Paraffin in Water Emulsion as heat transfer and storage medium

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Paraffin in Water Emulsion as heat transfer and storage medium"

Transcription

1 ABSTRACT Paraffin in Water Emulsion as heat transfer and storage medium Fraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety, and Energy Technology UMSICHT Osterfelder Strasse 3, Oberhausen, Germany Phone: +49 (0)2 08 / L. Huang, C. Pollerberg, C. Doetsch A Phase Change Slurry (PCS) is a multifunctional fluid consisting of a Phase Change Material (PCM) and a carrier fluid. PCSs can store or transfer amounts of thermal energy by using both the sensible heat capacity of the carrier fluid and PCM as well as the latent heat capacity of the PCM. Fraunhofer UMSICHT has investigated three types of paraffin in water emulsions as PCS with different phase transition temperatures: CryoSol plus 6, CryoSol plus 10 and CryoSol plus 20. CryoSol plus 6 is foreseen for air-conditioning applications with a freezing peak point at 6 C, CryoSol plus 10 for cooling of buildings with a freezing peak point at 10 C and CryoSol plus 20 for increasing the thermal mass of building components with a freezing peak point of 20 C. The different fields of applications have different requirements on the properties of the emulsions. How to meet these requirements is discussed in the following paper. 1 INTRODUCTION Thermal energy storages with Phase Change Materials (PCMs) have a high heat capacity by using additionally to the sensible heat of the storage medium also the latent heat during a freezing/melting process. Normally a PCM of thermal energy storages is installed as the bulky material in direct contact to a heat exchanger. The heat exchanger separates the PCM from a heat transfer fluid, which is used to charge and discharge the thermal heat storage. The additional heat transfer between the PCM and the heat transfer fluid and the especially poor heat conductivity of solid phase change materials lead to a low heat transfer rate of the storage and require high temperature differences between the charging and discharging temperatures. An approach to overcome this disadvantage is using a pumpable Phase Change Slurry (PCS). PCSs are binary systems consisting of a dispersed PCM in a carrier fluid. The PCS fluid remains pumpable even when the PCM is frozen. Compared to PCM systems, the heat convection occurs at the surface of the heat exchanger and the dispersed PCM droplets have a high specific surface related to the PCM volume, which increase the heat transfer rate of the PCS fluid. Furthermore, the pumpable characteristic enables the PCSs not only to serve as storage media, but also as heat transfer fluids directly in supply networks. Fraunhofer UMSICHT has investigated PCS systems with regard to their possible applications. Paraffin in water emulsions are very promising as heat transfer fluids and storage media in cooling applications. Paraffins have been used as the PCM for preparing the emulsions according to the operating temperature range of the system. 1

2 2 PARAFFIN IN WATER EMULSIONS 2.1 EMULSION COMPONENTS If PCMs are utilized for comfort cooling applications, they should have a phase transition temperature of 0-20 C. Thus, three paraffins RT6, RT10 and RT20, provided by Rubitherm GmbH, were selected for preparing the emulsions. The paraffins RT6, RT10 and RT20 are mixtures of different alkanes and have a freezing peak point of 6 C, 10 C and 20 C respectively. The thermophysical data of these paraffins are given in Table 1. Table 1. Thermophysical data of the paraffins RT6, RT10 and RT20 [1]. Paraffin Melting peak point [ C] Freezing peak point [ C] Heat of fusion [kj/kg] Density liquid [kg/l] Volume expansion RT (15 C) 10 % RT (20 C) 10 % RT (70 C) 10 % The paraffin in water emulsions are colloid systems in which fine paraffin droplets are dispersed in water. Because the paraffin and water are little miscible and always tend to separate, a surfactant is used to stabilize the emulsions. Figure 1 shows the schematic and the photo of a paraffin in water emulsion. Besides the three fundamental components, two additives were used to optimize the properties of the emulsions concerning application requirements in this study. A nucleating agent was added for preventing the supercooling 1 effect induced by the small droplet size. A thickener was used to increase the viscosity and consequently to reduce the creaming effect caused by the fact that the paraffins have a lower density than water. Creaming is the movement of paraffin droplets move under gravity to form a concentrated layer at the top of the emulsion during the storage period, but with no accompanying change in the droplet size distribution [2]. In this paper presented here, three emulsions containing 1.5 wt.% surfactant, 2.5 wt.% nucleating agent, 0.35 wt.% thickener and 30 weight percentages of RT6, RT10 and RT20 respectively were prepared. The three samples are named CryoSol plus 6, CryoSol plus 10 and CryoSol plus 20 in the following text. The properties of the emulsions, including the droplet size distribution, the phase transition temperature, the heat capacity and the rheological behaviors, were investigated and the results are shown in this section. water surfactant hydrophilic portion oil droplet hydrophobic portion Figure 1. Schematic (left) and photo (right) of a paraffin in water emulsion. 1 Supercooling is the process of cooling a liquid below its melting point, without it crystallizing. 2

3 2.2 DROPLET SIZES AND THE DISTRIBUTION For all dispersions, droplet/particle sizes and their distribution of the dispersed phase are important parameters. The droplet size distribution of the emulsions was determined with a laser particle size analyzer Mastersizer 2000 of Malvern Instruments Ltd. As shown in Figure 2, CryoSol plus 6, CryoSol plus 10 and CryoSol plus 20 have a similar droplet size distribution of 1-10 µm. When observing the emulsion under a light microscopy, the paraffin is found to be dispersed in water in the form of spherical droplets depicted in Figure 3. Density distribution [vol.%] 12 Crysol plus 6 Crysol plus Crysol plus Droplet size [µm] Figure 2. Droplet size distribution of CryoSol plus 6, CryoSol plus 10 and CryoSol plus µm Figure 3. Micrograph of CryoSol plus PHASE TRANSITION TEMPERATURE RANGE AND HEAT CAPACITY Thermal properties play an important role in applications of PCS systems. The phase change temperature and the heat of fusion of the emulsions were determined with a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) apparatus Netzsch DSC 204. The DSC melting and freezing curves of CryoSol plus 6, CryoSol plus 10 and CryoSol plus 20 compared to those of the corresponding paraffins are shown in Figure 4, Figure 5 and Figure 6 respectively. The 3

