# Economics 101 Fall 2013 Answers to Homework 5 Due Tuesday, November 19, 2013

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3 With the \$5 per unit tax on each bundle of food, the new price of a food bundle will be \$10. Therefore, the new budget line equation is 10X + 10Y = 100. To solve for new optimal consumption bundle, we use the tangent condition. From the tangency condition, we find that Mu x = y = p x = 10 = 1, which implies y = x. Mu y x p y 10 Substitute the condition above into the new budget line equation: this gives us y = x = 5 as the optimal consumption bundle given the per unit tax on good X. Correspondingly, the tax revenue from this individual is then equal to tax unit of X consumed = 5 5 = \$25. e) Draw a new graph of this individual s budget line and optimal consumption bundle from (a) as well as the new budget line and optimal consumption bundle once the tax per unit on good X is implemented by the government (you found this in (d)). Label the new budget line BL2 and the new optimal consumption bundle with the tax point B. Explain in your own words and with a stepby-step procedure how you can isolate the substitution effect from the income effect. For this problem, it might also be a good idea to calculate the bundle C on the imaginary budget line. The initial optimal consumption bundle is A(10,5). This bundle-a yields us 50 units of satisfaction (U = XY = (10)*(5) = 50 units of satisfaction). We know from the figure below that C has to satisfy two conditions, i.e. the tangency condition where the budget line 3 (the imaginary budget line) is just tangent to indifference curve 1 and that the bundle yields us the same level of satisfaction as if it were at bundle- A. To get the numerical solution for bundle-c, we solve for (x,y) such that (i) y = 1 and (ii) xy = 50. x The optimal consumption bundle for this individual when they are confronted by budget line 3 while holding utility constant and equal to 50 is given by x = y = 5 2. As the price of the food bundle rises due to the implementation of the per unit tax on good X, the consumer tends to substitute away from the more expensive good (good X) and towards the good that is relatively cheaper (good Y). This is because both food and luxurious goods are substitutable. However, when the price of food increases due to the tax, this also implicitly changes the real income of the consumer. Therefore, the movement form A toward B is not solely due to the substitution effect, but in fact partly includes the income effect (the income effect is measured as the change in the consumption of good X as the individual moves from point C to point B). 3

4 To isolate the substitution effect, one compensates the consumer with some amount of income transfer to make sure that he/she is as well off as before. Mechanically, this can be depicted as a parallel shift of BL2 to BL3 where BL3 is also tangent to the original IC curve (IC1). Point C in the figure above is the consumption bundle that arises under the imaginary budget line. Notice that both A and C are located on the same indifference curve. Thus, movement along the indifference curve is then considered as pure substitution effect (the substitution effect is measured as the change in the consumption of good X as the individual moves from point A to point C). Moving from C to B is then considered the income effect. f) Given the new price of good X which includes the tax per unit on good X, how much money would the government need to give this individual to bring her back to her original level of satisfaction that she had before the tax on good X was implemented? If the amount of income compensation the government must make to the individual exceeds the total revenue the government collects from this individual with the tax on good X, what does this imply to you in terms of the welfare loss/gain of tax policy? At the new price ratio, note that the income that would be needed to make the consumer as satisfied as they were before the tax was imposed is the value of the consumer s expenditure at bundle-c. We know from the previous question that bundle-c is (5 2, 5 2). Thus, the of this bundle can be calculated as = 100 2, which exceeds current income of consumer by \$41 (an approximation). Recall that the tax revenue that the government raises from this individual from imposing the tax is \$25. Thus, net tax revenue after rebating \$41 to the consumer is negative, i.e. \$25 \$41 = -\$16. Therefore, tax policy creates a welfare loss of -\$16 for this individual if measured in monetary terms. Question 2: Production and analysis Suppose that q is the number of patients that a hospital can serve per day. The number of patients served per day depends on two things: first, the number of doctors hired to practice in each day (L), and second the number of diagnostic machines (K) installed in the medical laboratory. The table below summarizes the production and functions for the hospital. K L q FC VC TC AFC AVC ATC MC MPL / a) Fill in the number for each cell in the table that has been left blanked. Make sure that the numbers that you fill in are consistent with one another. 4

