Descartes Meditation Six. Intro to Philosophy Summer 2011 Benjamin Visscher Hole IV

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1 Descartes Meditation Six Intro to Philosophy Summer 2011 Benjamin Visscher Hole IV

2 Dualism Material substance (or minds) VS Immaterial substance (or bodies)

3 Context Meditation I Doubt everything I can find any reason to doubt in order to provide a foundation for knowledge Meditation II-V Prove that I believe in the existence of myself and the existence of God (on the basis of clear and distinct ideas). Meditation VI So I know that I exist as a thinking being and that God exists as an all-pkg / OOO being. Now I need to prove that the external world exists i.e., that material substance / bodies exist.

4 Argument for Substance Dualism 1. Sensory perceptions are the passive faculty for retrieving ideas. 2. These ideas have a cause. 3. If I were the cause, I should be able to refuse/assent to bring about a perceptual experience. 4. So, something other than I must be the cause. 5. Either God or material objects are the cause. 6. It appears to me that material objects cause. 7. God is not a deceiver. 8. Therefore, material objects exist.

5 Argument for Substance Dualism 1. Sensory perceptions are the passive faculty for retrieving ideas. 2. These ideas have a cause. 3. If I were the cause, I should be able to refuse/assent to bring about a perceptual experience. 4. So, something other than I must be the cause. 5. Either God or material objects are the cause. 6. It appears to me that material objects cause. 7. God is not a deceiver. 8. Therefore, material objects exist. Premise One Wax Argument The Optics

6 Argument for Substance Dualism 1. Sensory perceptions are the passive faculty for retrieving ideas. 2. These ideas have a cause. 3. If I were the cause, I should be able to refuse/assent to bring about a perceptual experience. 4. So, something other than I must be the cause. 5. Either God or material objects are the cause. 6. It appears to me that material objects cause. 7. God is not a deceiver. 8. Therefore, material objects exist. Premise Two (CP1) Everything that comes into being has a cause.

7 Argument for Substance Dualism 1. Sensory perceptions are the passive faculty for retrieving ideas. 2. These ideas have a cause. 3. If I were the cause, I should be able to refuse/assent to bring about a perceptual experience. 4. So, something other than I must be the cause. 5. Either God or material objects are the cause. 6. It appears to me that material objects cause. 7. God is not a deceiver. 8. Therefore, material objects exist. Premise Three I can t make you disappear from my perceptual field. I cannot make a one hundred dollar bill appear in my perceptual field.

8 Argument for Substance Dualism 1. Sensory perceptions are the passive faculty for retrieving ideas. 2. These ideas have a cause. 3. If I were the cause, I should be able to refuse/assent to bring about a perceptual experience. 4. So, something other than I must be the cause. 5. Either God or material objects are the cause. 6. It appears to me that material objects cause. 7. God is not a deceiver. 8. Therefore, material objects exist. Premise Four (CP3) The cause of anything with objective reality must have at least as much formal reality that thing has objective reality.

9 Argument for Substance Dualism 1. Sensory perceptions are the passive faculty for retrieving ideas. 2. These ideas have a cause. 3. If I were the cause, I should be able to refuse/assent to bring about a perceptual experience. 4. So, something other than I must be the cause. 5. Either God or material objects are the cause. 6. It appears to me that material objects cause. 7. God is not a deceiver. 8. Therefore, material objects exist. Premise Five Horned Dilemma

10 Argument for Substance Dualism 1. Sensory perceptions are the passive faculty for retrieving ideas. 2. These ideas have a cause. 3. If I were the cause, I should be able to refuse/assent to bring about a perceptual experience. 4. So, something other than I must be the cause. 5. Either God or material objects are the cause. 6. It appears to me that material objects cause. 7. God is not a deceiver. 8. Therefore, material objects exist. Premise Six (CP1) Everything that comes into being has a cause. + (C&D Rule) it seems to me that there is a book in front of me, and that the book is the cause of my idea that there is a book in front of me.

11 Argument for Substance Dualism 1. Sensory perceptions are the passive faculty for retrieving ideas. 2. These ideas have a cause. 3. If I were the cause, I should be able to refuse/assent to bring about a perceptual experience. 4. So, something other than I must be the cause. 5. Either God or material objects are the cause. 6. It appears to me that material objects cause. 7. God is not a deceiver. 8. Therefore, material objects exist. Premise Seven God is not a deceiver, because he is All-PKG.

12 Argument for Substance Dualism 1. Sensory perceptions are the passive faculty for retrieving ideas. 2. These ideas have a cause. 3. If I were the cause, I should be able to refuse/assent to bring about a perceptual experience. 4. So, something other than I must be the cause. 5. Either God or material objects are the cause. 6. It appears to me that material objects cause. 7. God is not a deceiver. 8. Therefore, material objects exist. Conclusion Implies substance dualism

13 Substance Dualism

14 Interactionist Dualism The mind and body interact in the pineal gland.

15

16

17 Dualist alternatives

18 Alternatives to dualism Idealism: it is all mental! Materialism: it is all physical!

19 The Zombie Argument 1.If zombies are possible, then materialism is false. 2.Zombies are possible. 3.Therefore, materialism is false. Unlike those in films or witchcraft, they are exactly like us in all physical respects but without conscious experiences: by definition there is nothing it is like to be a zombie. Yet zombies behave just like us, and some even spend a lot of time discussing consciousness. (

20 The Zombie Argument Argument for Premise One of the ZA 1. Zombies are conceivable. 2. Whatever is conceivable is possible. 3. Therefore zombies are possible. Unlike those in films or witchcraft, they are exactly like us in all physical respects but without conscious experiences: by definition there is nothing it is like to be a zombie. Yet zombies behave just like us, and some even spend a lot of time discussing consciousness. (

21 The Zombie Argument 1. Are zombies conceivable? Unlike those in films or witchcraft, they are exactly like us in all physical respects but without conscious experiences: by definition there is nothing it is like to be a zombie. Yet zombies behave just like us, and some even spend a lot of time discussing consciousness. (

22 The Zombie Argument 2. Does conceivability entail possibility? Unlike those in films or witchcraft, they are exactly like us in all physical respects but without conscious experiences: by definition there is nothing it is like to be a zombie. Yet zombies behave just like us, and some even spend a lot of time discussing consciousness. (

23 The Zombie Argument Argument for Premise One of the ZA 1. Zombies are conceivable. 2. Whatever is conceivable is possible. 3. Therefore zombies are possible. Unlike those in films or witchcraft, they are exactly like us in all physical respects but without conscious experiences: by definition there is nothing it is like to be a zombie. Yet zombies behave just like us, and some even spend a lot of time discussing consciousness. (

24 The Zombie Argument 1.If zombies are possible, then materialism is false. 2.Zombies are possible. 3.Therefore, materialism is false. Unlike those in films or witchcraft, they are exactly like us in all physical respects but without conscious experiences: by definition there is nothing it is like to be a zombie. Yet zombies behave just like us, and some even spend a lot of time discussing consciousness. (

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