4 emulsions have a similar phase change temperature range as the paraffins, since the supercooling effect is prevented by the nucleating agent. The heat of fusion of the emulsions corresponds to the peak area of the melting curve and can be obtained by integrating the melting curve in any temperature range within the phase transition temperature range. The total heat capacity of the paraffin emulsions consists of not only the heat of fusion of the paraffin, but also the sensible heat capacity of the water and the paraffin. In a temperature range from T 1 to T 2, the total heat capacity of the emulsion Δh e is calculated with the latent heat capacity of the emulsion Δh f,e, the sensible heat capacity of water Δh w and that of paraffin Δh p as follows: h e = X = h p h f, e f, p + h + X w w + h c p, w p ( T2 T1 ) + X p c p, p ( T2 T, where X p and X w are the weight fractions of the paraffin and water, Δh f,p is the heat of fusion of the paraffin, c p,w is the specific heat capacity of water of 4.18 kj/(kg K), c p,p is the specific heat capacity of the paraffin of 2.4 kj/(kg K) in the liquid state, and T m,end is the end temperature of the melting process. Figure 7 shows the total heat capacity of CryoSol plus 6, CryoSol plus 10 and CryoSol plus 20 versus temperature compared to that of water from 0 C to 30 C. In a temperature difference of 6 K, water has a sensible heat capacity of 25 kj/kg, while CryoSol plus 6 has a total heat capacity of 75 kj/kg which is 3 times as high as that of water from 2 C to 8 C, CryoSol plus 10 has 50 kj/kg which is 2 times as high as that from 6 C to 12 C, and CryoSol plus has 44 kj/kg which is 1.8 times as high as that of water from 16 C to 22 C. m end ) [1] Heat flow [mw/mg] CryoSol plus 6 freezing CryoSol plus 6 melting RT6 freezing RT6 melting Figure 4. DSC freezing and melting curves of CryoSol plus 6 containing 30 wt.% RT6 compared to those of the paraffin RT6 at 2 K/min scanning rate. 4

5 Heat flow [mw/mg] CryoSol plus 10 freezing CryoSol plus 10 melting RT10 freezing RT10 melting Figure 5. DSC freezing and melting curves of CryoSol plus 10 containing 30 wt.% RT10 compared to those of the paraffin RT10 at 2 K/min scanning rate. Heat flow [mw/mg] CryoSol plus 20 freezing CryoSol plus 20 melting RT20 freezing RT20 melting Figure 6. DSC freezing and melting curves of CryoSol plus 20 containing 30 wt.% RT20 compared to those of the paraffin RT20 at 2 K/min scanning rate. 5

6 Heat capacity [kj/kg] water Crysol plus 6 Crysol plus 10 Crysol plus Figure 7. Total heat capacity of CryoSol plus 6, CryoSol plus 10 and CryoSol plus 20 containing 30 wt.% paraffin versus temperature compared to that of water from 0 C to 30 C. 2.4 RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIORS Rheological properties of emulsions are important from both the basic science and the applied viewpoints. The viscosity of the emulsions was studied with a rotation rheometer Bohlin Gemini TM of Malvern Instruments Ltd. A cone-plate model was used for measurement with the parameters: the plate diameter 60 mm, the cone diameter 40 mm, the cone angle 4 and the gap at the cone tip 150 µm. A shear stress ramp test was conducted to determine the dependence between the viscosity and the shear rate. Figure 8 shows the viscosity of the emulsions versus shear rate compared to that of water at 10 Pa/min stress ramp at 25 C. Water is a Newtonian fluid and has a constant viscosity of 0.89 mpas at 25 C, while the three emulsions are Non-Newtonian fluids and show a shear thinning behavior. This means, the viscosity of the emulsions decreases with increasing shear rate. However, the viscosity of the emulsions tends to be constant when the shear rate exceeds 30 s -1. It can be seen that CryoSol plus 6, CryoSol plus 10 and CryoSol plus 20 have a viscosity of mpas at a shear rate of s -1 at 25 C. A temperature ramp test was carried out for investigating the viscosity of the emulsions during the phase transformation. The samples were cooled from 30 C to 0 C with a rate of 5 K/min at a shear rate of 50 s -1. Figure 9 gives the viscosity curves of the emulsions versus the temperature compared to that of water. The temperature has a much more important influence on the emulsions than on water due to the phase transition liquid-solid of the paraffin. Water has a viscosity of mpas from 30 C to 0 C, while the viscosities of CryoSol plus 6, CryoSol plus 10 and CryoSol plus 20 sharply increase at the corresponding freezing peak temperatures, namely 6 C, 10 C and 20 C respectively. A reason for this phenomenon could be that the solid particles deform little under shear stress and thus cause a higher viscosity than the liquid droplets. 6

7 Viscosity [Pas] Crysol plus 6 Crysol plus 10 Crysol plus 20 Water Shear rate [s -1 ] Figure 8. Viscosity of CryoSol plus 6, CryoSol plus 10 and CryoSol plus 20 containing 30 wt.% paraffin and 0.35 wt.% thickener versus shear rate compared to that of water at 10 Pa/min stress ramp at 25 C. Viscosity [Pas] Crysol plus 6 Crysol plus 10 Crysol plus 20 Water Figure 9. Viscosity of CryoSol plus 6, CryoSol plus 10 and CryoSol plus 20 containing 30 wt.% paraffin and 0.35 wt.% thickener versus temperature compared to that of water at a constant shear rate of 50 s APPLICATION OF PARAFFIN IN WATER EMULSIONS The experimental results of CryoSol plus 6, CryoSol plus 10 and CryoSol plus 20 show that the emulsions have higher heat capacities but higher viscosities than water during the phase change process. There are some possibilities for applying the emulsions in different fields according to the phase transition temperature of the paraffin. The properties of the emulsions should be considered in the application study. Conventional cold supply networks for air conditionings are working with cold water on a temperature level of 6/12 C. Cold storage is realised by using the sensible heat capacity of water of 4.18 kj/(kg K). Cold water systems have a high volumetric flow in the piping system and a large volume of the buffer tanks compared to heating systems due to the smaller 7

