2 Urban Patterns A large city is stimulating and agitating, entertaining and frightening, welcoming and cold. A city has something for everyone, but a lot of those things are for people who are different from you. Urban geography helps to sort out the complexities of familiar and unfamiliar patterns in urban areas
3 Key Issues 1. Where have urban areas grown? 2. Where are people distributed within urban areas? 3. Why do inner cities have distinctive problems? 4. Why do suburbs have distinctive problems?
4 Urban Geographers Geographers help explain what makes city and countryside different places. Urban geographers are interested in the where question at two scales. First, geographers examine the global distribution of urban settlements. Geographers are also interested in where people and activities are distributed within urban spaces. Models have been developed to explain why differences occur within urban areas. The major physical, social, and economic contrasts are between inner-city and suburban areas. We all experience the interplay between globalization and local diversity of urban settlements.
5 Urban Geographers Continued Many downtowns have a collection of high-rise buildings, towers, and landmarks that are identifiable even to people who have never visited them. On the other hand, suburban houses, streets, schools, and shopping centers look very much alike from one American city to another. In more developed regions, people are increasingly likely to live in suburbs. People wish to spread across the landscape to avoid urban problems, but at the same time they want convenient connections to the city s jobs, shops, culture, and recreation. Geographers describe where different types of people live and try to explain the reasons for the observed patterns. Although different internal structures characterize urban areas in the United States and elsewhere, the problems arising from current spatial trends are quite similar.
6 Urban Settlements Urbanization Increasing urban percentage Increasing urban populations Defining urban settlements Social differences between urban and rural settlements Physical definitions of urban settlements
7 Percent Urban Population Fig. 13-1: Percent of the population living in urban areas is usually higher in MDCs than in LDCs.
8 Increasing Percentage of People in Cities The world map of percentage urban looks very much like the world map of percentage of workers in services. The percentage of urban dwellers is high in more developed countries because over the past 200 years rural residents have migrated from the countryside to work in the factories and services that are concentrated in cities. In more developed countries the process of urbanization that began around 1800 has largely ended, because the percentage living in urban areas simply cannot increase much more. As in more developed countries, people in less developed countries are pushed off the farms by declining opportunities. However, urban jobs arc by no means assured in LDCs experiencing rapid overall population growth.
9 Large Cities Fig. 13-2: Cities with 2 million or more people. Most of the largest cities are now in LDCs.
10 Percent Urban by Region Fig. 13-2b: Although under half of the people in most less developed regions are urban, Latin America and the Middle East have urban percentages comparable to MDCs.
11 Defining Urban Settlements Defining where urban areas end and rural areas begin is difficult. Geographers and other social scientists have formulated definitions that distinguish between urban and rural areas according to social and physical factors.
12 Social Differences between Urban and Rural Settlements Louis Wirth argued during the 1930s that an urban dweller follows a different way of life from a rural dweller, (and) defined a city as a permanent settlement that has three characteristics: large size, high population density, and socially heterogeneous people.
13 Large Size If you live in a rural settlement, you know most of the other inhabitants and may even be related to many of them. In contrast, if you live in an urban settlement, you can know only a small percentage of the other residents. You meet most of them in specific roles. Most of these relationships are contractual.
14 High Density According to Wirth, high density also produces social consequences for urban residents. Each person in an urban settlement plays a special role or performs a specific task to allow the complex urban system to function smoothly. At the same time, high density also encourages people to compete for survival in limited space. Social groups compete to occupy the same territory, and the stronger group dominates.
15 Social Heterogeneity A person has greater freedom in an urban settlement than in a rural settlement to pursue an unusual profession, sexual orientation, or cultural interest. Regardless of values and preferences, in a large urban settlement individuals can find people with similar interests. Yet despite the freedom and independence of an urban settlement, people may also feel lonely and isolated. Wirth s three-part distinction between urban and rural settlements may still apply in LDCs. But in more developed societies, social distinctions between urban and rural residents have blurred.
16 Physical Definitions of Urban Settlements The removal of walls and the rapid territorial expansion of cities have blurred the traditional physical differences. Urban settlements today can be physically defined in three ways: by legal boundary, as continuously built-up area, and as a functional area.
17 Legal Definition of a City The term city defines an urban settlement that has been legally incorporated into an independent, selfgoverning unit. In the United States, a city that is surrounded by suburbs is sometimes called a central city.
18 Urbanized Area An urbanized area consists of a central city plus its contiguous built-up suburbs where population density exceeds 1,000 persons per square mile (400 persons per square kilometer). Approximately 60 percent of the U.S. population lives in urban areas, divided about equally between central cities and surrounding jurisdictions. Working with urbanized areas is difficult because few statistics are available about them. Urbanized areas do not correspond to government boundaries.
19 St. Louis Metropolitan Area Fig. 13-3: The metropolitan area of St. Louis is spread over several counties and two states. It is also a diversified trade center, given its position on the Mississippi River.