5 K L q FC VC TC AFC AVC ATC MC MPL / Given all the numbers that you ve filled in, answer the following questions. b) Is the hospital now operating under short-run or long-run production technology? Explain your answer. The hospital is operating in the short-run because they have a fixed input, K, that creates a fixed of \$625 no matter what level of output the hospital produces. c) What is the price of a unit of capital and the price of a doctor? Price of capital = FC/K = 625/125 = \$5. Price of doctor = VC/L = ( )/625 = \$1. d) Find the range of output that minimizes average total. ATC-minimizing output is the level of output such that MC = ATC. According to the table, ATC is greater than MC when q = 25. But when q = 40, it turns out that ATC is now smaller than MC. Since MC = ATC at the minimal point of average total, the range of output that minimizes average total has to be between 25 and 40 units of output. e) Does the law of diminishing marginal productivity of labor hold given the technology of this hospital? Explain your answer. Yes, because the marginal productivity of labor declines as more units of labor are utilized in production. f) Suppose that the market price of medical service that each hospital can charge to each patient is \$65. How many doctors will you hire if you wish to maximize the economic profit of the hospital? How much profit does the hospital earn when it profit maximizes? Explain your answer. According to the profit-maximizing theory, the hospital should produce at that level of quantity where MR = MC (note that in this example, the price the hospital can charge each patient is also the marginal revenue the hospital receives when it treats each patient). Based on the table, MC = 65 when q = 40. Thus, the hospital should produce at this level, i.e. q = 40 (the hospital should see 40 patients a day). At the level of production, the hospital would need 1,600 doctors. revenue at q = 40 is 65*40 = \$2,600 while total of operation is \$2,225. When the hospital profit maximizes, its profits for the day are equal to \$375. 5

6 g) Suppose that the price the hospital can charge each patient falls to \$21 per patient. Should the hospital continue to operate in the industry in the short-run given this price decrease? Explain your answer. Note first that price = \$21: in this example, the price the hospital can charge per patient will also be the marginal revenue that the hospital will earn with each patient that is seen. The hospital should choose q = 18, where MR = MC. When the hospital produces at q = 18, the hospital earns profit equal to \$21*18 \$949 = -\$571. While it incurs negative profit, leaving the business would instead incur an even bigger loss in terms of the fixed that has been paid up front, i.e. -\$625. Therefore, the best option that the hospital has in the short-run given this price change is to continue to operate at q = 18 and stay in the industry. Question 3: Perfect competition and monopoly Answer the following questions using the table below. Firm 1 Quantity produced Price per unit Revenue revenue profit profit ATC 0 \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ Firm 2 Quantity produced Price per unit Revenue revenue profit profit ATC a) Complete the table for the two firms above. 6

7 Firm 1 Firm 2 Quantity produced Price per unit Revenue revenue profit 0 \$ \$ \$ ATC 3 \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ Quantity produced Price per unit Revenue revenue profit ATC b) What is the profit-maximizing output for each firm? (Hint: remember that profit maximization requires MR = MC) For firm 1, the profit maximizing output is 8 units. For firm 2, the profit maximizing output is 6 units. c) What is the relationship between price, marginal revenue and marginal at the profit maximizing level of output for each firm? For firm 1, P = MR = MC at the profit maximizing level of output. For firm 2, P > MR at the profit maximizing level of output. 7

8 d) Which firm is in a competitive market, which is a monopolist and how do you know? Explain your answer. Firm 1 is in a competitive market since P = MC and the firm is a price taking firm. Firm 2 is a monopolist since P > MR and the firm is a price searcher (that is, its output affects the price the monopolist charges). e) What is the dollar amount of the dead weight loss for the monopolist? Explain your answer. From the perspective of social optimality, it is socially optimal when markets are perfectly competitive since the market quantity of the good is that quantity where the marginal benefit of consuming an additional good (as measured by price) is equal to the marginal of producing that additional good (as measured by MC). In contrast, when the market is a monopoly, the monopoly leads to a higher price for the good than with perfect competition and a smaller quantity of the good than with perfect competition. The figure below compares the two outcomes that arise under 1) perfectly competitive and 2) monopoly. Note first that, under the monopoly environment, the firm chooses the profit maximizing level of output (where MR = MC), q = 6, and sets its price equal to 130 (p=130; this is the price from the demand curve for the monopolist when q = 6). In the case of the monopolist the price is set above its marginal (MC = 80 when q = 6). In contrast, given the same set up in the problem but a perfectly competitive industry (basically if we could get this monopoly to act as if it was in a perfectly competitive industry), the market price would have been 100 where P = MC = 100 and the market quantity would have been 8 units (where the demand curve intersects the supply curve, which in this case is the MC curve). So, the dead weight loss for the monopolist can be measured as the area of the geometric shape ACEDB that represents the difference in price due to the presence of a monopoly and the difference in quantity due to the presence of a monopoly. To calculate the area of the geometric shape ACEDB, we notice the following: area of ACEDB = area of ACDB + area of CED. The area of the trapezoid ACDB is ½ (50+30)*(7-6) = 40; meanwhile the area of triangle CED is ½ (120-90)*(8-7) = 15. Thus, the total area of ACEDB = = 55. We can then conclude that the dead weight loss of monopoly is \$55. 8