8 temperature differences between forward flow and return flow. It is possible to use CryoSol plus 6 in storages for cold supply networks, or to directly apply instead of water CryoSol plus 10 in supply systems. CryoSol plus 6 has 3 times the heat capacity of water from 2 C to 8 C, and CryoSol plus 10 has 2 times the heat capacity of water from 6 C to 10 C. When using the emulsions in cold supply networks, the necessary volumetric flow rate can be reduced. The reduced volumetric flow rate permits to reduce pump power and pipe dimension, which lower operating and investment costs. The storage capacities of conventional energy buffers can be increased. However, the emulsions cause a higher pressure drop in pumped systems than water which should be considered in practical applications. CryoSol plus 20 is foreseen for increasing the thermal mass of building components. There is a possibility for integrating CryoSol plus 20 into the capillary tube systems of cooling ceiling and walls, in which chilled water is normally circulated to cool the room surface on a temperature level of C. CryoSol plus 20 has 1.8 times the heat capacity of water from 16 C to 22 C. The energy density of the capillary tub mats can be increased by using CryoSol plus 20. However, it must be considered that the emulsion should have a low viscosity to prevent the blockage in the capillary tubes. Otherwise a hydraulic separation can be realised between CryoSol plus 20, which serve then only as storage medium, and the cold water loop over the capillary tube system. 4 CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION In this paper, three paraffin in water emulsions CryoSol plus 6, CryoSol plus 10 and CryoSol plus 20 have been studied in view of practical applications. The emulsions comprise a collection of small paraffin droplets, having a dimension between 1 and 10 µm, and dispersed in water. The emulsions have a high heat capacity which is times as high as that of water in a temperature difference of 6 K within the corresponding phase transformation temperature ranges. They show a shear-thinning behavior and have a higher viscosity than water because of the phase transition liquid-solid. The emulsions are an attractive alternative to water for cold supply networks, cold storage systems and building cooling applications according to the phase change temperature of the paraffin. The three emulsions CryoSol plus 6, CryoSol plus 10 and CryoSol plus 20 will be optimized in the future work. Using paraffins with a sharp phase transition temperature range, like technicalgrade tetradecane, pentadecane and hexadecane, will increase the energy density of the emulsions and reduce the operating temperature range of the PCS systems. The other obstacle of applying the emulsions is the high viscosity which will cause a high pressure drop in pump systems. In this work presented here, a thickener was used for preparing the three emulsions to reduce the creaming rate. However, creaming causes neither growth in droplet size nor separation between the water and paraffin phases. And it can be prevented by supplying mechanical energy e.g. by stirring and pumping. Thus, when the emulsions are applied in pump systems, the thickener is not necessary. The viscosity of the emulsions can be reduced without adding the thickener. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors are grateful to the Project Executing Organisation Juelich (PTJ) and Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWI) for the financial support. REFERENCES [1] Rubitherm Technologies GmbH, see: [2] Modern Aspects of Emulsion Science, Edited by Binks, B.P., 1998, The Royal Society Of Chemistry. 8

Cryosol. Ready to use cold storage fluid. Rue Henri Moissan 69310 PIERRE BENITE Tel +33 (0)4 78 50 20 05 info@kaplan-energy.com

Cryosol. Ready to use cold storage fluid. Rue Henri Moissan 69310 PIERRE BENITE Tel +33 (0)4 78 50 20 05 info@kaplan-energy.com Cryosol Ready to use cold storage fluid Rue Henri Moissan 69310 PIERRE BENITE Tel +33 (0)4 78 50 20 05 info@kaplan-energy.com Yann KAPLAN /// CRYOSOL /// PAGE 1 /// Décembre 2013 Kaplan Energy SAS KAPLAN

More information

18th International Congress of Mechanical Engineering

18th International Congress of Mechanical Engineering CYLINDRICAL ENCAPSULATED COLD STORAGE Juan José Milón Guzmán Universidad Católica San Pablo, Av. Salaverry, 31, Vallecito, Cercado, Arequipa, Perú milonjj@ucsp.edu.pe Sergio leal Braga Pontificia Universidade

More information

FULL PAPER Standardization of PCM Characterization via DSC

FULL PAPER Standardization of PCM Characterization via DSC FULL PAPER Standardization of PCM Characterization via DSC Stefan Gschwander 1, Thomas Haussmann 1, Georg Hagelstein 1, Aran Sole 2, Luisa F. Cabeza 2 Gonzalo Diarce 3, Wolfgang Hohenauer 4, Daniel Lager

More information

Heat and cold storage with PCM

Heat and cold storage with PCM Harald Mehling Luisa F. Cabeza Heat and cold storage with PCM An up to date introduction into basics and applications With 208 Figures and 28 Tables 4y Springer Contents 1 Basic thermodynamics of thermal

More information

i1.. DOE/CE/26602-4 DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED LOW-TEMPERATURE HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS FOR DISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING NO.

i1.. DOE/CE/26602-4 DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED LOW-TEMPERATURE HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS FOR DISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING NO. c DOE/CE/26602-4 DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED LOW-TEMPERATURE HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS FOR DISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING AGREEMENT NO. DE-FG01-90CE26602 DISTi_fI_JF_ONI O_ THItl _GL!IMENT tti:, IJNI,L[IMtt_.-_ i1..

More information

Experimental Study of Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage System using PCM with Effect of Metal Configurations and Nano particles

Experimental Study of Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage System using PCM with Effect of Metal Configurations and Nano particles International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology E-ISSN 2277 4106, P-ISSN 2347 5161 2016 INPRESSCO, All Rights Reserved Available at http://inpressco.com/category/ijcet Research Article Experimental

More information

Low temperature solar assisted (heating) system based on slurry PCM

Low temperature solar assisted (heating) system based on slurry PCM ANNEX 59 - High emperature Cooling & Low emperature Heating in Buildings Riqualificazione di edifici esistenti con elevati standard energetici: metodi e tecnologie ENEA - Via G. Romano 41, 00196 Roma -

More information

114 Adopted: 12 May 1981

114 Adopted: 12 May 1981 OECD GUIDELINE FOR TESTING OF CHEMICALS Adopted: 12 May 1981 (- Capillary Method, using capillary viscometer and flow cup - Rotational method - Forced Ball method, using rolling ball viscometer and drawing

More information

Freezing. Outline. Examples in Daily Life

Freezing. Outline. Examples in Daily Life Freezing Outline Examples of freezing in daily life Purpose of freezing Stages of freezing Effect of freezing on properties Types of freezers Freezing medium Shelf life and quality of frozen foods Equipment

More information

2. CHRONOLOGICAL REVIEW ABOUT THE CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT

2. CHRONOLOGICAL REVIEW ABOUT THE CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS OF PCM SLURRIES AND PCM EMULSIONS AS HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS M. Delgado, J. Mazo, C. Peñalosa, J.M. Marín, B. Zalba Thermal Engineering Division. Department of Mechanical Engineering University of

