# 7.1 Modelling the transportation problem

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1 Chapter Transportation Problems.1 Modelling the transportation problem The transportation problem is concerned with finding the minimum cost of transporting a single commodity from a given number of sources (e.g. factories) to a given number of destinations (e.g. warehouses). These types of problems can be solved by general network methods, as in Chapter 9, but here we use a specific transportation algorithm. The data of the model include 1. The level of supply at each source and the amount of demand at each destination. 2. The unit transportation cost of the commodity from each source to each destination. Since there is only one commodity, a destination can receive its demand from more than one source. The objective is to determine how much should be shipped from each source to each destination so as to minimise the total transportation cost. destination warehouses (demand) b b b b b n 1 n x 11 x 12 c 11 c 12 xmn cmn source factories (supply) a 1 a 2 a m 1 a m This figure represents a transportation model with m sources and n destinations. Each source or destination is represented by a node. The route between a source and destination is represented by an arc joining the two nodes. The amount of supply available at source i 1

2 is a i, and the demand required at destination j is b j. The cost of transporting one unit between source i and destination j is c ij. Let x ij denote the quantity transported from source i to destination j. The cost associated with this movement is cost quantity = c ij x ij. The cost of transporting the commodity from source i to all destinations is given by c ij x ij = c i1 x i1 + c i2 x i2 + + c in x in. Thus, the total cost of transporting the commodity from all the sources to all the destinations is m Total Cost = c ij x ij = c 11 x 11 + c 12 x c 1n x 1n + c 21 x 21 + c 22 x c 2n x 2n + c m1 x m1 + c m2 x m2 + + c mn x mn In order to minimise the transportation costs, the following problem must be solved: Minimise z = subject to and m. c ij x ij, x ij a i for i = 1,..., m m x ij b j for j = 1,..., n where x ij 0 for all i and j. The first constraint says that the sum of all shipments from a source cannot exceed the available supply. The second constraint specifies that the sum of all shipments to a destination must be at least as large as the demand. The above implies that the total supply m a i is greater than or equal to the total demand m b j. When the total supply is equal to the total demand (i.e. a i = n b j ) then the transportation model is said to be balanced. In a balanced transportation model, each of the constraints is an equation: x ij = a i for i = 1,..., m, m x ij = b j for j = 1,..., n. 2

3 A transportation model in which the total supply and total demand are unequal is called unbalanced. It is always possible to balance an unbalanced transportation problem. Example 1 Balanced transportation model. Consider the following problem with 2 factories and 3 warehouses: Warehouse 1 Warehouse 2 Warehouse 3 Supply Factory 1 c 11 c 12 c Factory 2 c 21 c 22 c Demand Total supply = = 30 Total demand = = 30 = Total supply Since Total supply = Total demand, the problem is balanced. Example 2 Unbalanced transportation model. There are two cases to consider, namely excess demand and excess supply. 1. Suppose the demand at warehouse 1 above is 9 units. Then the total supply and total demand are unequal, and the problem is unbalanced. In this case it is not possible to satisfy all the demand at each destination simultaneously. We reformulate the model as follows: since demand exceeds supply by 2 units, we introduce a dummy source (i.e. a fictitious factory) which has a capacity of 2. The amount shipped from this dummy source to a destination represents the shortage quantity at that destination. It is necessary to specify the costs associated with the dummy source. There are two situations to consider. (a) Since the source does not exist, no shipping from the source will occur, so the unit transportation costs can be set to zero. (b) Alternatively, if a penalty cost, P, is incurred for every unit of unsatisfied demand, then the unit transportation costs should be set equal to the unit penalty costs. Warehouse 1 Warehouse 2 Warehouse 3 Supply Factory 1 c 11 c 12 c Factory 2 c 21 c 22 c dummy P P P 2 Demand In effect we are allocating the shortage to different destinations. 3

