 x 10 kilometers. Since this is scientific notation, what is the actual number? 36. A chemistry book estimates that the diameter of a particular atom is about centimeter. Write this number in scientific notation. 37. A student said that the scientific notation for 6,800 is 68 x 10. Why is this not scientific notation? 3

15 Section E Significant Figure Rules When adding, subtracting, multiplying or dividing decimals it is important to know where to round the answer to. Most science classes base their rounding on something called significant figures. When taking science classes, it is vital to know the rules for significant figures. Let s start by defining what numbers in a decimal are significant and which are not. This will help us determine how many significant figures a number has. A. Non-zero numbers (1,,3,4,,9) are always significant. For example.5834 has 5 significant figures. B. Zeros between non-zero numbers are also considered significant. For example has 6 significant figures. C. Zeros at the end of a whole number are not considered significant. For example 31,000 has only significant figures. D. Zeros to the right of a decimal and before any non-zero numbers are not considered significant. For example has only significant figures. Significant figures and scientific notation relate well to one another. You will only use significant numbers in the scientific notation representation of the number. For example we said that has only two significant figures. Notice the scientific notation for this number also only has two significant figures. Now you try the next couple examples with your instructor. Example 1: How many significant figures does the number have? Example : How many significant figures does the number have? Example 3: How many significant figures does the number 30,800,000 have? 33

16 Rounding Rules with Scientific Notation A. When adding or subtracting decimals, identify the number that has the least number of place values to the right of the decimal. Round the sum or difference to the same place value. For example (Notice the.5 has only 1 decimal place to the right of the decimal. Since this was the least amount we rounded our answer to the same accuracy.) B. When multiplying or dividing decimals, identify the number that has the least significant figures. Round your answer so that it has the same number of significant figures. For example (notice that has 5 significant figures and 17.4 has 3 significant figures. Since the least is 3, we will want our answer to have 3 significant figures. So we had to round to the ones place to have 3 significant figures. Now you try the next couple examples with your instructor. Example 4: Subtract the following, and use significant figure rounding rules to round the answer to the appropriate place Example 5: Divide the following, and use significant figure rounding rules to round the answer to the appropriate place Example 6: Multiply the following, and use significant figure rounding rules to round the answer to the appropriate place

17 Practice Problems Section E 1: How many significant figures does the number have? : How many significant figures does the number have? 3: How many significant figures does the number 700,000 have? 4: How many significant figures does the number 8.00 have? 5: How many significant figures does the number have? 6: How many significant figures does the number 9,60,000 have? 7: How many significant figures does the number have? 8: How many significant figures does the number have? 9: How many significant figures does the number 3.1 have? 10: How many significant figures does the number 90 have? 11: How many significant figures does the number have? 1: How many significant figures does the number 1,350 have? 13: How many significant figures does the number have? 14: How many significant figures does the number have? 15: How many significant figures does the number 8,700 have? Add or subtract the following, and use significant figure rounding rules to round the answer to the appropriate place Multiply or divide the following, and use significant figure rounding rules to round the answer to the appropriate place

18 Section F Estimating Square Roots and Order of Operations with Decimals Let s look at the distance formula again. The distance between two points is d x x y y, but suppose the numbers we are plugging in are decimals. What 1 1 do we do then? We already went over the order of operations previously. It will be very similar, but how do we estimate a square root when it is not a perfect square like 4 or 9? Remember, the square root is the number we can square that gives us the number that is under the square root. For example, 49 means what number can we square (multiply by itself) to get 49? The answer is 7 of course, since But what happens when the number under the radical is not a perfect square. Perfect squares are 1,4,9,16,5,36,49,64,81, Let s look at 13 for example. Can we approximate this radical? What we will do is try to find two numbers that 13 falls in between that we do know the square root of : like 9 and 16. Notice , but 9 3 and 16 4 so that implies Hence 13 is a decimal between 3 and 4. Notice 13 is in the middle between 9 and 16, but it is slightly closer to 16 than it is to 9. So think of a decimal in the middle of 3 and 4 but slightly closer to 4. Let s guess 3.6. Remember we are looking for a number that when we square it (multiply times itself), the answer is close to 13. Well 3.6 x 3.6 = 1.96 which is very close to 13. Hence 3.6 is a pretty good approximation. Do the following examples with your instructor. Example 1: Estimate 59 as a decimal rounded to the tenths place. Example : Estimate 103 as a decimal rounded to the tenths place. 36

19 Let s review order of operations. The order of operations is the order we perform calculations. Remember, if you do a problem out of order, you will often get the wrong answer. Here is the order of operations. 1. Parenthesis. Exponents and Square Roots 3. Multiplication and Division in order from left to right. 4. Addition and Subtraction in order from left to right. For example, lets look at We do parenthesis first, so = 0.6. We now do exponents, so So now we have (0.36) 100 Multiplication and division in order from left to right is next. Notice the division must be done before any addition or subtraction. (0.36) Adding the last two numbers gives us = as our final answer. Now do the following examples with your instructor. Example 3: Simplify Example 4: Simplify

20 Practice Problems Section F Estimate the following square roots to the tenths place Perform the indicated operations for # (estimate to tenths place) Now let s see if we are ready to tackle the distance formula with decimals. Round your answers to the tenths place. d x x y y 1 1. Find the distance if x1 1.4, x 3.8, y1 7.1, and y Find the distance if x1 6.1, x 10., y1 1.1, and y Find the distance if x1.1, x 3.7, y1 1.4, and y 14.6 A formula we referenced at the beginning of our book is the compound interest formula r A P 1 n nt. 5. Find the future value in the account A when P = \$000, r = 0.04, n = and t = 1 year. 6. Find the future value in the account A when P = \$5000, r = 0.1, n = 1 and t = years. 7. Find the future value in the account A when P = \$10000, r = 0.06, n = and t = 1 year. 38

21 Chapter Review In Module II, we reviewed how to do calculations with decimals. We looked at the importance of place value in addition and subtraction. We looked at how to determine where the decimal should go in multiplication and division problems. We learned how to write a number in scientific notation and estimate square roots and we reviewed the order of operations. With these tools, we looked at some real formula applications. Chapter Review Problems Perform the indicated operation for # x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Which number is larger 0.07 or ? 4. Which number is smaller or 1.5? 43. Round to the tenths place. 44. Round to the hundredths place. 45. Round to the thousandths place. 46. Write the number 530,000,000 in scientific notation. 39

22 47. Write the number in scientific notation. 48. What number is represented by 4. x 49. What number is represented by 1.16 x 5 10? 7 10? 50: How many significant figures does the number 1.7 have? 51: How many significant figures does the number have? 5: How many significant figures does the number,900,000 have? For #53-56, perform the operations and use significant figure rounding rules to round the answer to the appropriate place Perform the indicated operations for # (estimate to tenths) (estimate to tenths) (exact) ( ) (estimate to tenths) The surface area of a box is given by the formula S LW LH WH. 6. Find the surface area of a box if L = 8.3cm, W = 6.3 cm, and H = 5.7 cm. 63. Find the surface area of a box if L =.4 in, W = 1.6 in, and H = 1. in. Let s look at the z-score formula again. ( x ) z 64. Find the z-score if x 6., 5.6, and Find the z-score if x 35.8, 33.7, and 0.5 r Use the compound interest formula A P 1 n nt. 66. Find the future value in the account A when P = \$6000, r = 0.04, n = 1 and t = years. 67. Find the future value in the account A when P = \$000, r = 0.07, n = and t = 1 year. 40

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