More information

The performance of centrifugal pumps when pumping ultra-viscous paste slurries

The performance of centrifugal pumps when pumping ultra-viscous paste slurries The performance of centrifugal pumps when pumping ultra-viscous paste slurries by J. Crawford*, F. van Sittert, and M. van der Walt Synopsis Significant advances have been made in the design of centrifugal

More information

Improved fluid control by proper non-newtonian flow modeling

Improved fluid control by proper non-newtonian flow modeling Tekna Flow Assurance 2015, Larvik Improved fluid control by proper non-newtonian flow modeling Stein Tore Johansen, SINTEF Sjur Mo, SINTEF A general wall friction model for a non-newtonian fluid has been

More information

Basic Fluid Mechanics. Prof. Young I Cho

Basic Fluid Mechanics. Prof. Young I Cho Basic Fluid Mechanics MEM 220 Prof. Young I Cho Summer 2009 Chapter 1 Introduction What is fluid? Give some examples of fluids. Examples of gases: Examples of liquids: What is fluid mechanics? Mechanics

More information

HVAC: Cool Thermal Storage

HVAC: Cool Thermal Storage HVAC: Cool Thermal Storage Thermal storage systems offer building owners the potential for substantial operating cost savings by using offpeak electricity to produce chilled water or ice for use in cooling

More information

Predicting and Measuring Viscosity of Crude Oil Blends

Predicting and Measuring Viscosity of Crude Oil Blends June 20 22, 2012 Kananaskis, Alberta Predicting and Measuring Viscosity of Crude Oil Blends Branko Banjac Joint CCQTA/COQA Meetings TABLE OF CONTENTS Viscosity measurement techniques Predicting viscosity

More information

DETERMINATION OF THE HEAT STORAGE CAPACITY OF PCM AND PCM-OBJECTS AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE. E. Günther, S. Hiebler, H. Mehling

DETERMINATION OF THE HEAT STORAGE CAPACITY OF PCM AND PCM-OBJECTS AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE. E. Günther, S. Hiebler, H. Mehling DETERMINATION OF THE HEAT STORAGE CAPACITY OF PCM AND PCM-OBJECTS AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE E. Günther, S. Hiebler, H. Mehling Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research (ZAE Bayern) Walther-Meißner-Str.

More information

HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS OF LATENT HEAT STORAGE SYSTEM USING D-SORBITOL AS PCM

HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS OF LATENT HEAT STORAGE SYSTEM USING D-SORBITOL AS PCM HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS OF LATENT HEAT STORAGE SYSTEM USING D-SORBITOL AS PCM Beemkumar N. 1, A. Karthikeyan 2, C. Parthasarathy 1 and B. Bradley Bright 2 1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sathyabama

More information

OECD GUIDELINE FOR THE TESTING OF CHEMICALS

OECD GUIDELINE FOR THE TESTING OF CHEMICALS OECD/OCDE 114 Adopted: 2 October 2012 OECD GUIDELINE FOR THE TESTING OF CHEMICALS Viscosity of Liquids INTRODUCTION 1. This Test Guideline is a revision of the original Test Guideline 114 adopted in 1981.

More information

A Study of the Freezing Phenomena in PVC and CPVC Pipe Systems

A Study of the Freezing Phenomena in PVC and CPVC Pipe Systems A Study of the Freezing Phenomena in PVC and CPVC Pipe Systems Javier Cruz, Bruce Davis, Paul Gramann, Antoine Rios The Madison Group Madison, WI 53711 Abstract Residential and commercial piping systems

More information

Study of the Rheological Behaviors of Solder Pastes

Study of the Rheological Behaviors of Solder Pastes Study of the Rheological Behaviors of Solder Pastes 1 Michal KRAVČÍK, 2 Igor VEHEC 1 Dept. of Technologies in Electronics, FEI TU of Košice, Slovak Republic 2 Dept. of Technologies in Electronics, FEI

More information

102 Adopted:

102 Adopted: 102 Adopted: 27.07.95 OECD GUIDELINE FOR THE TESTING OF CHEMICALS Adopted by the Council on 27 th July 1995 Melting Point / Melting Range INTRODUCTION 1. This guideline is a revised version of the original

More information

PHYSICS FUNDAMENTALS-Viscosity and flow

PHYSICS FUNDAMENTALS-Viscosity and flow PHYSICS FUNDAMENTALS-Viscosity and flow The origin of viscosity When a force is applied to a solid, it will yield slightly, and then resist further movement. However, when we apply force to a fluid, it

More information

Chapter Six. Non-Newtonian Liquid

Chapter Six. Non-Newtonian Liquid Chapter Six Non-Newtonian Liquid For many fluids a plot of shear stress against shear rate does not give a straight line. These are so-called Non-Newtonian Fluids. Plots of shear stress against shear rate

More information

Solid-Liquid Phase Change Simulation Applied to a Cylindrical Latent Heat Energy Storage System

Solid-Liquid Phase Change Simulation Applied to a Cylindrical Latent Heat Energy Storage System Excerpt from the Proceedings of the COMSOL Conference 2009 Boston Solid-Liquid Phase Change Simulation Applied to a Cylindrical Latent Heat Energy Storage System Dominic Groulx * and Wilson Ogoh Mechanical

More information

Secondary Loop System with PCM under Different Climatic Conditions

Secondary Loop System with PCM under Different Climatic Conditions Secondary Loop System with PCM under Different Climatic Conditions Nicholas Lemke, Julia Lemke, Jürgen Köhler Institut für Thermodynamik Technische Universität Braunschweig 1. Fundamentals 2. Experimental

More information

Chapter (1) Fluids and their Properties

Chapter (1) Fluids and their Properties Chapter (1) Fluids and their Properties Fluids (Liquids or gases) which a substance deforms continuously, or flows, when subjected to shearing forces. If a fluid is at rest, there are no shearing forces

More information

MTE 449 Powder Metallurgy Chapter 5 Powder Additives and Mixing

MTE 449 Powder Metallurgy Chapter 5 Powder Additives and Mixing MTE 449 Powder Metallurgy Chapter 5 Powder Additives and Mixing Nagy El-Kaddah Powder Additives Additives are used to tailor powder characteristics Type and function of additives Dispersants (ammonia polyacrylate)

More information

HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT THROUGH PCM THERMAL STORAGE BY USE OF COPPER FINS

HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT THROUGH PCM THERMAL STORAGE BY USE OF COPPER FINS S251 HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT THROUGH PCM THERMAL STORAGE BY USE OF COPPER FINS by Nedžad R. RUDONJA a*, Mirko S. KOMATINA a, Goran S. ŽIVKOVI] b, and Dragi Lj. ANTONIJEVI] c a Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,