20 Megalopolis Fig. 13-4: The Boston Washington corridor contains about one-quarter of U.S. population.
21 Urban Structure Three models of urban structure Concentric zone model Sector model Multiple nuclei model Geographic applications Use of the models outside North America European cities Less developed countries
22 Three Models of Urban Structure Sociologists, economists, and geographers have developed three models to help explain where different types of people tend to live in an urban area: the concentric zone, sector, and multiple nuclei models. The three models describing the internal social structure of cities were all developed in Chicago, a city on a prairie. Except for Lake Michigan to the east, few physical features have interrupted the region s growth. The three models were later applied to cities elsewhere in the United States and in other countries.
23 Concentric Zone Model Fig. 13-5: In the concentric zone model, a city grows in a series of rings surrounding the CBD.
24 Sector Model Fig. 13-6: In the sector model, a city grows in a series of wedges or corridors extending out from the CBD.
25 Multiple Nuclei Model Fig. 13-7: The multiple nuclei model views a city as a collection of individual centers, around which different people and activities cluster.
26 Geographic Applications of the Models The three models help us understand where people with different social characteristics tend to live within an urban area. Effective use of the models depends on the availability of data at the scale of individual neighborhoods. Urban areas in the United States are divided into census tracts, which contain approximately 5,000 residents and correspond where possible to neighborhood boundaries. Every decade, the U.S. Bureau of the Census publishes data summarizing the characteristics of the residents living in each tract.
27 Social Area Analysis- Indianapolis: Percent Renters Fig. 13-8: The distribution of renters in Indianapolis illustrates the concentric zone model.
28 Indianapolis: Household Income Fig. 13-9: The distribution of high income households in Indianapolis is an example of a sector model.
29 Indianapolis: Ethnic Patterns Fig : The distribution of minorities in Indianapolis is an example of a multiple nuclei model.
30 Use of the Models outside North America American urban areas differ from those elsewhere in the world. Social groups in other countries may not have the same reasons for selecting particular neighborhoods. As in the United States, wealthier people in European cities cluster along a sector extending out from the CBD. In Paris, for example, the rich moved to the southwestern hills to be near the royal palace. The preference was reinforced in the nineteenth century during the Industrial Revolution Factories were built to the south, east, and north along river valleys, but relatively few were built on the southwestern hills.
31 European Cities Similar high-class sectors developed in other European cities, typically on higher elevation and near royal palaces. However, in contrast to most U.S. cities, wealthy Europeans still live in the inner rings of the high-class sector, not just in the suburbs. A central location provides proximity to the region s best shops, restaurants, cafes, and cultural facilities. By living in high-density, centrally located townhouses and apartments, wealthy people in Europe do not have large private yards and must go to public parks for open space. To meet the desire for large tracts of privately owned land, some wealthy Europeans purchase abandoned farm buildings in clustered rural settlements for use as second homes on weekends and holidays. In the past, poorer people also lived in the center of European cities. Social segregation was vertical: Richer people lived on the first or second floors, while poorer people occupied the dark, dank basements, or they climbed many flights of stairs to reach the attics. During the Industrial Revolution, housing for poorer people was constructed in sectors near the factories.
32 Professionals in Glasgow Fig : Top professionals in Glasgow, Scotland, are more likely to live near the center of the city, in contrast to most U.S. cities.
33 Less Developed Countries In LDCs, as in Europe, the poor are accommodated in the suburbs, whereas the rich live near the center of cities, as well as in a sector extending from the center. The similarity between European and LDC cities is not a coincidence. Most cities in less developed countries have passed through three stages of development before European colonization, during the European Colonial period, and since independence.
34 Pre-Colonial Cities Before the Europeans established colonies, few cities existed in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, and most people lived in rural settlements. Cities were also built in South and East Asia, especially India, China, and Japan. Cities were often laid out surrounding a religious core, such as a mosque in Muslim regions. Government buildings and the homes of wealthy families surrounded the mosque and bazaar. Families with less wealth and lower status located farther from the core, and recent migrants to the city lived on the edge. Commercial activities were arranged in a concentric and hierarchical pattern: Higher-status businesses directly related to religious practices were located closest to the mosque. In the next ring, were secular businesses. Food products were sold in the next ring, then came blacksmiths, basket makers, and potters. A quarter would be reserved for Jews, a second for Christians, and a third for foreigners.
35 Pre-Colonial Mexico City When the Aztecs founded Mexico City which they called Tenochtitlán the settlement consisted of a small temple and a few huts of thatch and mud west of present-day downtown Mexico City on a hill known as Chapultepec. Forced by other people to leave the hill, they migrated a few kilometers south. Then in 1325 (they moved) to a marshy... island in Lake Texcoco. Over the next two centuries the Aztecs conquered the neighboring (territories). The Aztecs built elaborate stone houses and temples in Tenochtitlán. The node of religious life was the Great Temple. The main market center, Tlatelolco, was located at the north end of the island. Most merchandise crossed from the mainland to the island by boat. The island itself was laced with canals to facilitate pickup and delivery of people and goods. An aqueduct brought fresh water from Chapultepec.
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