4 2. If supply exceeds demand then a dummy destination is added which absorbs the surplus units. Any units shipped from a source to a dummy destination represent a surplus at that source. Again, there are two cases to consider for how the unit transportation costs should be determined. (a) Since no shipping takes place, the unit transportation costs can be set to zero. (b) If there is a cost for storing, S, the surplus production then the unit transportation costs should be set equal to the unit storage costs. Warehouse 1 Warehouse 2 Warehouse 3 dummy Supply Factory 1 c 11 c 12 c 13 S 20 Factory 2 c 21 c 22 c 23 S 10 Demand Here we are allocating the excess supply to the different destinations. From now on, we will discuss balanced transportation problems only, as any unbalanced problem can always be balanced according to the above constructions..2 Solution of the transportation problem A balanced transportation problem has Total supply = Total demand which can be expressed as m a i = b j. (.1) A consequence of this is that the problem is defined by n + m 1 supply and demand variables since, if a i, i = 2, 3,..., m and b j, j = 1, 2,..., n are specified, then a 1 can be found from (.1). This means that one of the constraint equations is not required. Thus, a balanced transportation model has n + m 1 independent constraint equations. Since the number of basic variables in a basic solution is the same as the number of constraints, solutions of this problem should have n + m 1 basic variables which are non-zero and all the remaining variables will be non-basic and thus have the value zero..2.1 Starting the algorithm: finding an initial basic feasible solution We consider two ways of constructing initial basic feasible solutions for a transportation problem, i.e. allocations with n + m 1 basic variables which satisfy all the constraint equations. 4

5 Method 1: The North-West Corner Method Consider the problem represented by the following transportation tableau. The number in the bottom right of cell (i, j) is c ij, the cost of transporting 1 unit from source i to destination j. Values of x ij, the quantity actually transported from source i to destination j, will be entered in the top left of each cell. Note that there are 3 factories and 4 warehouses and so m = 3, n = 4. W 1 W 2 W 3 W 4 Supply F 1 F F Demand The north-west corner method generates an initial allocation according to the following procedure: 1. Allocate the maximum amount allowable by the supply and demand constraints to the variable x 11 (i.e. the cell in the top left corner of the transportation tableau). 2. If a column (or row) is satisfied, cross it out. The remaining decision variables in that column (or row) are non-basic and are set equal to zero. If a row and column are satisfied simultaneously, cross only one out (it does not matter which). 3. Adjust supply and demand for the non-crossed out rows and columns. 4. Allocate the maximum feasible amount to the first available non-crossed out element in the next column (or row). 5. When exactly one row or column is left, all the remaining variables are basic and are assigned the only feasible allocation. For the above example: x 11 = 10. Cross out column 1. The amount left in row 1 is 10. x 12 = 10. Cross out row 1. 5 units are left in column 2. x 22 = 5. Cross out column units are left in row 2. x 23 = 15. Cross out column 3. 5 units are left in row 2. Only column 4 is now left and so both the remaining variables x 24 and x 34 will be basic. The only feasible allocation of the 5 units in row 2 and the 15 units in row 3 is to allocate x 24 = 5 and x 34 = 15, which also ensures that the demand in column 4 is satisfied. 5

6 This provides the initial basic feasible solution x 11 = 10, x 12 = 10, x 22 = 5, x 23 = 15, x 24 = 5, x 34 = 15. The remaining variables are non-basic and therefore equal to zero. The solution has m + n 1 = 6 basic variables as required. The values of the basic variables x ij are entered in the top left of each cell. There should always be m + n 1 of these; in certain (degenerate) cases some of them may be zero. They must always add up to the total supply and demand in each row and column. Note that some books position the data differently in the cells of the tableau. Method 2: The Least-Cost Method This method usually provides a better initial basic feasible solution than the North-West Corner method since it takes into account the cost variables in the problem. 1. Assign as much as possible to the cell with the smallest unit cost in the entire tableau. If there is a tie then choose arbitrarily. 2. Cross out the row or column which has satisfied supply or demand. If a row and column are both satisfied then cross out only one of them. 3. Adjust the supply and demand for those rows and columns which are not crossed out. 4. When exactly one row or column is left, all the remaining variables are basic and are assigned the only feasible allocation. W 1 W 2 W 3 W 4 Supply F 1 F F For the above example: Demand Cells (1, 2) and (3, 1) both have zero cost so we arbitrarily choose the first and assign x 12 = 15. Cross out column 2. The amount left in row 1 is 5. x 31 = 10. Cross out column 1. The amount left in row 3 is 5. x 23 = 15. Cross out column 3. The amount left in row 2 is 10. Only column 4 is now left and so all the variables in this column will be basic. The only feasible allocation is x 14 = 5, x 24 = 10 and x 34 = 5. This provides the initial basic feasible solution x 12 = 15, x 31 = 10, x 23 = 15, x 14 = 5, x 24 = 10, x 34 = 5. All the other variables are non-basic and are therefore equal to zero. Again, we have 6 basic variables as required. 6