More information

ENHANCEMENT OF PHASE CHANGE ALONG THE LONG TUBES OF A LATENT HEAT STORAGE UNIT

ENHANCEMENT OF PHASE CHANGE ALONG THE LONG TUBES OF A LATENT HEAT STORAGE UNIT ENHANCEMENT OF PHASE CHANGE ALONG THE LONG TUBES OF A LATENT HEAT STORAGE UNIT Kamal A. R. ISMAIL *, Fátima A. M. LINO, Louryval C. PAIXÃO, Raquel C. R. da SILVA, Carlos T. SALINAS Department of Thermal

More information

Determination of the heat storage capacity of PCM and PCM objects as a function of temperature

Determination of the heat storage capacity of PCM and PCM objects as a function of temperature Determination of the heat storage capacity of PCM and PCM objects as a function of temperature E. Günther, S. Hiebler, H. Mehling ZAE Bayern, Walther-Meißner-Str. 6, 85748 Garching, Germany Outline Introduction

More information

CHBE 363: Rotary Viscometer

CHBE 363: Rotary Viscometer CHBE 363: Rotary Viscometer Objectives 1. To illustrate the use of a rotary viscometer in the characterization of different types of fluids. 2. To determine the viscosity of Newtonian liquids. 3. To investigate

More information

Design of a Latent Heat Energy Storage System Coupled with a Domestic Hot Water Solar Thermal System

Design of a Latent Heat Energy Storage System Coupled with a Domestic Hot Water Solar Thermal System Design of a Latent Heat Energy Storage System Coupled with a Domestic Hot Water Solar Thermal System Robynne Murray 1, 3, Louis Desgrosseilliers 1, 2, 3, Jeremy Stewart 1, Nick Osbourne 1, Gina Marin 1,

More information

Injection molding equipment

Injection molding equipment Injection Molding Process Injection molding equipment Classification of injection molding machines 1. The injection molding machine processing ability style clamping force(kn) theoretical injection volume(cm3)

More information

ANALYSIS OF DOMESTIC SOLAR WATER HEATER USING DIFFERENT PHASE CHANGE MATERIAL

ANALYSIS OF DOMESTIC SOLAR WATER HEATER USING DIFFERENT PHASE CHANGE MATERIAL 1.1General Chapter 1 Solar energy being simple to use, clean, non polluting and inexhaustible has received wide spread attention in recent times. It provides well abundant energy source if utilized efficiently.

More information

Influence of material data on injection moulding simulation Application examples Ass.Prof. Dr. Thomas Lucyshyn

Influence of material data on injection moulding simulation Application examples Ass.Prof. Dr. Thomas Lucyshyn TRAINING IN THE FIELD OF POLYMER MATERIALS / PLASTICS Influence of material data on injection moulding simulation Application examples Ass.Prof. Dr. Thomas Lucyshyn 24 th April 2014 Otto Gloeckel-Straße

More information

Notes on Polymer Rheology Outline

Notes on Polymer Rheology Outline 1 Why is rheology important? Examples of its importance Summary of important variables Description of the flow equations Flow regimes - laminar vs. turbulent - Reynolds number - definition of viscosity

More information

Heat transfer characteristics in latent heat storage system using paraffin wax

Heat transfer characteristics in latent heat storage system using paraffin wax Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology 26 (3) (2012) 959~965 www.springerlink.com/content/1738-494x DOI 10.1007/s12206-011-1017-4 Heat transfer characteristics in latent heat storage system using

More information

Non-Newtonian Flows. R. Shankar Subramanian Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Clarkson University. τ = ηθ

Non-Newtonian Flows. R. Shankar Subramanian Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Clarkson University. τ = ηθ Non-Newtonian Flows R. Shankar Subramanian Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Clarkson University Fluids such as water, air, ethanol, and benzene are Newtonian. This means that a plot

More information

Research on the Air Conditioning Water Heater System

Research on the Air Conditioning Water Heater System Purdue University Purdue e-pubs International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference School of Mechanical Engineering 28 Research on the Air Conditioning Water Heater System Fei Liu Gree Electric

More information

Seminar Basics on Rheology. Rheological measuring systems

Seminar Basics on Rheology. Rheological measuring systems The world leader in serving science Seminar Basics on Rheology Rheological measuring systems Content Overview Finger, Ford cup Capillary viscometer Falling ball viscometer Rotational viscometer Rotational

More information

Thermische Speicherung von Solarenergie

Thermische Speicherung von Solarenergie Thermische Speicherung von Solarenergie Dr. Thomas Bauer Institut für Technische Thermodynamik Stuttgart, Köln 15. Kölner Sonnenkolloquium, 12.6.2012 www.dlr.de/tt Slide 2 > 15. Kölner Sonnenkolloquium

More information

Fluid Mechanics: Static s Kinematics Dynamics Fluid

Fluid Mechanics: Static s Kinematics Dynamics Fluid Fluid Mechanics: Fluid mechanics may be defined as that branch of engineering science that deals with the behavior of fluid under the condition of rest and motion Fluid mechanics may be divided into three

More information

Thermoplastic Material Testing for Use in Sigmasoft

Thermoplastic Material Testing for Use in Sigmasoft Thermoplastic Material Testing for Use in Sigmasoft + technical center for materials a DatapointLabs affiliate Materials Testing Data Infrastructure Productivity Software Plastic Rubber Film Metal Foam

More information

Objectives: 1. To learn the theory and procedure of melting points.

Objectives: 1. To learn the theory and procedure of melting points. Melting Points Objectives: 1. To learn the theory and procedure of melting points. Discussion: Crystalline solids exist in an ordered network of atoms, ions, or molecules, depending on the element or compound.

