Afro-Eurasian Trade Patterns Before 600 CE

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1 Afro-Eurasian Trade Patterns Before 600 CE

2 What are the four most well known ancient trade routes? Mediterranean Sea Maritime Trade (c BCE Present) Trans-Saharan Trade Routes (c. 800 BCE Present) Indian Ocean Maritime Trade Route (c. 300 BCE Present) Eurasian Silk Road (c. 200 BCE Present) What other ancient trade routes were important? Via Maris or The way of the Sea Canal of the Pharaohs Incense Trade Route Grand Trunk Trade Route The Amber Road (c BCE 1500 CE) (c. 600 BCE 767 CE) (c. 300 BCE 200 CE) (c. 300 BCE Present) (c. 200 BCE 300 CE)

3 Mediterranean Sea Trade Route Originated by Phoenician Sea-faring traders (c BCE) Centered on the Phoenician trade centers of Carthage, Cyrene and Tyre Travel by sea was usually by means of a man-powered vessel with oars

4 VIA MARIS Way of the Sea Mediterranean Coastal Trade Route originated in the Levant (c BCE) KING S HIGHWAYS Linking land trade routes connected the regions of Egypt to Mesopotamia (c BCE) VIA MARIS and the KING S HIGHWAYS paved the way for the Phoenicians to create a vast Mediterranean Trade Route by 1550 BCE

5 TRANS-SAHARAN TRADE ROUTES The Darb el-arbain trade route is the earliest of the known Trans-Saharan Caravan Trade Routes (c BCE) linking Egypt to the Sudan & Ethiopia Nomadic Saharan Tribes known as Berber were the first to dominate trade Expansion of the Trans-Saharan Trade Networks occurred due to the domestication of the Camel (c BCE) and the spread of Islam (c. 640 CE)

6 Egypt Aksum Basra Persia Hormuz Dhufar Aden Cambay Calicut India China Canton Afro-Eurasian Trade Patterns Before 600 CE Ethiopia Zeila INDIAN OCEAN TRADE Zanzibar Kilwa Sumatra Java Incense Trade from Dhufar and Aden served as the driving force to open Indian Ocean Trade by c. 300 BCE Sofala Madagascar The Canal of the Pharaohs: Completed by Ptolemy II in 274/273 BCE Greco-Roman Indian Ocean trade expanded by 200 CE due to trade in Perfumes & Spices Created a shipping route from the Nile River to the Gulf of Suez (Red Sea) Camel Caravans linked Red Sea ports to Arabia by land

7 SILK ROAD The earliest records of trade along the Silk Road dates to 2 nd Century BCE Diplomats like Zhang Qian (c BCE) and Buddhist Pilgrims like Fa-Hsien (c CE) were the earliest to record the people and trade of the route

8 Afro-Eurasian Trade Patterns before 600 CE The Grand Trunk Route (Northern India) Linked the Mauryan Empire of India to the Silk Route as early as the 3 rd Century BCE. Still used today by cross-country truckers The Amber Road (Northern Europe) Developed around 1 st Century CE Amber treasured in Greece, Rome & Egypt as a Jewel & Static power Danube replaced route by 300 CE

9 CHANGES IN TRANSPORTATION Domestication of the Horse occurred by 4000 BCE Hittites & Hyksos used Horse drawn Chariots c BCE Assyrians & Sythians developed padded saddle c. 800 BCE Sarmatians developed saddle with girth and breastplate to help keep the saddle secure by c. 300 BCE Sarmatians are also credited with developing a stirrup for mounting the horse The first known double stirrup was in China c. 322 CE Origins for use of the Ox and Yoke can not be determined However, it was used in ancient Egypt, China & Persia

10 CHANGES IN TRANSPORTATION The Bactrain (two hump) Camel was domesticated around 2700 BCE The Arabian (one hump) Camel was domesticated around 1000 BCE The earliest known use of a Saddle for Camels occurred by 1200 BCE By 1000 BCE, use of Camel Caravans were popular throughout the regions of Central Asia By c. 800 BCE, Camels were being used in the Trans-Sahara Between BCE, Bactrain Camels were being used in the Persian military

11 CHANGES IN TRANSPORTATION The Lateen Sail & Dhow Egyptians & Phoenicians used Square Sails as early as 3500 BCE Arabs developed the first Triangular sails c. 200 BCE Greeks were using the Dhow and Triangular sails on the Agean Sea by the end of the 2 nd Century BCE In the 3 rd Century CE, the Dhow and Lateen sails dominated sea trade from the Mediterranean to East Africa and the Indian Ocean

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