7 .2.2 Checking for optimality So far we have only looked at ways of obtaining an initial basic feasible solution to the balanced transportation problem. We now develop a method for checking whether the current basic feasible solution is optimal. For illustrative purposes, we will start with the initial basic feasible solution that was provided by the North-West Corner method. Usually, initial basic feasible solutions obtained by the Least-Cost method (or other methods given in many text-books, such as Vogel s method) will give better starting configurations. Suppose that the cost c ij of transporting 1 unit from source i to destination j is made up of a dispatch cost λ i and a reception cost µ j so that whenever x ij is a basic variable. Remarks λ i + µ j = c ij The total number of λ i and µ j variables is n + m. However, there are only n + m 1 basic variables. Thus, we are free to choose one of the λ i s or µ j s arbitrarily. It is usual to set λ 1 = 0. These costs can take negative values if required. Considering only these dispatch and reception costs, it would cost λ i + µ j to send 1 unit from source i to destination j. For (i, j) not corresponding to a basic variable, it will often be the case that λ i + µ j c ij. In particular, if λ i + µ j > c ij for a particular (i, j) not corresponding to a basic variable, then there would be a benefit from sending more goods that way. So let s ij = c ij λ i µ j. The s ij values are entered in the top right of the cells. Then s ij is the change in cost due to allocating 1 extra unit to cell (i, j) (in fact it is a shadow price). If any s ij is negative (so that λ i + µ j > c ij ), then the total cost can be reduced by allocating as many units as possible to cell (i, j). However, if all the s ij are positive then it will be more expensive to change any of the allocations and so we have found a minimum cost. Thus the procedure is as follows: 1. Assign values of λ i and µ j to the columns. 2. Enter the values s ij = c ij λ i µ j in every cell. 3. If all the s ij s are non-negative, we have an optimal solution. Assigning values of λ i and µ j to our example with the initial basic feasible solution given by the North-West Corner method, gives the following transportation tableau:

8 Adding the s ij variables to each cell, we find three negative values and so the solution is not optimal..2.3 Iterating the algorithm If the current solution is not optimal, we need a method for moving to a better basic feasible solution. As previously, this involves changing only one variable in the basis so again we must identify an entering variable and a departing variable in the basis. Determining the entering variable If the current solution is not optimal, choose the cell with the most negative value of s ij as the entering variable, as the cost will be reduced most by using this route. For our example, the most negative value is s 31 and so the entering variable is x 31. Determining the leaving variable We construct a closed loop that starts and ends at the entering variable and comprises successive horizontal and vertical segments whose end points must be basic variables (except those associated with the entering variable). It does not matter whether the loop is clockwise or anticlockwise. Starting Tableau We now see how large the entering variable can be made without violating the feasibility conditions. Suppose x 31 increases from zero to some level ε > 0. Then x 11 must change to 10 ε to preserve the demand constraint in column 1. This has a knock on effect for x 12 which must change to 10 + ε. This process continues for all the corners of the loop. The departing variable is chosen from among the corners of the loop which decrease when the entering variable increases above zero level. It is the one with the smallest current value, as this will be the first to reach zero as the entering variable increases. Any further increase in the entering variable past this value leads to infeasibility. Clearly x 22 is the departing variable in this case. The entering variable x 31 can increase to 5 and feasibility will be preserved. New values of the λ i s and the µ j s can now be assigned and the test for optimality applied. If the solution is still not optimal, new entering and departing variables must be determined and the process repeated. 8