More information

Rheology and Polymer Characterization

Rheology and Polymer Characterization Rheology and Polymer Characterization Asst Prof Anongnat Somwangthanaroj Anongnat.s@chula.ac.th 20 Sep 2010 http://pioneer.netserv.chula.ac.th/~sanongn1/course.html Fundamentals: Why Rheology? Fundamental

More information

Physical Properties of a Pure Substance, Water

Physical Properties of a Pure Substance, Water Physical Properties of a Pure Substance, Water The chemical and physical properties of a substance characterize it as a unique substance, and the determination of these properties can often allow one to

More information

Temperature Scales. temperature scales Celsius Fahrenheit Kelvin

Temperature Scales. temperature scales Celsius Fahrenheit Kelvin Ch. 10-11 Concept Ch. 10 #1, 3, 7, 8, 9, 11 Ch11, # 3, 6, 11 Problems Ch10 # 3, 5, 11, 17, 21, 24, 25, 29, 33, 37, 39, 43, 47, 59 Problems: CH 11 # 1, 2, 3a, 4, 5, 6, 9, 13, 15, 22, 25, 27, 28, 35 Temperature

More information

Initial Experiments of a Novel Liquid Desiccant Dehumidifier for Industrial and Comfort Air Conditioning Systems

Initial Experiments of a Novel Liquid Desiccant Dehumidifier for Industrial and Comfort Air Conditioning Systems Abstract Initial Experiments of a Novel Liquid Desiccant Dehumidifier for Industrial and Comfort Air Conditioning Systems M. Jaradat, R. Heinzen, U. Jordan, K. Vajen Kassel University (Germany), Institute

More information

WM2012 Conference, February 26 March 1, 2012, Phoenix, Arizona, USA

WM2012 Conference, February 26 March 1, 2012, Phoenix, Arizona, USA Characterization of Two Different Clay Materials by Thermogravimetry (TG), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Dilatometry (DIL) and Mass Spectrometry (MS) - 12215 Ekkehard Post* and Jack B. Henderson**

More information

Lecture 24 - Surface tension, viscous flow, thermodynamics

Lecture 24 - Surface tension, viscous flow, thermodynamics Lecture 24 - Surface tension, viscous flow, thermodynamics Surface tension, surface energy The atoms at the surface of a solid or liquid are not happy. Their bonding is less ideal than the bonding of atoms

More information

Investigation on Enhancement of Heat Transfer Using Different Type of Nanofluids Review

Investigation on Enhancement of Heat Transfer Using Different Type of Nanofluids Review Review Paper Investigation on Enhancement of Heat Transfer Using Different Type of Nanofluids Review Authors 1 Ramesh Bhoi *, 2 Dinesh Dabhi, 3 Chetan Jaiswal Address for Correspondence: 1, 2 Mechanical

More information

Phase Change Material Trade Study: a Comparison between Wax and Water for Manned Spacecraft

Phase Change Material Trade Study: a Comparison between Wax and Water for Manned Spacecraft Phase Change Material Trade Study: a Comparison between Wax and Water for Manned Spacecraft Gregory Quinn and Ed Hodgson Hamilton Sundstrand Ryan Stephan NASA Johnson Space Center ABSTRACT Phase change

More information

Understanding Plastics Engineering Calculations

Understanding Plastics Engineering Calculations Natti S. Rao Nick R. Schott Understanding Plastics Engineering Calculations Hands-on Examples and Case Studies Sample Pages from Chapters 4 and 6 ISBNs 978--56990-509-8-56990-509-6 HANSER Hanser Publishers,

More information

The Equipartition Theorem

The Equipartition Theorem The Equipartition Theorem Degrees of freedom are associated with the kinetic energy of translations, rotation, vibration and the potential energy of vibrations. A result from classical statistical mechanics

More information

Solar energy storage using latent heat storage techniques and application

Solar energy storage using latent heat storage techniques and application Available online at www.iosrd.org IOSRD International Journal of Engineering Journal home page: http://iosrd.org/journals Solar energy storage using latent heat storage techniques and application K Siva

More information

RHEOLOGY RHEOLOGY Science describing the flow and deformation of matter under stress. Rheo = the flow Viscosity (η) is the resistance of a fluid material to flow under stress. The higher the viscosity,

More information

ENSC 283 Introduction and Properties of Fluids

ENSC 283 Introduction and Properties of Fluids ENSC 283 Introduction and Properties of Fluids Spring 2009 Prepared by: M. Bahrami Mechatronics System Engineering, School of Engineering and Sciences, SFU 1 Pressure Pressure is the (compression) force

More information

Melting and crystallization diagram of a pure substance

Melting and crystallization diagram of a pure substance Melting and crystallization diagram of a pure substance 6.3.1.5 Safety precautions Naphthalene is harmful if swallowed. May cause cancer. Is further very toxic to aquatic organisms and can have long-term

More information

Mixing in the process industry: Chemicals Food Pharmaceuticals Paper Polymers Minerals Environmental. Chemical Industry:

Mixing in the process industry: Chemicals Food Pharmaceuticals Paper Polymers Minerals Environmental. Chemical Industry: Mixing Notes: Chapter 19 Robert P. Hesketh Mixing in the process industry: Chemicals Food Pharmaceuticals Paper Polymers Minerals Environmental Chemical Industry: Paints and Coatings Synthetic Rubbers

More information

Solar energy storage by a two grade phase change material

Solar energy storage by a two grade phase change material Ŕ periodica polytechnica Chemical Engineering 51/2 (2007) 3 7 doi: 10.3311/pp.ch.2007-2.01 web: http:// www.pp.bme.hu/ ch c Periodica Polytechnica 2007 Solar energy storage by a two grade phase change

More information

Studies on Paraffin-Graphite-Cu PCM Composites for Solar Thermal Storage Applications

Studies on Paraffin-Graphite-Cu PCM Composites for Solar Thermal Storage Applications Studies on Paraffin-Graphite-Cu PCM Composites for Solar Thermal Storage Applications Kavitha. K 1, Arumugam. S 2 Solar Energy Division, Department of Physics, Gandhigram Rural Institute-Deemed University,

More information

PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE PUMP CLINIC 22 VISCOSITY

PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE PUMP CLINIC 22 VISCOSITY PUMP CLINIC 22 VISCOSITY The viscosity of a fluid is that property which tends to resist a shearing force. It can be thought of as the internal friction resulting when one layer of fluid is made to move

More information

Chemical treatment of emulsion problem in crude oil production

Chemical treatment of emulsion problem in crude oil production Journal of Petroleum and Gas Engineering Vol. 3(7), pp. 135-141, December 2012 Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/jpge DOI: 10.5897/JPGE11.065 ISSN 2141-2677 2012 Academic Journals Full

More information

EMULSIONS, SUSPENSIONS AND OTHER DISPERSE SYSTEMS. Nahed HEGAZY, PhD

EMULSIONS, SUSPENSIONS AND OTHER DISPERSE SYSTEMS. Nahed HEGAZY, PhD EMULSIONS, SUSPENSIONS AND OTHER DISPERSE SYSTEMS Nahed HEGAZY, PhD A disperse system consists essentially of one component, the disperse phase, dispersed as particles or droplets throughout another component,

More information

HEAT STORAGE AND TRANSFORMATION

HEAT STORAGE AND TRANSFORMATION October 2001 ECN-RX--01-036 HEAT STORAGE AND TRANSFORMATION Paper presented at the ZAE-Symposium 2001, Heat and Cold Storage Munich, 3-5 October 2001 P.W. Bach W.G. Haije A October 2001; Final version

More information

A drop forms when liquid is forced out of a small tube. The shape of the drop is determined by a balance of pressure, gravity, and surface tension

A drop forms when liquid is forced out of a small tube. The shape of the drop is determined by a balance of pressure, gravity, and surface tension A drop forms when liquid is forced out of a small tube. The shape of the drop is determined by a balance of pressure, gravity, and surface tension forces. 2 Objectives Have a working knowledge of the basic

More information

VISUAL PHYSICS School of Physics University of Sydney Australia. Why do cars need different oils in hot and cold countries?