9 Question 4: Monopoly Suppose there is a monopoly that mines diamonds. The marginal revenue and marginal functions for this monopolist are given by the following equations: MC = 2 + 2q MR = 10-2q (a) Given the above information, write the monopolist s demand curve for diamonds in y-intercept form? Assume this demand curve is linear. Since the marginal revenue function for a monopolist with a linear demand curve has twice the slope of the demand curve and the same y-intercept as the demand curve we can write the demand curve in slopeintercept form as => P = 10 - Q is the demand. (b) Given the above information, what is the profit-maximizing level of output for this monopolist? Profit-maximization occurs at that quantity where MC = MR. So we get: 8 = 4q => q = 2 is the profit maximizing quantity for the monopolist. (c) What price should the monopolist charge when it produces the profit maximizing quantity? Explain your answer. In order to find the price charged to consumers, we plug q = 2 into the demand curve. This allow us to determine the price consumers are willing to pay when they consume 2 units of the good. P = 10-2 => P = 8. (d) Suppose you know that the monopolist s total s can be calculated using the equation TC = 2 + 2q + q 2. Given this information, write equations for TFC, TVC, and ATC. TC = 2 + 2q + q 2. Since fixed is the same regardless of quantity: TFC = 2. TVC is the total associated with changes in the level of output, so: TVC = 2q + q 2. Lastly, ATC = TC / q => ATC = 2/q q. (e) Given the above information and the work you have done, now calculate the monopolist s economic profit. How much profit/loss does the firm earn? Show how you calculated this answer. The revenue for the monopolist is the optimal price times the optimal quantity => TR = 8*2 = \$16. The total at the profit maximizing quantity is: TC = 2 + 2*2 + 4 = 10. So, profit is given as: TR - TC = \$6. So, yes the firm makes a positive economic profit. (f) Suppose the monopolist s fixed s change and they are now equal to \$8. How would this change the firm s TC equation? What is the economic profit for the monopolist given this change? Would your answer change if the fixed s were to change to \$10? Explain your answer fully. 9

10 If the fixed s were instead 8 (10), the marginal (the of producing an additional unit) would not change so the same optimal quantity would be produced => TR = \$16 and TC = = \$16 (TC = = \$18). Economic profit would be 0 (-\$2). (g) What does this tells us about a monopolist's profit and the s of obtaining a monopoly? It tells us two things: first, monopolies may be expensive to acquire since the creation of entry barriers is likely to be expensive; secondly, it tells us that certain types of monopolies may have very high fixed s for reasons unrelated to the market structure. For example, a utility company may have large fixed s and so earn negative economic profit even though they are the only firm in the market. Question 5: Monopoly Use the following graph for a monopoly to answer this question. a) What will be the price and quantity sold for the monopoly? How much is the monopoly earning in profits? Explain your answer fully using a step-by-step approach. (Hint: Based on the graph, you won t be able to determine the exact value of average total at the profit-maximizing output. To calculate the total profit at that level of output, just use an approximate value of average total that you think is reasonable.) First we must draw the Revenue curve, which bisects the x-axis halfway between the origin and where the linear demand curve crosses the x-axis. Next, we find the profit maximizing quantity where MR=MC, which corresponds to a quantity of 80 units. Finally, we go up to the demand curve to find the price the monopoly will charge, which is \$60 per unit of the good. Profits = (price average total ) * quantity = (\$60 - \$32)*80 = \$2240. (The purpose of this question is to show you how to construct the MR curve when we know that demand curve is the straight line. Based on what we see from the graph, we believe that ATC should be around \$32. As we ve mentioned in the hint, if you use any values of ATC that is close to \$32, your answer is correct.) 10

12 occur in the long run until the market price falls to that level where each firm in the industry will earn zero economic profit. e) Draw a graph that represents this firm s average variable, average total and marginal for q between 0 and 5. Draw all curves in the same figure and as exactly as possible. How can you determine the long run market price for this perfectly competitive firm s product graphically? Because other firms will copy your production process in the long run, there will be market entry until profit is zero, and MC = ATC for this representative firm in this perfectly competitive market. Question 7: Perfect competition Assume that the taxi industry in the town of New City is perfectly competitive. Also assume that the marginal of a taxi ride is constant and equal to \$5 per trip (this assumption will make the math far simpler for this question) and that each taxi is capable of making 20 trips a day. We will let the demand function for taxi rides each day be Q = 1,100 20P. a) What is the perfectly competitive price of a taxi ride? At the perfectly competitive equilibrium, P = MC. Therefore, the competitive price of a taxi ride is \$5. b) How many rides will the citizens of New City make every day? Substituting the P into the demand function, we find that the equilibrium numbers of taxi rides every day is 1,100 20*5 = 1,000 taxi rides per day. c) How many taxis will operate in New City? Given that each taxi is capable of making 20 trips a day, the number of taxis needed in New City is 1,000/20 = 50 taxis. 12

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