9 Second Tableau As before, we construct λ i s and µ j s which satisfy λ i + µ j = c ij for the basic variables and enter the values of s ij = c ij λ i µ j for every cell. This tableau is not optimal as one of the s ij s is negative. The most negative value of s ij occurs for x 14 and so this is the entering variable. Next we construct a loop which only involves the four corner cells in this case. The maximum that ε can be without one of the variables going negative is 5 which gives x 11 = 0 and so this is therefore the departing variable. Third Tableau We construct λ i s, µ j s and s ij s as before, and then check for optimality. The tableau is not optimal as x 22 is negative and is therefore the entering variable. The loop construction shows that ε can be as large as 10, and that x 24 is the departing variable. Fourth Tableau This is now optimal because s ij 0 in every cell. 9

10 Final Solution The minimum cost is given by = 460 which occurs when x 12 = 5, x 14 = 15, x 22 = 10, x 23 = 15, x 31 = 10, x 34 = 5 and all the other decision variables are equal to zero..2.4 Solving the transportation problem with Excel Solver We can use Excel Solver to solve the transportation problem. We set the problem out in the general form of a linear programming problem: Minimise z = subject to and m c ij x ij, x ij a i for i = 1,..., m m x ij b j for j = 1,..., n where x ij 0 for all i and j. The data is entered as two arrays - one of transportation costs and the other as decision variables. The Excel spreadhseet illustrating this is available on the module website. 10

11 Exercises 1. For the transportation problem given by the following tableau, find an initial basic feasible solution by the least-cost method and then find an optimal solution. Demand Supply For the transportation problem given by the following tableau, find an initial basic feasible solution by the North-West corner method and then find an optimal solution. Supply Demand The supply at Source 3 is now reduced from 10 to 6. There is a penalty of 5 for each unit required but not supplied. Find the new optimal solution. 3. Three refineries with maximum daily capacities of 6, 5, and 8 million gallons of oil supply three distribution areas with daily demands of 4, 8 and million gallons. Oil is transported to the three distribution areas through a network of pipes. The transportation cost is 1 pence per 100 gallons per mile. The mileage table below shows that refinery 1 is not connected to distribution area 3. Formulate the problem as a transportation model and solve it. [Hint: Let the transportation cost for the non-connected route be equal to some large value M say and then proceed as normal.] Distribution Area Refinery In problem 4, suppose additionally that the capacity of refinery 3 is reduced to 6 million gallons. Also, distribution area 1 must receive all its demand, and any shortage at areas 2 and 3 will result in a penalty of 5 pence per gallon. Formulate the problem as a transportation model and solve it. 5. In problem 4, suppose the daily demand at area 3 drops to 4 million gallons. Any surplus production at refineries 1 and 2 must be diverted to other distribution areas by tanker. The resulting average transportation costs per 100 gallons are 1.50 from refinery 1 and 2.20 from refinery 2. Refinery 3 can divert its surplus oil to other chemical processes within the plant. Formulate the problem as a transportation model and solve it. 11

12 6. Five warehouses are supplied by four factories. The supply available from each factory, the demand at each warehouse and the cost per unit of transporting goods from the factories to the warehouses are summarised in the following table: W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 Supply F F F F Demand (a) Use the North-West Corner method to find an initial basic feasible solution of this problem. (Do NOT use the Least-Cost method.) (b) Find the optimal solution of this problem, i.e. the solution that minimises the transportation costs, clearly showing and explaining your working. (HINT Recall that this problem will require that a basic solution contain 5+4-1=8 variables, one or more of which may be zero. You will need to make use of this fact at the final stage of your iteration of the algorithm.). For the transportation problem given by the following tableau, find an initial basic feasible solution by the North-West corner method and then find an optimal solution. Supply Demand

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