VISUAL PHYSICS School of Physics University of Sydney Australia. Why do cars need different oils in hot and cold countries? VISUAL PHYSICS School of Physics University of Sydney Australia FLUID FLOW VISCOSITY POISEUILLE'S LAW? Why do cars need different oils in hot and cold countries? Why does the engine runs more freely as

More information

Assistant Professor, Mechanical Department, Syed Ammal Engineering College, Tamilnadu, India 2

Assistant Professor, Mechanical Department, Syed Ammal Engineering College, Tamilnadu, India 2 ISO 91:28 Certified Volume 3, Issue 2, August 213 Experimental Analysis of Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage using Paraffin Wax as Phase Change Material Thirugnanam.C, Marimuthu.P 1 Assistant Professor,

More information

Product Properties Test Guidelines OPPTS Viscosity

Product Properties Test Guidelines OPPTS Viscosity United States Environmental Protection Agency Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances (7101) EPA 712 C 96 032 August 1996 Product Properties Test Guidelines OPPTS 830.7100 Viscosity INTRODUCTION This

More information

Rheology of multigrade engine oils

Rheology of multigrade engine oils Indian Journal of Chemical Technology Vol. 13, March 2006, pp. 180-184 Rheology of multigrade engine oils Sabiha Tanveer, Umesh Chandra Sharma & Ram Prasad* Department of Chemical Engineering, H.B.Technological

More information

Chapter 17 States of Matter

Chapter 17 States of Matter Chapter 17 States of Matter Section 17.1 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Terms: States of matter Kinetic Theory of Matter Crystal Plasma Thermal Expansion After swimming on a hot day, Eli was having a refreshing

More information

Laser sintering of greens compacts of MoSi 2

Laser sintering of greens compacts of MoSi 2 Laser sintering of greens compacts of MoSi 2 G. de Vasconcelos 1, R. Cesar Maia 2, C.A.A.Cairo 3, R. Riva 2, N.A.S.Rodrigues 2, F.C.L.Mello 3 Instituto de Estudos Avançados 1, Instituto Tecnológico de

More information

Fat Crystallisation: mechanism and methods for studying

Fat Crystallisation: mechanism and methods for studying Fat Crystallisation: mechanism and methods for studying OFI Middle East 2007: SCI Technical Conference Edible Oils and Fats - Trends in Raw Materials, Processing and Applications 20 21 March 2007, Cairo

More information

Energy Conversion and Management 47 (2006)

Energy Conversion and Management 47 (2006) Energy Conversion and Management 47 (2006) 944 966 www.elsevier.com/locate/enconman An experimental study on heat transfer characteristics of heat pipe heat exchanger with latent heat storage. Part I:

More information

Radial-axial Radial mixing is based on the premise that the fluids to be mixed enter the mixer in the correct proportions simultaneously

Radial-axial Radial mixing is based on the premise that the fluids to be mixed enter the mixer in the correct proportions simultaneously Brochure E-0501 1 Introduction. Static mixers are used for a wide range of applications including mixing, heat exchange and dispersion, due to numerous unique innovations our products are especially suitable

More information

The University of Toledo Soil Mechanics Laboratory

The University of Toledo Soil Mechanics Laboratory The University of Toledo Soil Mechanics Laboratory 1 Grain Size Distribution Hydrometer Analysis Introduction The hydrometer analysis, also called sedimentation method, is used to determine the grain size

More information

A NOVEL SINTERING-DISSOLUTION PROCESS FOR MANUFACTURING Al FOAMS

A NOVEL SINTERING-DISSOLUTION PROCESS FOR MANUFACTURING Al FOAMS Scripta mater. 44 (2001) 105 110 www.elsevier.com/locate/scriptamat A NOVEL SINTERING-DISSOLUTION PROCESS FOR MANUFACTURING Al FOAMS Y.Y. Zhao and D.X. Sun Materials Science and Engineering, Department

More information

CE 204 FLUID MECHANICS

CE 204 FLUID MECHANICS CE 204 FLUID MECHANICS Onur AKAY Assistant Professor Okan University Department of Civil Engineering Akfırat Campus 34959 Tuzla-Istanbul/TURKEY Phone: +90-216-677-1630 ext.1974 Fax: +90-216-677-1486 E-mail:

More information

Applied Fluid Mechanics

Applied Fluid Mechanics Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 6. Flow of Fluid and

More information

USE OF CuO NANO-MATERIAL FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND PERFORMANCE OF LOW TEMPERATURE ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM OF SOLAR POND

USE OF CuO NANO-MATERIAL FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND PERFORMANCE OF LOW TEMPERATURE ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM OF SOLAR POND Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures ` Vol. 7, No. 4, October-December 2012, p. 1833-1841 USE OF CuO NANO-MATERIAL FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND PERFORMANCE OF LOW TEMPERATURE

More information

EXPERIMENT 1 (Organic Chemistry I)

EXPERIMENT 1 (Organic Chemistry I) EXPERIMENT 1 (Organic Chemistry I) Melting Point Determination Purpose a) Determine the purity of a substance using melting point as physical property b) Identify an unknown compound using its melting

More information

Viscosity Measurement Guide

Viscosity Measurement Guide Viscosity Measurement Guide For using Viscotester 3-20-41 Higashimotomachi, Kokubunji, Tokyo 185-8533, Japan http://www.rion.co.jp/english/ Contents Introduction...1 What is viscosity?...2 Viscosity unit:

More information

Flow characteristics of microchannel melts during injection molding of microstructure medical components

Flow characteristics of microchannel melts during injection molding of microstructure medical components Available online www.jocpr.com Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2014, 6(5):112-117 Research Article ISSN : 0975-7384 CODEN(USA) : JCPRC5 Flow characteristics of microchannel melts during

More information

COMPARISON INVESTIGATION ON THE HEAT TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS FOR SUPERCRITICAL CO 2 FLUID AND CONVENTIONAL REFRIGERANTS ABSTRACT 1.

COMPARISON INVESTIGATION ON THE HEAT TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS FOR SUPERCRITICAL CO 2 FLUID AND CONVENTIONAL REFRIGERANTS ABSTRACT 1. COMPARISON INVESTIGATION ON THE HEAT TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS FOR SUPERCRITICAL CO FLUID AND CONVENTIONAL REFRIGERANTS JUNLAN YANG (a), YITAI MA (b), SHENGCHUN LIU (b), XIANYANG ZENG (b) (a) Department

More information

Vatten(byggnad) VVR145 Vatten. 2. Vätskors egenskaper (1.1, 4.1 och 2.8) (Föreläsningsanteckningar)

Vatten(byggnad) VVR145 Vatten. 2. Vätskors egenskaper (1.1, 4.1 och 2.8) (Föreläsningsanteckningar) Vatten(byggnad) Vätskors egenskaper (1) Hydrostatik (3) Grundläggande ekvationer (5) Rörströmning (4) 2. Vätskors egenskaper (1.1, 4.1 och 2.8) (Föreläsningsanteckningar) Vätska som kontinuerligt medium

More information

ICE THERMAL STORAGE IN AIR CONDITIONING APPLICATION FUNDAMENTALS

ICE THERMAL STORAGE IN AIR CONDITIONING APPLICATION FUNDAMENTALS ICE THERMAL STORAGE IN AIR CONDITIONING APPLICATION FUNDAMENTALS By: T. S. Wan Date: April 19, 1994 (1st draft 3/7/86) Copyright 1994 by T. S. Wan (All rights reserved) ABSTRACT: The technology of energy

More information

Chemistry: The Central Science. Chapter 13: Properties of Solutions

Chemistry: The Central Science. Chapter 13: Properties of Solutions Chemistry: The Central Science Chapter 13: Properties of Solutions Homogeneous mixture is called a solution o Can be solid, liquid, or gas Each of the substances in a solution is called a component of

More information

Dependency of heat transfer rate on the Brinkman number in microchannels

Dependency of heat transfer rate on the Brinkman number in microchannels Dependency of heat transfer rate on the Brinkman number in microchannels Hee Sung Park Stokes Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland Abstract Heat generation from electronics increases with

More information

Abstract. Introduction

Abstract. Introduction Evaluation of different methods for characterisation of physical properties of cosmetic emulsions Maria Grundén, Dept of Chemical Engineering, LTH, Lund University, Lund, Sweden Abstract Three special

More information

Working Principle of Proposed System (Figure 3)

Working Principle of Proposed System (Figure 3) EXPERIMENTATION FOR DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF SCALED DOWN INNOVATIVE MINI ICE PLANT U.S. Wankhede Department of Mechanical Engineering, G. H. Raisoni College of Engineering, Digdoh Hills, Hingna Road,

More information

Material Testing Services

Material Testing Services Material Testing Services Hawk offers state-of-the-art equipment for your analysis needs. Specific instrumental analysis capabilities and potential applications are as follows: Material Identification:

More information

Surface Tension. the surface tension of a liquid is the energy required to increase the surface area a given amount

Surface Tension. the surface tension of a liquid is the energy required to increase the surface area a given amount Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 1 Surface Tension surface tension is a property of liquids that results from the tendency of liquids to minimize their surface area in order to minimize their surface

More information

Laminar flow in a baffled stirred mixer (COMSOL)

Laminar flow in a baffled stirred mixer (COMSOL) AALTO UNIVERSITY School of Chemical Technology CHEM-E7160 Fluid Flow in Process Units Laminar flow in a baffled stirred mixer (COMSOL) Sanna Hyvönen, 355551 Nelli Jämsä, 223188 Abstract In this simulation

More information

The soot and scale problems

The soot and scale problems Dr. Albrecht Kaupp Page 1 The soot and scale problems Issue Soot and scale do not only increase energy consumption but are as well a major cause of tube failure. Learning Objectives Understanding the implications

More information

As published in PIM International

As published in PIM International As published in PIM International www.pim-international.com 64 Powder Injection Moulding International September 2012 Rapid prototyping of highperformance ceramics opens new opportunities for the CIM industry

More information

Thermocline Management of Stratified Tanks for Heat Storage

Thermocline Management of Stratified Tanks for Heat Storage Thermocline Management of Stratified Tanks for Heat Storage M.R.W. Walmsley, M. J. Atkins, J. Riley Energy Research Group, Department of Engineering, University of Waikato Hamilton, NZ Stratified tanks

More information

Investigating the thixotropic and shear recovery behavior of paints and coatings using the Thermo Scientific HAAKE Viscotester iq

Investigating the thixotropic and shear recovery behavior of paints and coatings using the Thermo Scientific HAAKE Viscotester iq Investigating the thixotropic and shear recovery behavior of paints and coatings using the Thermo Scientific HAAKE Viscotester iq Fabian Meyer, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Material Characterization, Karlsruhe,

More information

Geometry optimization of a latent heat thermal energy storage unit using RT27 Jinqiu Shen1,a, Pierre Neveu2,b, Shuiming Shu3,c and Quentin Falcoz2,d

Geometry optimization of a latent heat thermal energy storage unit using RT27 Jinqiu Shen1,a, Pierre Neveu2,b, Shuiming Shu3,c and Quentin Falcoz2,d 5th International Conference on Environment, Materials, Chemistry and Power Electronics (EMCPE 2016) Geometry optimization of a latent heat thermal energy storage unit using RT27 Jinqiu Shen1,a, Pierre

More information

Solids and Slurries - Definition of Terms

Solids and Slurries - Definition of Terms Solids and Slurries - Definition of Terms APPARENT VISCOSITY The viscosity of a non-newtonian slurry at a particular rate of shear, expressed in terms applicable to Newtonian fluids. CRITICAL CARRYING

More information

1. Introduction, fluid properties (1.1, and handouts)

1. Introduction, fluid properties (1.1, and handouts) 1. Introduction, fluid properties (1.1, and handouts) Introduction, general information Course overview Fluids as a continuum Density Compressibility Viscosity Exercises: A1 Applications of fluid mechanics

More information